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Plant Physiol. Jun 1981; 67(6): 1141–1145.
PMCID: PMC425849

Evidence for Independent Genetic Control of the Multiple Forms of Maize Endosperm Branching Enzymes and Starch Synthases 1,2

Abstract

Soluble starch synthase and starch-branching enzymes in extracts from kernels of four maize genotypes were compared. Extracts from normal (nonmutant) maize were found to contain two starch synthases and three branching enzyme fractions. The different fractions could be distinguished by chromatographic properties and kinetic properties under various assay conditions. Kernels homozygous for the recessive amylose-extender (ae) allele were missing branching enzyme IIb. In addition, the citrate-stimulated activity of starch synthase I was reduced. This activity could be regenerated by the addition of branching enzyme to this fraction. No other starch synthase fractions were different from normal enzymes. Extracts from kernels homozygous for the recessive dull (du) allele were found to contain lower branching enzyme IIa and starch synthase II activities. Other fractions were not different from the normal enzymes. Analysis of extracts from kernels of the double mutant ae du indicated that the two mutants act independently. Branching enzyme IIb was absent and the citrate-stimulated reaction of starch synthase I was reduced but could be regenerated by the addition of branching enzyme (ae properties) and both branching enzyme IIa and starch synthase II were greatly reduced (du properties). Starch from ae and du endosperms contains higher amylose (66 and 42%, respectively) than normal endosperm (26%). In addition, the amylopectin fraction of ae starch is less highly branched than amylopectin from normal or du starch. The above observations suggest that the alterations of the starch may be accounted for by changes in the soluble synthase and branching enzyme fractions.

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Selected References

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