• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 1972; 69(8): 2110–2114.
PMCID: PMC426879

Nonchromosomal Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria: Genetic Transformation of Escherichia coli by R-Factor DNA*

Abstract

Transformation of E. coli cells treated with CaCl2 to multiple antibiotic resistance by purified R-factor DNA is reported. Drug resistance is expressed in a small fraction of the recipient bacterial population almost immediately after uptake of DNA, but full genetic expression of resistance requires subsequent incubation in drugfree medium before antibiotic challenge. Transformed bacteria acquire a closed circular, transferable DNA species having the resistance, fertility, and sedimentation characteristics of the parent R factor. Covalently-closed, catenated, and open (nicked) circular forms of R-factor DNA are all effective in transformation, but denaturation and sonication abolish the transforming ability of R-factor DNA in this system.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (842K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Anderson ES. The ecology of transferable drug resistance in the enterobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1968;22:131–180. [PubMed]
  • Watanabe T. The problems of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The origin of R factors. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1971 Jun 11;182:126–140. [PubMed]
  • Rownd R. Replication of a bacterial episome under relaxed control. J Mol Biol. 1969 Sep 28;44(3):387–402. [PubMed]
  • Nisioka T, Mitani M, Clowes R. Composite circular forms of R factor deoxyribonucleic acid molecules. J Bacteriol. 1969 Jan;97(1):376–385. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Silver RP, Falkow S. Specific labeling and physical characterization of R-factor deoxyribonucleic acid in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1970 Oct;104(1):331–339. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cohen SN, Miller CA. Multiple molecular species of circular R-factor DNA isolated from Escherichia coli. Nature. 1969 Dec 27;224(5226):1273–1277. [PubMed]
  • Cohen SN, Miller CA. Non-chromosomal antibiotic resistance in bacteria. II. Molecular nature of R-factors isolated from Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1970 Jun 28;50(3):671–687. [PubMed]
  • Kopecko DJ, Punch JD. The problems of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Regulation of R-factor replication in Proteus mirabilis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1971 Jun 11;182:201–216. [PubMed]
  • Rownd R, Mickel S. Dissociation and reassociation of RTF and r-determinants of the R-factor NR1 in Proteus mirabilis. Nat New Biol. 1971 Nov 10;234(45):40–43. [PubMed]
  • Hotchkiss RD, Gabor M. Bacterial transformation, with special reference to recombination process. Annu Rev Genet. 1970;4:193–224. [PubMed]
  • GUTHRIE GD, SINSHEIMER RL. Observations on the infection of bacterial protoplasts with the deoxyribonucleic acid of bacteriophage phi X174. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1963 Jun 25;72:290–297. [PubMed]
  • Young ET, 2nd, Sinsheimer RL. Vegetative bacteriophage lambda-DNA. I. Infectivity in a spheroplast assay. J Mol Biol. 1967 Nov 28;30(1):147–164. [PubMed]
  • KAISER AD, HOGNESS DS. The transformation of Escherichia coli with deoxyribonucleic acid isolated from bacteriophage lambda-dg. J Mol Biol. 1960 Dec;2:392–415. [PubMed]
  • Mandel M, Higa A. Calcium-dependent bacteriophage DNA infection. J Mol Biol. 1970 Oct 14;53(1):159–162. [PubMed]
  • Meynell E, Datta N. Mutant drug resistant factors of high transmissibility. Nature. 1967 May 27;214(5091):885–887. [PubMed]
  • WATANABE T, OGATA C, SATO S. EPISOME-MEDIATED TRANSFER OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. 8. SIX-DRUG-RESISTANCE R FACTOR. J Bacteriol. 1964 Oct;88:922–928. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Silver RP, Cohen SN. Nonchromosomal antibiotic resistance in bacteria. V. Isolation and characterization of R factor mutants exhibiting temperature-sensitive repression of fertility. J Bacteriol. 1972 Jun;110(3):1082–1088. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Clewell DB, Helinski DR. Supercoiled circular DNA-protein complex in Escherichia coli: purification and induced conversion to an opern circular DNA form. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969 Apr;62(4):1159–1166. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • RADDING CM, KAISER AD. GENE TRANSFER BY BROKEN MOLECULES OF LAMBDA-DNA: ACTIVITY OF THE LEFT HALF-MOLECULE. J Mol Biol. 1963 Sep;7:225–233. [PubMed]
  • LENNOX ES. Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1. Virology. 1955 Jul;1(2):190–206. [PubMed]
  • Cohen SN, Silver RP, McCoubrey AE. Isolation of catenated forms of R factor DNA from minicells. Nat New Biol. 1971 Jun 23;231(25):249–252. [PubMed]
  • Radloff R, Bauer W, Vinograd J. A dye-buoyant-density method for the detection and isolation of closed circular duplex DNA: the closed circular DNA in HeLa cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1967 May;57(5):1514–1521. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cozzarelli NR, Kelly RB, Kornberg A. A minute circular DNA from Escherichia coli 15. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1968 Jul;60(3):992–999. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Davies J, Brzezinska M, Benveniste R. The problems of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. R factors: biochemical mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1971 Jun 11;182:226–233. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...