• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Sep 1972; 69(9): 2509–2512.
PMCID: PMC426976

The Gradient-Sensing Mechanism in Bacterial Chemotaxis

Abstract

A “temporal gradient apparatus” has been developed that allows the motility of bacteria to be studied after they have been subjected to a sudden change from one uniform concentration of attractant to another. A sudden decrease elicits the tumbling response observed with spatial gradients; it was found, however, that a sudden increase also elicits a response, namely supercoordinated swimming. This demonstrates that chemotaxis is achieved by modulation of the incidence of tumbling both above and below its steady-state value. The initial responses gradually revert to the steady-state motility pattern characteristic of a uniform distribution of attractant. The apparent detection of a spatial gradient by the bacteria therefore involves an actual detection of a temporal gradient experienced as a result of movement through space. Potential models for the chemotactic response based on some “memory” mechanism are discussed.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1014K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Adler J. Chemoreceptors in bacteria. Science. 1969 Dec 26;166(3913):1588–1597. [PubMed]
  • Hazelbauer GL, Adler J. Role of the galactose binding protein in chemotaxis of Escherichia coli toward galactose. Nat New Biol. 1971 Mar 24;230(12):101–104. [PubMed]
  • Kalckar HM. The periplasmic galactose binding protein of Escherichia coli. Science. 1971 Nov 5;174(4009):557–565. [PubMed]
  • Dahlquist FW, Lovely P, Koshland DE., Jr Quantitative analysis of bacterial migration in chemotaxis. Nat New Biol. 1972 Mar 29;236(65):120–123. [PubMed]
  • Delbrück M. Signal transducers: terra incognita of molecular biology. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 1972 Jan;11(1):1–6. [PubMed]
  • CLAYTON RK. Studies in the phototaxis of Rhodospirillum rubrum. III. Quantitative relations between stimulus and response. Arch Mikrobiol. 1953;19(2):141–165. [PubMed]
  • VOGEL HJ, BONNER DM. Acetylornithinase of Escherichia coli: partial purification and some properties. J Biol Chem. 1956 Jan;218(1):97–106. [PubMed]
  • Naito Y, Kaneko H. Reactivated triton-extracted models o paramecium: modification of ciliary movement by calcium ions. Science. 1972 May 5;176(4034):523–524. [PubMed]
  • HARRIS H. Chemotaxis of granulocytes. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1953 Jul;66(1):135–146. [PubMed]
  • Armstrong JB, Adler J, Dahl MM. Nonchemotactic mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1967 Jan;93(1):390–398. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Keller EF, Segel LA. Model for chemotaxis. J Theor Biol. 1971 Feb;30(2):225–234. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...