• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 1974; 71(12): 4662–4665.
PMCID: PMC433955

Coexistence of Several Putative Neurotransmitters in Single Identified Neurosn of Aplysia


By sensitive enzymatic micromethods several putative neurotransmitters were measured in four identifiable neurons of Aplysia californica (R-2, R-14, L-11, and C-1). Serotonin was found in all of these neurons, and octopamine in all but C-1. Acetylcholine has been previously reported to be present in R-2 and L-11. The catecholamines, norepinephrine and dopamine, were not detected in the four cells examined. The possible biological consequence of the presence of several putative transmitters in single identifiable neurons is discussed.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (859K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • McCaman RE, Dewhurst SA. Choline acetyltransferase in individual neurons of Aplysia californica. J Neurochem. 1970 Sep;17(9):1421–1426. [PubMed]
  • Giller E, Jr, Schwartz JH. Choline acetyltransferase in identified neurons of abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. J Neurophysiol. 1971 Jan;34(1):93–107. [PubMed]
  • McCaman RE, Weinreich D, Borys H. Endogenous levels of acetylcholine and choline in individual neurons of Aplysia. J Neurochem. 1973 Aug;21(2):473–476. [PubMed]
  • Weinreich D, McCaman MW, McCaman RE, Vaughn JE. Chemical, enzymatic and ultrastructural characterization of 5-hydroxytryptamine-containing neurons from the ganglia of Aplysia californica and Tritionia diomedia. J Neurochem. 1973 Apr;20(4):969–976. [PubMed]
  • Eisenstadt M, Goldman JE, Kandel ER, Koike H, Koester J, Schwartz JH. Intrasomatic injection of radioactive precursors for studying transmitter synthesis in identified neurons of Aplysia californica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Dec;70(12):3371–3375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Borys HK, Weinreich D, McCaman RE. Determination of glutamate and glutamine in individual neurons of Aplysia californica. J Neurochem. 1973 Nov;21(5):1349–1351. [PubMed]
  • Weinreich D, Dewhurst SA, McCaman RE. Metabolism of putative transmitters in individual neurons of Aplysia californica: aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. J Neurochem. 1972 Apr;19(4):1125–1130. [PubMed]
  • McCaman RE, Dewhurst SA. Metabolism of putative transmitters in individual neurons of Aplysia californica. Acetylcholinesterase and catechol-O-methyl transferase. J Neurochem. 1971 Jul;18(7):1329–1335. [PubMed]
  • Coggeshall RE. A light and electron microscope study of the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. J Neurophysiol. 1967 Nov;30(6):1263–1287. [PubMed]
  • Palkovits M, Brownstein M, Saavedra JM, Axelrod J. Norepinephrine and dopamine content of hypothalamic nuclei of the rat. Brain Res. 1974 Aug 30;77(1):137–149. [PubMed]
  • Coyle JT, Henry D. Catecholamines in fetal and newborn rat brain. J Neurochem. 1973 Jul;21(1):61–67. [PubMed]
  • Saavedra JM, Brownstein M, Axelrod J. A specific and sensitive enzymatic-isotopic microassay for serotonin in tissues. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1973 Sep;186(3):508–515. [PubMed]
  • Saavedra JM, Palkovits M, Brownstein MJ, Axelrod J. Serotonin distribution in the nuclei of the rat hypothalamus and preoptic region. Brain Res. 1974 Aug 30;77(1):157–165. [PubMed]
  • Snyder SH, Baldessarini RJ, Axelrod J. A sensitive and specific enzymatic isotopic assay for tissue histamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1966 Sep;153(3):544–549. [PubMed]
  • Saavedra JM. Enzymatic-isotopic method for octopamine at the picogram level. Anal Biochem. 1974 Jun;59(2):628–633. [PubMed]
  • Carpenter D, Breese G, Schanberg S, Kopin I. Serotonin and dopamine: distribution and accumulation in Aplysia nervous and non-nervous tissues. Int J Neurosci. 1971 Jul;2(1):49–56. [PubMed]
  • Saavedra JM, Brownstein MJ, Carpenter DO, Axelrod J. Octopamine: presence in single neurons of Aplysia suggests neurotransmitter function. Science. 1974 Jul 26;185(4148):364–365. [PubMed]
  • Gerschenfeld HM. Chemical transmission in invertebrate central nervous systems and neuromuscular junctions. Physiol Rev. 1973 Jan;53(1):1–119. [PubMed]
  • Cottrell GA. Serotonin and free amino acid analysis of ganglia and isolated neurones of Aplysia dactylomela. J Neurochem. 1974 Apr;22(4):557–559. [PubMed]
  • Lasek RJ, Dower WJ. Aplysia californica: analysis of nuclear DNA in individual nuclei of giant neurons. Science. 1971 Apr 16;172(3980):278–280. [PubMed]
  • Starke K. Influence of -receptor stimulants on noradrenaline release. Naturwissenschaften. 1971 Aug;58(8):420–420. [PubMed]
  • Enero MA, Langer SZ, Rothlin RP, Stefano FJ. Role of the -adrenoceptor in regulating noradrenaline overflow by nerve stimulation. Br J Pharmacol. 1972 Apr;44(4):672–688. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Anderson LE, McClure WO. Differential transport of protein in axons: comparison between the sciatic nerve and dorsal columns of cats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 May;70(5):1521–1525. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grossman Y, Spira ME, Parnas I. Differential flow of information into branches of a single axon. Brain Res. 1973 Dec 21;64:379–386. [PubMed]
  • GOLDSTEIN M, CONTRERA JF. The activation and inhibition of phenylamine-beta-hydroxylase. Experientia. 1962 Jul 15;18:334–334. [PubMed]
  • CREVELING CR, DALY JW, WITKOP B, UNDENFRIEND S. Substrates and inhibitors of dopamine-beta-oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1962 Oct 8;64:125–134. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...