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Nucleic Acids Res. 2004; 32(9): 2685–2694.
Published online May 17, 2004. doi:  10.1093/nar/gkh563
PMCID: PMC419591

Gene mining: a novel and powerful ensemble decision approach to hunting for disease genes using microarray expression profiling

Abstract

Current applications of microarrays focus on precise classification or discovery of biological types, for example tumor versus normal phenotypes in cancer research. Several challenging scientific tasks in the post-genomic epoch, like hunting for the genes underlying complex diseases from genome-wide gene expression profiles and thereby building the corresponding gene networks, are largely overlooked because of the lack of an efficient analysis approach. We have thus developed an innovative ensemble decision approach, which can efficiently perform multiple gene mining tasks. An application of this approach to analyze two publicly available data sets (colon data and leukemia data) identified 20 highly significant colon cancer genes and 23 highly significant molecular signatures for refining the acute leukemia phenotype, most of which have been verified either by biological experiments or by alternative analysis approaches. Furthermore, the globally optimal gene subsets identified by the novel approach have so far achieved the highest accuracy for classification of colon cancer tissue types. Establishment of this analysis strategy has offered the promise of advancing microarray technology as a means of deciphering the involved genetic complexities of complex diseases.

INTRODUCTION

The advent of DNA microarray technology has offered the promise of obtaining new insights into the secrets of life by monitoring the activities of thousands of genes simultaneously. These measurements or gene profiles provide a ‘snapshot’ of life that maps to a cross-section of genetic activities in a four-dimensional space of time and the biological entity. Although recent microarray experiments (1,2) hold the promise of the innovative technology being used to classify biological types, development of powerful and efficient analysis strategies to perform more complex biological tasks, such as mining disease relevant genes and building genetic networks, remains a significant demand. According to the modes of learning algorithms, current analysis strategies can be classified into two groups. An unsupervised learning method such as a typical cluster analysis, by ignoring the biological attribute (label) of a DNA example (instance), directly works on genes themselves and is a useful tool to study functional genomics, but it is unable to efficiently relate differential gene expression profiles to phenotypes. On the other hand, supervised learning is a target-driven process in that a suitable induction algorithm is employed to identify the most contributed genes for a specific target, for example classification of biological types, gene mining or data-driven gene networking.

DNA microarrays have several unique characteristics, such as relatively few samples with a large dimension of feature gene space and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, attempts to analyze entire microarrays at once to immediately discover the pattern being sought would be a mistake. Microarrays provide massively parallel information, the analysis of which is a non-deterministic polynomial (NP)-hard problem (3). Current statistical methods are not sufficiently powerful to solve this NP-hard problem. Hence, several methods having flavors of modern data mining and machine learning have been proposed to reduce the feature gene space by extracting the contributed genes and excluding the noise features (49). Among these methods, decision-tree based approaches appear to be one of the best choices for both genetic data analysis and for more general settings (10,11), as it can partition the sample and feature gene space simultaneously and thus is especially efficient for heterogeneous microarray samples.

In this study, we have developed a novel tree-based ensemble method for analysis of microarray data or data with similar characteristics. First, we aimed at extracting an optimal gene subset(s) to achieve a high precision of classification (e.g. tumor versus normal tissue), the so-called prediction problem. One group of current methods marginally filter noise genes based on rank, information gain and Markov blanket (1214). The feature gene selection is independent of the resulting classifier(s) so that it is uncertain whether the selected subset of genes can lead to maximal prediction precision. Another group of methods for feature gene selection are wrappers and a hybrid of filtering and wrapping (15,16). In a wrapping approach, the algorithm for feature gene subset selection exists as a wrapper around the induction algorithm. It conducts a search for a good subset using the induction algorithm itself as part of the function evaluating feature subsets. The induction algorithm is run on microarray data, usually partitioned into internal training and external test sets. The feature subset with the highest evaluation is chosen as the final set on which to build a classifier. Because feature subset selection by a wrapper is able to couple tightly with the decision mechanism of a classifier, maximal classification accuracy on a separate test set can be attained. We thus incorporated a decision tree-based wrapper in the novel ensemble approach. Several authors have argued that the intrinsic capacity of several supervised classifiers to discard (and not include in the final model) a subset of the features (e.g. decision trees, IF … THEN decision rules) can be a third method to perform feature subset selection, known as ‘embedded algorithms’ (14). However, wrappers and embedded algorithms are often not clearly distinguished, with only slight differences in the feature searching strategies.

Second, we propose an innovative approach for mining complex disease genes. Instead of simply maximizing prediction accuracy, we identify genes that are mostly relevant to a disease itself. One might think that the two targets are equivalent, but we will show later by a numerical example that they are essentially different. In other words, the optimal gene subset for prediction is too simple to reflect the genetic complexity of complex diseases. For this purpose, we introduce a disease-relevance concept and define a relevance intensity (precise mathematical descriptions will be given later) to distinguish between disease-relevant genes and noise features. Relevance at large has been studied extensively over the last three decades and there is increasing interest in applications in a wide range of areas, in particular in the area of machine leaning for feature subset selection, possibly owing to the advent of computational ability to handle massive high-dimensional data sets. A nice review and study of relevance concepts by Bell and Wang (17) reveals that either definitions or interpretations of relevance have evolved considerably, from a simple and intuitive relevance concept for marginally filtering a feature to the sophisticated mathematical formalism of the concept that is quantitative and normalized. In this study, we adopt and quantify with a relevance intensity the relevance formalism of Kohavi and John (15) (Definition 5, strong relevance; Definition 6, weak relevance), because this formalism is easily generalized to our specific application to microarrays and is appealing to capture the reality of biological complexities (epistasis or gene–gene interactions). The dual purposes of introducing the relevance concept were: (i) to characterize the target-dependent behavior and properties of a feature gene that distinguish it from the correlation metric for unsupervised learning on microarrays; (ii) to define a measure for mining disease-relevant genes.

The conventional subset selection approaches that aim at achieving a maximal accuracy of prediction would lead to exclusion of a large number of partially relevant genes due to ‘redundancy’. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel ensemble approach to handling ‘redundant’ genes. We integrate an ensemble decision theory in supervised learning fields (18) into decision trees where multiple gene subsets are obtained from the training sets generated by a resampling technique and each putative feature gene is then evaluated in terms of a relevance intensity. An application of this approach to analyze two publicly available data sets [colon data (19) and leukemia data (2)] is given to demonstrate its performance and statistical properties for either mining relevant features based on their distribution over the gene forest using an ensemble voting approach or prediction evaluated using multiple external classifiers.

ANALYTICAL METHODS

Definitions

Gene expression data with p probes and n DNA samples can be described by a n × p matrix, X = (xij), where xij represents the expression level for the jth gene (gj) on the ith sample (Xi). When the phenotype of a DNA sample is known, the data for each sample consist of a vector of expression profile, Xi = (xi1, …, xip) and a category label (yi). Suppose that the DNA samples belong to K categories, ω1, ω2, …, ωK. Define a class label, yi, to be an integer from 1 to K and let nk be the number of samples in the kth category.

Definition 1. Given an inducer I and the microarray data D with p genes, {gj}, j =1, 2, …, p, from a multivariate distribution over the discrete phenotypic space {ω1, ω2, …, ωK}, an optimal subset of genes with the minimal misclassification rate, G′, is said to be a subset of genes such that based on it the partition of microarray samples by the induced classifier C = I(D) leads to the best fit (with the highest goodness-of-fit statistic) to the observed phenotypic distribution.

Definition 2. A feature gene gj is said to be completely relevant if it is included in all the classifiers and the removal of gj alone will result in performance deterioration (in term of misclassification rate) of all the classifiers, obtained by learning on a number of training sets generated by a proper resampling technique. A feature gene gj is partially relevant if it is not completely relevant and there exists a subset of feature genes, G, such that the performance of the induced classifier on G is worse than the performance on the union of G and gj. A feature gene is irrelevant if it is neither completely nor partially relevant.

Ensemble feature selection

The proposed ensemble selection is a supervised learning approach based on a recursive partition tree. The basic procedures are as follows. First, a resampling technique is employed to build up pairs of training sets, {Ld} (d = 1, 2, …, m), and test sets, {Td} (d = 1, 2, …, m), for learning and testing, respectively. Then, a binary tree is grown on Ld by a recursive partition algorithm. At each branching of the tree, the best feature gene is selected such that it leads to minimal impurity at the node. This binary recursive partition continues until tree growth is stopped. For each tree grown, one subset of genes is extracted and tested on the holdout set Td. This process for feature selection is repeated on each pair of {Ld} (d = 1, 2, …, m) and {Td} (d = 1, 2, …, m), which consequently results in an ensemble of feature gene subsets (gene forests), G1, …, Gd, …, Gm, Gd = {gd1, gd2, …, gdk}. The optimal gene subset for the purpose of classification that meets Definition 1, G′, is obtained by ranking on the subset ensemble {Gd} based on their respective classification performance on the holdout test samples. By Definition 2, the disease-relevant genes, G*, are mined by a vote for a weighted frequency that a particular gene is contained in the gene forests.

Construction of training and test data. Among numerous methods, we here introduce three common methods for constructing training sets and test sets. Bagging (10), abbreviated from Bootstrap Aggregation, is the most direct method, in which a training set of size N is randomly selected from microarrays and is used as a mother template and the rest of the microarrays are used as the test set. Each microarray may appear several times or not at all in any particular training set. In an n-fold cross-validation procedure (10), we randomly divide the data into n equal parts. One part of the data is used as the test set and the rest is used as the training set. We continue in this way through the entire data set to generate n combinations of non-overlapped training data sets and test data sets. The third method is to randomly select without replacement 1/n of data as the test set and the remaining as the training set.

Induction algorithm. For each resampling constructed pair, Ld and Td, a recursive partition tree (20,21) is grown on the training set (Ld). The search for feature genes starts at the root of the tree and proceeds to its leaves. At each internal node, a decision is made with regard to the choice of a feature gene and a threshold value (cut-off) such that the class impurity is reduced to a minimum when a branch is made by an induction rule. After the optimal bifurcation is made, the microarray samples are divided into two non-overlapping subsets (two child nodes), dependent on whether for sample Xi the selected feature gene gj > cut-off or gj ≤ cut-off. The best cut-off for bifurcation is determined by iteratively searching the mid-points between two-ordered values of gj considered to split the examples in the tree node. The same process is conducted successively until a leaf is reached or stopping criteria for tree growth are satisfied. The basic rule for selecting a feature gene and cut-off function is that such an induction rule leads to a maximal drop in category impurity at that particular layer of tree, i.e. a partition is sought to maximally reduce an impurity index (Gini inequality index) at node t:

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Often, Pk|t) = pk = nk/n (k = 1, 2, …, K). pk is the probability that a sample belongs to the kth category at node t and

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Feature gene selection proceeds in a manner that the best gene is sought so that impurity is minimized at node t, from which a new bifurcation is attempted. Say, attempts are made to search for the best feature gene as well as its cut-off, which results in a new partition, s*, of the data and also leads to a maximal decrease in impurity at this bifurcation. Note mathematically,

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where E(tL) and E(tR) are impurity functions for the bifurcated nodes, respectively, and pL and pR are the frequencies of the two branching events at node t. S is a set consisting of all the possible bifurcation events at node t. The optimal branching, s*, not only produces two child nodes (t′ and t”) from the parent node t, but also extracts a feature gene at that node. The process for feature gene extraction is repeated for t′ and t”, respectively, until tree growth is stopped and a subset of feature genes, Gd, is obtained from the particular training set, Ld.

Evaluation of a tree (a subset of feature genes). To test whether the extracted subset of genes (Gd) is able to significantly distinguish the phenotypes of the holdout microarray samples (Td), we propose a χ2 statistic:

χ2 = [(|n00n11n01n10| – n/2)2n]/[(n00 + n01)(n10 + n11)(n00 + n10)(n01 + n11)]    3

where n = n00 + n01 + n10 + n11 and n00, n01, n10 and n11 are the frequencies for true negative, false positive, false negative and true positive, respectively. This statistic follows an asymptotic χ2 distribution with 1 degree of freedom.

Selection of relevant genes based on ensemble decision. The above feature gene subset building algorithm is applied to the multiple training sets and test sets, generated by a particular resampling technique as described previously. Consequently, a set of feature subsets are obtained by inducing the decision trees, denoted {G1, G2, …, Gm}. Given the ensemble of feature gene subsets, strategies for extracting the optimal feature genes diverge for different targets. For the purpose of prediction or classification, a feature gene subset as a whole instead of individual genes is considered. The optimal gene subset is selected based on the performance of a particular subset of genes extracted from a training set on classification of its sister test set. Since the typical goal of disease gene mining is to find a relevant gene instead of simply maximizing classification accuracy on a test set, we have adopted this as our target in guiding our feature gene selection. In other words, the genes from the prediction-driven extraction of relevant genes are important for prediction but may not be so for deciphering the complex underlying genetic architecture of the disease itself. Furthermore, such a strategy for feature gene selection would fail to pick up partially relevant genes because many genes (e.g. a functional cluster) on microarrarys are highly correlated and not necessarily included in an optimal subset to achieve maximal accuracy of prediction. Here, we provide an innovative approach to extract disease-relevant genes based on the ensemble of feature gene subsets. Whether a feature gene is relevant to a disease depends on the magnitude of its relevance intensity (called an ensemble vote), FV.

For a particular feature gene gk, define:

FV(gk) = F(G1, G2, …, Gm) = [∑dwdI(gk,Gd)]/[∑dwd]    4

where FV [set membership] [0, 1] and I(gk,Gd) is an indicator function:

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A weight, wd, can be a measure for the classification performance of Gd, for example, wd = χ2d or set wd = 1 for an equal weight for all the feature gene subsets.

Because the distribution of FV is often unknown, we resort to a permutation approach in which we randomly assign a label (phenotype) to each microarray and FV(gk) is computed using the permutated data. Then, the empirical null distribution of FV0(gk) is constructed. Given the empirical FV0(gk) and a specified significance level, β (e.g. 0.05 or 0.01), a critical value FV0β is obtained. A feature gene is selected if FVFV0β (one-tailed).

Computational algorithms

The numerical algorithm for the proposed ensemble approach, organized step by step, is given in Table Table1.1. The computational algorithm has been realized on the MATLAB platform. The corresponding programing codes are available upon written request to the authors.

Table 1.
The step-by-step recipe for the computational algorithm of the ensemble approach

NUMERICAL APPLICATIONS

We report the results from analysis of two well-known data sets in the microarray literature: colon data, analyzed initially by Alon et al. (19), available at http://microarray.princeton.edu/oncology/affydata/index.html; leukemia data, analyzed initially by Golub et al. (2), available at http://www.broad.mit.edu/cancer/. The colon data set consists of absolute measurements from Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays, with 62 tissue samples of 2000 human gene expressions (40 tumors and 22 normal tissues). The leukemia data set consists of 7070 preprocessed gene expressions in tissues derived from bone marrow aspirates (or peripheral blood) of 72 acute leukemia patients [25 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples and 47 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) samples]. First, we use the two data sets to demonstrate the utility of the proposed ensemble approach to extracting colon tumor-relevant genes or molecular signatures for leukemia subtypes. Then, using an independent external cross-validation procedure, we verify the classification performance of the three best subsets (trees) identified by the proposed ensemble approach, with comparisons with the 2000 genes or the 20 ensemble-identified relevant genes or 20 randomly selected genes as predictors, evaluated using multiple external classifiers including a support vector machine (SVM) with five different kernel functions, Fisher linear discriminator (FLD), logistic non-linear (logit) regression (LNR), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and Mahalanobis distance (MD). In the analyses of the two data sets, the maximum allowed instances in a node is set to one to minimize the risk of losing any important feature gene because of the limited sample sizes. On the other hand, some trivial genes may be included during feature subset selection, but they can be efficiently removed from the following ensemble decision analysis. We do not perform either pre-pruning or post-pruning because for the above reason.

Gene mining: disease-relevant genes

Example 1. Mining colon tumor-relevant genes. A 5-fold cross-validation (CV) resampling approach is used to construct the training and test sets. First, colon tumor and normal samples are randomly divided into five non-overlapping subsets of roughly equal size, i.e. tumor subsets Di (i = 1, 2, …, 5) and normal subsets Ni (i = 1, 2, …, 5). A random combination of Di and Ni constitutes a test set and the rest of the subsets are used as the training set. The 5-fold CV resampling produces 25 pairs of training and test sets. It is noteworthy that this cross-validation process is ‘stratified’ with respect to the class variable of the task, with an implicit purpose to identify multiple underlying genetic paths for the target phenotype. We repeat the resampling 20 times and obtain 500 pairs of training and test sets. The proposed gene extraction approach is then applied to each pair. In order to obtain a statistical measure of significance for each gene, a null distribution FV0 is constructed, as described previously. An empirical threshold of 0.035 at the significance level of 0.01 is chosen, denoted as FV0β = 0.035 (β = 0.01). The extracted colon tumor-relevant genes of high significance (P < 0.01), obtained by analyzing 500 pairs, are given in Table Table2.2. Pairwise relationships between the relevant genes in terms of Pearson’s correlations of absolute gene expressions (above the diagonal) or pairwise joint relevance (below the diagonal), evaluated by the concordance rate of two genes appearing in the same trees among the gene forests of 1000 artificially grown trees, are shown in Table Table33.

Table 2.
Ensemble decision analysis of 2000 gene expressions identifies 20 highly significant (empirical P < 0.01) colon tumor relevant genes
Table 3.
Pairwise joint relevance (the below diagonal) and Pearson’s correlation (the above diagonal) matrix for the top 20 colon tumor relevant genes, identified by ensemble decision analysis of 2000 gene expression profiles

In total we identified 20 highly significant (empirical P < 0.01) relevant genes. The top one was M26383, human monocyte-derived neutrophil-activating protein (MONAP) mRNA, complete cds, which appears in 230 or ~46% of trees. Given so strong a relevance intensity, it can be postulated that this gene plays a pivotal role as a central hub for the gene network that maps to the underlying pathological complexity of colon cancer. Molecular experiments evidence indicated that MONAP was constitutively overexpressed by human tumor lines (22). Strikingly, MONAP was ranked as the top colon tumor gene using the versatile measures information gain, sum of variances, twoing rule and Gini index, and as the second most important gene ranked by the summary minority measure (http://genomics10.bu.edu/yangsu/rankgene/compare-alon-colon-cancer-top100.html), but surprisingly not among the top 100 genes identified by Student’s t-test, implemented using the RankGene package (23). The second most significant gene identified by ensemble decision analysis in this study is human desmin, complete cds, which appears in ~27% of trees in the gene forests. It is not at all surprising that this gene was also identified by RankGene to be either the top one using the measures sum minority, max minority and one-dimensional SVM or as the second using the measures information gain, sum of variances, twoing rule and Gini index. T51849, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor ELK precursor (Rattus norvegicus), ranked 12th based on its relevance intensity to colon tumor phenotype, is also worth further investigation. A large microarray experiment with leukemic blasts from 360 acute pediatric lymphoblastic leukemia patients identified expression of this gene as highly associated with a leukemia subtype, E2A-PBX1 (24), suggesting that this gene might have a pleiotropic action in multiple cancers. Application to this colon tumor data supports our speculation that the ensemble decision approach is efficient for extracting ‘redundant’ genes. An extreme example is R39465, which was repeated twice in the microarray experiment. We have successfully identified both replicates, although there are some variations in relevance ranks (ranked 4th and 10th, respectively).

To investigate whether joint relevance shares some characteristics with Pearson’s correlation of gene expressions, which serves as the basis for unsupervised functional clustering, we grew 1000 trees and then computed the two indices using the top 20 tumor-relevant genes identified from ensemble decision analysis of the colon microarray data. Pearson’s correlation of gene expressions for the 20 genes is a target-independent index, while the joint relevance is a target-driven relationship index for genes, which might be a useful candidate for reverse engineering of the underlying disease gene networks. The joint relevance is computed as the concordance rate of two genes appearing in a same tree. Of 190 Pearson’s correlations, 45 are negative and the rest are positive. According to their absolute magnitude, 46 are strongly correlated (correlation ρ ≥ 0.5), with the two replicates of R39465 being the strongest (0.974), 76 are correlated at the medium level (0.2 ≤ ρ < 0.5) and the rest (68 estimates) are weakly correlated (ρ < 0.2). The averaged Pearson correlation over 190 estimates was 0.326 (± 0.232). In contrast, the joint relevance matrix is highly sparse, with 49 non-zeros (mean ± SD, 0.028 ± 0.030). Strongly relevant genes tend to have strong joint relevance with other genes, in agreement with the fact that the recursive partition kernel can efficiently treat gene–gene interactions because of its sequential nature. Correlation analysis of the two relationship indices suggests a lack of consensus between the two measures, with an estimate of –0.184 (P = 0.011), implying inefficiency of the target-independent relationship measure, Pearson’s correlation of gene expressions, as a tool for seeking the gene cluster(s) to differentiate phenotypes.

Example 2. Mining molecular signatures for leukemia subtypes. Here, the target phenotypes are two distinct leukemia subtypes, AML and ALL. Thus, an ensemble decision analysis is conducted to identify the significant molecular signatures (subtype-relevant genes) that underpin the complex molecular mechanisms for distinction between the two subtypes. These data contain measurements corresponding to ALL and AML samples from bone marrow and peripheral blood. The raw gene expressions were re-scaled with a linear regression model by the data provider such that overall intensities for each chip are equivalent (2). Again, the same 5-fold CV resampling approach as in Example 1 is used to generate 500 replicates of pairs. An empirical threshold of 0.012 at a significance level of 0.01 is used to evaluate a putative molecular signature. Ensemble decision analysis of 7070 gene expressions identifies 23 highly significant (P < 0.01) feature genes (Table (Table44).

Table 4.
Ensemble decision analysis of 7070 gene expressions identifies 23 highly significant (empirical P < 0.01) molecular signatures for subtyping acute leukemias

The top molecular signature, U16954 (AF1q mRNA), is a strongly relevant gene for distinction of the two acute leukemia subtypes and appears in >55% trees. Multiple lines of evidence from molecular biological studies imply that this gene is involved in leukemia development and progression. There are 117 NCBI nucleotide entries pertinent to this gene. The accumulated evidence over recent years has rendered it one of the most important molecular targets for leukemia. Cytogenetic studies (2529) suggest that aberrations of chromosome band 1q11–q23, where AF1q resides, are among the most common chromosomal alterations in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Tse et al. (1995) found that AF1q mRNA is highly expressed in the thymus but not in peripheral lymphoid tissues (26). Given so strong a relevance intensity for AF1q and encouraged by the wealth of biological evidence, we conceive that this gene is a key molecular determinant for phenotypic refinement of acute leukemia. It would also be interesting to explore its pivotal role as a central hub for the gene network that can differentiate the subtypes. Surprisingly, the importance of this gene was not revealed with either the eight marginal RankGene measures or by the data providers (2). On the other hand, there is good consensus on the importance of several other genes, including M27891 (CST3 Cystatin C), M23197 (CD33 antigen) and X95735 (Zyxin), between several independent analysis approaches [RankGene, Golub’s method (2) and this study]. Again, the genes identified by Student’s t-test are markedly different from the results obtained using other measures as implemented in the RankGene package (23) or using the proposed ensemble method.

An interesting concordance between the analyses of the two data sets is observed. Analyzing the colon data, we identified an important colon cancer gene, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor ELK precursor (R.norvegicus). In this data analysis, we identified its counterpart, protein tyrosine kinase, as a significant molecular signature for differentiation of the leukemia subtypes. Whether this concordance implies a biological coherence between different cancers awaits verification. In short, the majority of the results from the ensemble analysis can be explained and are supported by molecular biological evidence or alternative approaches. However, caution should be taken in interpretation of the feature gene selection for refinement of the leukemia phenotype (two disease subtypes, without a normal control). The genes relevant to leukemia subtypes should be considered as important molecular signatures which may also be the disease genes. The target-driven interactions between these genes are presumably mapped to the underlying complex network bridging the two biological attributes.

Gene mining: classification of biological types

Again, we use the colon tissue data to explore the utility of the proposed ensemble approach for classification. Working on the same data allows us to show the differences between the two targets. As a result of the ensemble gene subset selection, three best subsets determined by their classification performance on the holdout samples using equation 3 are obtained, all with a χ2 value of 9.118 (P = 0.003). Best subset 1 (Best tree 1) contains four genes: M26383 (human monocyte-derived neutrophil-activating protein mRNA, MONAP), T51849 (tyrosine-protein kinase receptor ELK precursor, R.norvegicus), Z24727 (Homo sapiens tropomyosin isoform mRNA) and H55758 (H.sapiens α-enolase). Best subset 2 also contains four genes: M26383, T94993 (H.sapiens fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 precursor), T58861 (60S ribosomal protein L30E, Kluyveromyces lactis) and R39465 (eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, Oryctolagus cuniculus). Best subset 3 contains five genes: M63391 (H.sapiens desmin gene), D14812 (H.sapiens KIAA0026 mRNA, complete cds), H44011 (myosin heavy chain, non-muscle type A, H.sapiens), T58861 and H55933 (H.sapiens mRNA homolog of yeast ribosomal protein L41). To unravel the relationships between the two targets, classify the biological types and mine disease-relevant genes, we construct a classification rule using all 20 colon tumor-relevant genes. To allow for (lessen) selection bias due to either the same approach being used for feature gene selection and prediction or the induced rule being tested on tissue samples that had been used in the first instance to select the feature genes, we perform a de novo validation procedure called external cross-validation, with newly permutated data sets and with separate classifiers from that used for feature gene subset selection. The classifiers considered are a SVM with five different kernel functions, FLD, LNR, KNN and MD, reflecting the diversity of discriminant methods putatively useful for microarray data analysis. The averaged results from analysis of 500 pairs of data sets are shown in Tables Tables55 and and6,6, evaluated in terms of concordance rate (Acc), prediction accuracy for true positive (pP) and discriminant accuracy for true positive (dP), respectively.

Table 5.
Classification performance of the support vector machine with different kernels, based on all the 2000 genes (2000 genes), 20 ensemble selected relevant genes (Ensemble 20 genes) and best trees
Table 6.
Performance of four external classifiers, with 20 ensemble selected genes (Ensemble 20 genes), best trees or randomly selected 20 genes (Random 20 genes) as predictors

Although there are some variations between the different classifiers, on average all four subsets (three best trees and the feature set with the 20 relevant genes) identified by our ensemble approach perform comparably with or better than the feature set with all 2000 genes. Best tree 3, although it does not include the top gene (M26383), achieves the highest performance across the multiple external classifiers and even performs better than the feature set of the top 20 colon tumor-relevant genes, with the highest performance (92.1%) attained using a SVM with a polynomial 2-D kernel, which is the highest attainable so far (4). The second best feature set is the top 20 relevant genes, reflecting the fact that the relevant genes are extracted from trees, which are in turn built with a target of high classification performance given a data structure. Nevertheless, this feature set is neither necessarily the most economical (minimal) nor the most efficient set for classification or prediction because there are ‘redundant’ features among the top 20 genes (e.g. the two replicates of R39465). Indeed, mining these ‘redundant’ genes is one of major goals for ensemble decision analysis of microarrays.

DISCUSSION

Current methods for feature gene (or subset) extraction are guided by the target of prediction or classification of biological types, the basic strategy of which is to search for a single subset that leads to the best prediction of biological types, for example tumor versus normal tissue. Because of the very nature of these approaches and the target sought for, a large number of highly correlated genes or ‘redundant’ features need to be excluded from the ‘best’ subset. However, these so-called ‘redundant’ genes are in fact genes of critical importance in elucidating the complex genetic architecture of a complex disease. These genes might be neighboring genes (co-regulating genes) in a biological/biochemical path or genes in a parallel path or genes having epistatic actions. Strictly speaking, current methods aimed at prediction or tumor classification are unable to uncover this hidden pattern of genes on microarrays. As a result, one of the purposes of this study was to provide molecular biologists with a powerful and useable tool for extracting disease-relevant genes, a major theme in the post-genomic era. To our knowledge, we are the first to explicitly formalize the task of mining disease-relevant genes using microarrays. Nevertheless, several scientists have recognized this issue and have been implicitly working in this direction (30,31). Likewise, the concept of ensemble decisions has been implicitly utilized both for gene selection for biological classification (32) and for mining disease-relevant genes (31).

The underlying biological complexity with which our proposed methodology deals is genetic heterogeneity, which is a thorny issue for both genetic linkage analysis (33,34) and microarray data analysis. The outward ‘same’ phenotype (e.g. affected or normal) can result from very different genetic and non-genetic pathways. A typical example is the discovery of novel tumor subtypes using genome-wide DNA profiles (2). The underlying rationale for our approach is: by sampling DNA samples (different combinations of phenotypes) and by tree-based recursive partitioning we can separate a mixture of heterogeneous samples into relatively homogeneous subgroups such that DNA samples belonging to one subgroup will presumably have the same genetic mechanism responsible for the differential phenotypic variations and by repeating this sampling strategy a large number of times we are able to capture the hidden multiple genetic pathways that lead to numerous genetic subtypes for a complex disease. Our analysis strategy is in fact an extension of the method of Shannon et al. (34), who proposed recursive partitioning of sibpair data into relatively more homogeneous subgroups such that within-subgroup analysis resulted in an increased power to detect linkage using Haseman–Elston regression (35).

Our ensemble decision approach has some analogies to random forests (11). For example, both approaches use a tree-based model as the framework for constructing a gene forest. However, there are several key differences. First, the research targets are different. Our ensemble method extracts relevant genes for classification of biological types or for disease gene mining, whereas most random forests focus on improvements in classification accuracy. The two approaches diverge after building the forests. After a large number of trees have been generated in random forests, they are used directly to vote for the most popular class, while in our ensemble method, the best feature subsets for prediction are selected based on the performance of an individual tree in classifying the external test samples. Second, a tree for random forests is constructed based on random selection of a feature subspace, while the tree for our ensemble decision approach is constructed based on random selection of a sample subspace. In other words, random forests are built on a one-directional (features) search and are thus inefficient in dealing with genetic heterogeneity (because it does not separate the hidden genetic subtypes of samples). On the other hand, our ensemble decision approach is built on a two-directional search (samples and features) under the assumption that genetic heterogeneity might be exhibited among the study samples. Third, although the random forests approach has been widely used for classification issues, its application to microarray data analysis and the extraction of disease genes has not been well investigated. Actually, this seminal method was proposed to achieve high accuracy of classification and robustness to noise. Although the author proposed a statistical measure to evaluate the importance of a feature variable, it is guided by classification (11) and thus it is uncertain whether this measure can be a good index for selecting a disease-relevant gene. It is a well-known fact, supported by this study, that the relevance of a feature does not imply that it is in the optimal feature subset and irrelevance does not imply that it should not be in the optimal feature subset for prediction (15).

An appealing and competitive alternative to recursive a binary partition model is a genetic algorithm coupled with a suitable evaluator [for example, SVM (X.Li and S.Rao, unpublished results) or KNN (8)] as the genetic algorithm itself is merely a search algorithm. A genetic algorithm is an adaptive search engine that minics the natural selection process in genetics. It employs a population of competing solutions, evolved over time by crossover and mutation and selection, to converge to an optimal solution. The solution space is efficiently searched in parallel and a set of solutions instead of a single solution are computed, to avoid becoming stuck in a local optimum, which can occur with other search techniques. In addition, its merit over most other search algorithms, in which once a feature is taken in (or removed) it is never considered again, has rendered it a promising method for feature gene selection over a high-deminsional space. To apply this algorithm to hunt for target-relevant genes, several issues need to be resolved. First, a suitable fitness function (i.e. how well a feature subset survives over a specific criterion) has to be defined to map the biological reality (36). Second, the number of genes contained in the optimal feature gene subsets can be very large in the early generations. The coupled classifier(s) must have the capacity to handle very high-dimensional data, for which SVM is one of the best choices.

The globally optimal gene subsets identified by the novel ensemble approach have so far achieved the highest accuracy for classification of colon cancer tissue types. In the study, we have in fact performed two cross-validations, internal and external. The purpose of the internal cross-validation was to identify the ‘optimal’ gene subset(s). Then, the ‘optimal’ subset(s) was subject to a further test by external cross-validation. The external cross-validation procedure with de novo permutation of the data 500 times and with evaluations using external classifiers that are separated from the internal classifier are performed to obtain an unbiased estimate of classification performance for the ensemble selected subset(s), although we cannot vouch for it that this external validation procedure is completely free from biases because the limited sample size does not allow us to reserve a part of the data as an independent test data set. Nevertheless, the estimate of final classification accuracy averaged over the de novo permutated 500 data sets and evaluated using external classifiers should have removed the biases due to the same algorithm being used in both learning and testing and the estimate is conceived to be the upper limit of the predicted accuracy if a novel and unseen, unlabeled DNA sample is to be classified. Another motivation for the sophisticated verification is to evaluate the generalization performance of a feature gene subset, for which Tasmardinos and Aliferis have given a nice discussion (Definition 2: feature selection problem 2) (37).

This study suggests that the proposed ensemble method holds the promise of deciphering some of the secrets of life from enormous amounts of molecular data generated by modern molecular technology. Application to two well-known microarray data sets proves it to be a powerful tool not only for prediction or classification but also for disease gene discovery. We propose the extraction of critical disease-relevant genes through multiple feature subsets, each being selected based on its classification performance. By resampling a large number of learning samples, the majority of strongly relevant and partially relevant genes can be mined. After this work, the next step is to address a more involved biological question: how do these genes act or interact to lead to the manifestation of a disease phenotype, or so-called target-driven gene networking, which is currently under investigation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank two anonymous reviewers for their comments on an early version of the manuscript. This work was supported in part by the National High Tech Development Project of China (grants nos 2003AA2Z2051 and 2002AA2Z2052), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants nos. 30170515 and 30370798) and the Cardiovascular Genetics Funds from Cleveland Clinic Foundation of USA.

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