• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Mar 1, 1994; 91(5): 1927–1931.
PMCID: PMC43277

An SRY-related sequence on the marsupial X chromosome: implications for the evolution of the mammalian testis-determining gene.

Abstract

The SRY gene on the human, mouse, and marsupial Y chromosomes is the testis-determining gene that initiates male development in mammals. The SRY protein has a DNA-binding domain (high mobility group or HMG box) similar to those found in the high-mobility-group proteins. SRY is specific for the Y chromosome, but many autosomal genes have been identified that possess a similar HMG box region; those with the most closely SRY-related box regions form a gene family now referred to as SOX genes. We have identified a sequence on the marsupial X chromosome that shares homology with SRY. Sequence comparisons show near-identity with the mouse and human SOX3 gene (formerly called a3), the SOX gene which is the most closely related to SRY. We suggest here that the highly conserved X chromosome-linked SOX3 represents the ancestral SOX gene from which the sex-determining gene SRY was derived. In this model SOX3/SRY divergence and the acquisition of a testis-determining role by SRY might have preceded (and initiated) sex chromosome differentiation or, alternatively, might have been a consequence of X chromosome-Y chromosome differentiation initiated at the locus of an original sex-determining gene(s), later superseded by SRY.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Sinclair AH, Berta P, Palmer MS, Hawkins JR, Griffiths BL, Smith MJ, Foster JW, Frischauf AM, Lovell-Badge R, Goodfellow PN. A gene from the human sex-determining region encodes a protein with homology to a conserved DNA-binding motif. Nature. 1990 Jul 19;346(6281):240–244. [PubMed]
  • Berta P, Hawkins JR, Sinclair AH, Taylor A, Griffiths BL, Goodfellow PN, Fellous M. Genetic evidence equating SRY and the testis-determining factor. Nature. 1990 Nov 29;348(6300):448–450. [PubMed]
  • Jäger RJ, Anvret M, Hall K, Scherer G. A human XY female with a frame shift mutation in the candidate testis-determining gene SRY. Nature. 1990 Nov 29;348(6300):452–454. [PubMed]
  • Koopman P, Gubbay J, Vivian N, Goodfellow P, Lovell-Badge R. Male development of chromosomally female mice transgenic for Sry. Nature. 1991 May 9;351(6322):117–121. [PubMed]
  • Harley VR, Jackson DI, Hextall PJ, Hawkins JR, Berkovitz GD, Sockanathan S, Lovell-Badge R, Goodfellow PN. DNA binding activity of recombinant SRY from normal males and XY females. Science. 1992 Jan 24;255(5043):453–456. [PubMed]
  • Ferrari S, Harley VR, Pontiggia A, Goodfellow PN, Lovell-Badge R, Bianchi ME. SRY, like HMG1, recognizes sharp angles in DNA. EMBO J. 1992 Dec;11(12):4497–4506. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Foster JW, Brennan FE, Hampikian GK, Goodfellow PN, Sinclair AH, Lovell-Badge R, Selwood L, Renfree MB, Cooper DW, Graves JA. Evolution of sex determination and the Y chromosome: SRY-related sequences in marsupials. Nature. 1992 Oct 8;359(6395):531–533. [PubMed]
  • Gubbay J, Collignon J, Koopman P, Capel B, Economou A, Münsterberg A, Vivian N, Goodfellow P, Lovell-Badge R. A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is a member of a novel family of embryonically expressed genes. Nature. 1990 Jul 19;346(6281):245–250. [PubMed]
  • Griffiths R. The isolation of conserved DNA sequences related to the human sex-determining region Y gene from the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus). Proc Biol Sci. 1991 May 22;244(1310):123–128. [PubMed]
  • Graves JA, Watson JM. Mammalian sex chromosomes: evolution of organization and function. Chromosoma. 1991 Nov;101(2):63–68. [PubMed]
  • Mitchell MJ, Woods DR, Wilcox SA, Graves JA, Bishop CE. Marsupial Y chromosome encodes a homologue of the mouse Y-linked candidate spermatogenesis gene Ube1y. Nature. 1992 Oct 8;359(6395):528–531. [PubMed]
  • Graves JA, Schmidt MM. Mammalian sex chromosomes: design or accident? Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1992 Dec;2(6):890–901. [PubMed]
  • Reed KC, Mann DA. Rapid transfer of DNA from agarose gels to nylon membranes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Oct 25;13(20):7207–7221. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sinclair AH, Wrigley JM, Marshall Graves JA. Autosomal assignment of OTC in marsupials and monotremes: implications for the evolution of sex chromosomes. Genet Res. 1987 Oct;50(2):131–136. [PubMed]
  • Ewens WJ, Griffiths RC, Ethier SN, Wilcox SA, Graves JA. Statistical analysis of in situ hybridization data: derivation and use of the zmax test. Genomics. 1992 Apr;12(4):675–682. [PubMed]
  • Stevanović M, Lovell-Badge R, Collignon J, Goodfellow PN. SOX3 is an X-linked gene related to SRY. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Dec;2(12):2013–2018. [PubMed]
  • Whitfield LS, Lovell-Badge R, Goodfellow PN. Rapid sequence evolution of the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. Nature. 1993 Aug 19;364(6439):713–715. [PubMed]
  • Chandra HS. Is human X chromosome inactivation a sex-determining device? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Oct;82(20):6947–6949. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Page DC, Mosher R, Simpson EM, Fisher EM, Mardon G, Pollack J, McGillivray B, de la Chapelle A, Brown LG. The sex-determining region of the human Y chromosome encodes a finger protein. Cell. 1987 Dec 24;51(6):1091–1104. [PubMed]
  • Hamvas RM, Zinn A, Keer JT, Fisher EM, Beer-Romero P, Brown SD, Page DC. Rps4 maps near the inactivation center on the mouse X chromosome. Genomics. 1992 Feb;12(2):363–367. [PubMed]
  • Schneider-Gädicke A, Beer-Romero P, Brown LG, Nussbaum R, Page DC. ZFX has a gene structure similar to ZFY, the putative human sex determinant, and escapes X inactivation. Cell. 1989 Jun 30;57(7):1247–1258. [PubMed]
  • Watson JM, Frost C, Spencer JA, Graves JA. Sequences homologous to the human X- and Y-borne zinc finger protein genes (ZFX/Y) are autosomal in monotreme mammals. Genomics. 1993 Feb;15(2):317–322. [PubMed]
  • Pamilo P, Bianchi NO. Evolution of the Zfx and Zfy genes: rates and interdependence between the genes. Mol Biol Evol. 1993 Mar;10(2):271–281. [PubMed]
  • Shimmin LC, Chang BH, Li WH. Male-driven evolution of DNA sequences. Nature. 1993 Apr 22;362(6422):745–747. [PubMed]
  • Salido EC, Yen PH, Koprivnikar K, Yu LC, Shapiro LJ. The human enamel protein gene amelogenin is expressed from both the X and the Y chromosomes. Am J Hum Genet. 1992 Feb;50(2):303–316. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Legouis R, Hardelin JP, Levilliers J, Claverie JM, Compain S, Wunderle V, Millasseau P, Le Paslier D, Cohen D, Caterina D, et al. The candidate gene for the X-linked Kallmann syndrome encodes a protein related to adhesion molecules. Cell. 1991 Oct 18;67(2):423–435. [PubMed]
  • Yen PH, Marsh B, Allen E, Tsai SP, Ellison J, Connolly L, Neiswanger K, Shapiro LJ. The human X-linked steroid sulfatase gene and a Y-encoded pseudogene: evidence for an inversion of the Y chromosome during primate evolution. Cell. 1988 Dec 23;55(6):1123–1135. [PubMed]
  • Mitchell MJ, Woods DR, Tucker PK, Opp JS, Bishop CE. Homology of a candidate spermatogenic gene from the mouse Y chromosome to the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Nature. 1991 Dec 12;354(6353):483–486. [PubMed]
  • Tucker PK, Lundrigan BL. Rapid evolution of the sex determining locus in Old World mice and rats. Nature. 1993 Aug 19;364(6439):715–717. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • OMIM
    OMIM
    OMIM record citing PubMed
  • Protein
    Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...