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EMBO J. Jun 1991; 10(6): 1481–1491.
PMCID: PMC452811

Exceptional codon recognition by the glutamine tRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


Recently, it was shown that wild-type glutamine tRNAs in yeast cause low-level nonsense suppression that can be enhanced by increasing glutamine tRNA gene copy number. In order to investigate glutamine tRNA behavior further, anticodon mutations that confer nonsense suppression were identified in yeast sup70 gene, which codes for glutamine tRNA(CAG). In this study we show that suppressors derived by mutation severely limit growth such that suppressor-bearing spores germinate but arrest cell division at approximately the 50 cell stage. Analysis of a sup70 deletion was used to establish that growth limitation results from loss of wild-type glutamine tRNA(CAG) function. By exploiting the growth inhibition of sup70 alleles, some exceptional codon recognition properties of glutamine tRNAs were revealed. Our results indicate that amber suppressor glutamine tRNA(UAG) can translate 5'-CAG-3' glutamine codons with low efficiency in the presence of an A/C mismatch at the first position of the codon, suggesting that reading may occur at a low level by a two-out-of-three reading mechanism. In addition, when glutamine tRNA(CAA) is over-expressed in vivo, it translates 5'-CAG-3' codons using a mechanism that resembles prokaryotic-like U/G wobble, which normally does not occur in yeast. Our studies also suggest that the yeast glutamine tRNA suppressors could potentially be exploited to express ciliated protozoan genes that normally contain internal 5'-UAG-3' and 5'-UAA-3' codons.

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