• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Jan 1972; 69(1): 182–186.
PMCID: PMC427571

The Role of X-Chromosome Inactivation during Spermatogenesis

Abstract

Inactivation of the single X chromosome in the primary spermatocytes of species with heterogametic males is postulated as a basic control mechanism on the chromosomal level that is required for normal spermatogenesis. This view is supported by (a) cytological observations of X-chromosome allocycly in the primary spermatocytes of all male-heterogametic organisms that were adequately examined, (b) autoradiographic evidence of early cessation of transcription by the X chromosome in the mouse and three species of grasshopper, and (c) the male sterility of animals with certain X-chromosome rearrangements that cannot be attributed to misfunction of specific genes. X-chromosome inactivation during spermatogenesis is proposed as the ideal system for studies of genetic control at the chromosomal level.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bridges CB. TRIPLOID INTERSEXES IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. Science. 1921 Sep 16;54(1394):252–254. [PubMed]
  • LYON MF. Gene action in the X-chromosome of the mouse (Mus musculus L.). Nature. 1961 Apr 22;190:372–373. [PubMed]
  • BROWN SW, NUR U. HETEROCHROMATIC CHROMOSOMES IN THE COCCIDS. Science. 1964 Jul 10;145(3628):130–136. [PubMed]
  • LIN TP. The chromosomal cycle in Parascaris equorum (Ascaris megalocephala); oogenesis and diminution. Chromosoma. 1954;6(3):175–198. [PubMed]
  • Rieffel SM, Crouse HV. The elimination and differentiation of chromosomes in the germ line of sciara. Chromosoma. 1966;19(3):231–276. [PubMed]
  • Sturtevant AH, Novitski E. The Homologies of the Chromosome Elements in the Genus Drosophila. Genetics. 1941 Sep;26(5):517–541. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kofman-Alfaro S, Chandley AC. Meiosis in the male mouse. An autoradiographic investigation. Chromosoma. 1970;31(4):404–420. [PubMed]
  • Odartchenko N, Pavillard M. Late DNA replication in male mouse meiotic chromosomes. Science. 1970 Feb 20;167(3921):1133–1134. [PubMed]
  • Monesi V. Synthetic activities during spermatogenesis in the mouse RNA and protein. Exp Cell Res. 1965 Aug;39(1):197–224. [PubMed]
  • OHNO S, JAINCHILL J, STENIUS C. THE CREEPING VOLE (MICROTUS OREGONI) AS A GONOSOMIC MOSAIC. I. THE OY/XY CONSTITUTION OF THE MALE. Cytogenetics. 1963;2:232–239. [PubMed]
  • Russell LB, Montgomery CS. Comparative studies on X-autosome translocations in the mouse. I. Origin, viability, fertility, and weight of five T(X;1)'S. Genetics. 1969 Sep;63(1):103–120. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lindsley DL, Edington CW, Von Halle ES. Sex-Linked Recessive Lethals in Drosophila Whose Expression Is Suppressed by the Y Chromosome. Genetics. 1960 Dec;45(12):1649–1670. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Searle AG, Evans EP, Ford CE, West BJ. Studies on the induction of translocations in mouse spermatogonia. I. The effect of dose-rate. Mutat Res. 1968 Nov-Dec;6(3):427–436. [PubMed]
  • MEYER GF, HESS O, BEERMANN W. [Phase specific function structure in spermatocyte nuclei of Drosophila melanogaster and their dependence of Y chromosomes]. Chromosoma. 1961;12:676–716. [PubMed]
  • Hennig W. Untersuchungen zur Struktur und Funktion des Lampenbürsten-Y-Chromosoms in der Spermatogenese von Drosophila. Chromosoma. 1967;22(3):294–357. [PubMed]
  • Brosseau GE. Genetic Analysis of the Male Fertility Factors on the Y Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1960 Mar;45(3):257–274. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nicoletti B, Lindsley DL. Translocations between the X and the Y Chromosomes of Drosophila Melanogaster. Genetics. 1960 Dec;45(12):1705–1722. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cooper DW. Directed genetic change model for X chromosome inactivation in eutherian mammals. Nature. 1971 Apr 2;230(5292):292–294. [PubMed]
  • Russell LB, Montgomery CS. Comparative studies on X-autosome translocations in the mouse. II. Inactivation of autosomal loci, segregation, and mapping of autosomal breakpoints in five T (X;1) S. Genetics. 1970 Feb;64(2):281–312. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • CATTANACH BM. A chemically-induced variegated-type position effect in the mouse. Z Vererbungsl. 1961;92:165–182. [PubMed]
  • OHNO S, LYON MF. CYTOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEARLE'S X-AUTOSOME TRANSLOCATION IN MUS MUSCULUS. Chromosoma. 1965 Jan 30;16:90–100. [PubMed]
  • Gustavsson I, Fraccaro M, Tiepolo L, Lindsten J. Presumptive x-autosome translocation in a cow: preferential inactivation of the normal x chromosome. Nature. 1968 Apr 13;218(5137):183–184. [PubMed]
  • Halfer C, Tiepolo L, Barigozzi C, Fraccaro M. Timing of DNA replication of translocated Y chromosome sections in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 1969;27(4):395–408. [PubMed]
  • Cattanach BM, Pollard CE, Perez JN. Controlling elements in the mouse X-chromosome. I. Interaction with the X-linked genes. Genet Res. 1969 Dec;14(3):223–235. [PubMed]
  • Russell LB, Montgomery CS. Comparative studies on X-autosome translocations in the mouse. I. Origin, viability, fertility, and weight of five T(X;1)'S. Genetics. 1969 Sep;63(1):103–120. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCLINTOCK B. Chromosome organization and genic expression. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1951;16:13–47. [PubMed]
  • Baker WK. Position-effect variegation. Adv Genet. 1968;14:133–169. [PubMed]
  • Ritossa FM, Atwood KC, Spiegelman S. A molecular explanation of the bobbed mutants of Drosophila as partial deficiencies of "ribosomal" DNA. Genetics. 1966 Sep;54(3):819–834. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...