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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep 13; 91(19): 9151–9154.

Transgenic mice overexpressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase develop non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.


An increase in hepatic gluconeogenesis is believed to be an important factor responsible for the fasting hyperglycemia detected in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK; EC is a regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis. To study the role of the expression of PEPCK gene in the development of NIDDM, we have produced lines of transgenic mice expressing a PEPCK minigene under control of its own promoter. Transgenic mice were hyperglycemic and had higher serum insulin concentrations. In addition, alterations in liver glycogen content and muscle glucose transporter GLUT-4 gene expression were detected. The overexpression of the PEPCK gene led to an increase in glucose production from pyruvate in hepatocytes in primary culture. When intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were performed, blood glucose levels were higher than those detected in normal mice. This animal model shows that primary alterations in the rate of liver glucose production may induce insulin resistance and NIDDM.

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