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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 30, 1994; 91(18): 8572–8576.

Molecular cloning and characterization of protein kinase D: a target for diacylglycerol and phorbol esters with a distinctive catalytic domain.


A serine/threonine protein kinase that binds phorbol esters and diacylglycerol (named protein kinase D, PKD) has been identified. PKD contains membrane localization signals and a cysteine-rich repeat sequence homologous to that seen in the regulatory domain of protein kinase C (PKC). A bacterially expressed N-terminal domain of PKD exhibited high-affinity phorbol ester binding activity (Kd = 35 nM). The diacylglycerol analog 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol inhibited phorbol ester binding in a dose-dependent manner. The catalytic domain of PKD contains all characteristic sequence motifs of serine protein kinases but shows only a low degree of sequence similarity to PKCs. The highest identity is with the catalytic domain of myosin light-chain kinase from Dictyostelium (41%). The bacterially expressed catalytic domain of PKD efficiently phosphorylated the exogenous peptide substrate syntide 2 in serine but did not catalyze significant phosphorylation of a variety of other substrates used by PKCs and other major second messenger regulated kinases. PKD may be an unusual component in the transduction of diacylglycerol and phorbol ester signals.

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Selected References

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