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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 16, 1994; 91(17): 7975–7979.

Localization of Fanconi anemia C protein to the cytoplasm of mammalian cells.


Features of chromosomal aberrations, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, and predisposition to malignancy have suggested a fundamental anomaly of DNA repair in Fanconi anemia. The function of the recently isolated FACC (Fanconi anemia group C complementing) gene for a subset of this disorder is not yet known. The notion that FACC plays a direct role in DNA repair would predict that the polypeptide should reside in the nucleus. In this study, a polyclonal antiserum raised against FACC was used to determine the subcellular location of the polypeptide. Immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation studies of human cell lines as well as COS-7 cells transiently expressing human FACC showed that the protein was localized primarily to the cytoplasm under steady-state conditions, transit through the cell cycle, and exposure to crosslinking or cytotoxic agents. However, placement of a nuclear localization signal from the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen at the amino terminus of FACC directed the hybrid protein to the nuclei of transfected COS-7 cells. These observations suggest an indirect role for FACC in regulating DNA repair in this group of Fanconi anemia.

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