Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Nov 8; 91(23): 10769–10770.

Molecular evolution of the vertebrate immune system.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (521K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Litman GW, Berger L, Murphy K, Litman R, Hinds K, Erickson BW. Immunoglobulin VH gene structure and diversity in Heterodontus, a phylogenetically primitive shark. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Apr;82(7):2082–2086. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hinds KR, Litman GW. Major reorganization of immunoglobulin VH segmental elements during vertebrate evolution. Nature. 1986 Apr 10;320(6062):546–549. [PubMed]
  • Hashimoto K, Nakanishi T, Kurosawa Y. Identification of a shark sequence resembling the major histocompatibility complex class I alpha 3 domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 15;89(6):2209–2212. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kasahara M, Vazquez M, Sato K, McKinney EC, Flajnik MF. Evolution of the major histocompatibility complex: isolation of class II A cDNA clones from the cartilaginous fish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Aug 1;89(15):6688–6692. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bartl S, Weissman IL. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes from the nurse shark. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jan 4;91(1):262–266. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lloyd-Evans P. Development of the lymphomyeloid system in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Dev Comp Immunol. 1993 Nov-Dec;17(6):501–514. [PubMed]
  • Rast JP, Litman GW. T-cell receptor gene homologs are present in the most primitive jawed vertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep 27;91(20):9248–9252. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schatz DG, Oettinger MA, Baltimore D. The V(D)J recombination activating gene, RAG-1. Cell. 1989 Dec 22;59(6):1035–1048. [PubMed]
  • Oettinger MA, Schatz DG, Gorka C, Baltimore D. RAG-1 and RAG-2, adjacent genes that synergistically activate V(D)J recombination. Science. 1990 Jun 22;248(4962):1517–1523. [PubMed]
  • Ichihara Y, Hirai M, Kurosawa Y. Sequence and chromosome assignment to 11p13-p12 of human RAG genes. Immunol Lett. 1992 Aug;33(3):277–284. [PubMed]
  • Carlson LM, Oettinger MA, Schatz DG, Masteller EL, Hurley EA, McCormack WT, Baltimore D, Thompson CB. Selective expression of RAG-2 in chicken B cells undergoing immunoglobulin gene conversion. Cell. 1991 Jan 11;64(1):201–208. [PubMed]
  • Greenhalgh P, Olesen CE, Steiner LA. Characterization and expression of recombination activating genes (RAG-1 and RAG-2) in Xenopus laevis. J Immunol. 1993 Sep 15;151(6):3100–3110. [PubMed]
  • Yokoyama WM, Seaman WE. The Ly-49 and NKR-P1 gene families encoding lectin-like receptors on natural killer cells: the NK gene complex. Annu Rev Immunol. 1993;11:613–635. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...