• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. May 9, 1995; 92(10): 4114–4119.

Jasmonic acid distribution and action in plants: regulation during development and response to biotic and abiotic stress.


Jasmonic acid (JA) is a naturally occurring growth regulator found in higher plants. Several physiological roles have been described for this compound (or a related compound, methyl jasmonate) during plant development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. To accurately determine JA levels in plant tissue, we have synthesized JA containing 13C for use as an internal standard with an isotopic composition of [225]:[224] 0.98:0.02 compared with [225]:[224] 0.15:0.85 for natural material. GC analysis (flame ionization detection and MS) indicate that the internal standard is composed of 92% 2-(+/-)-[13C]JA and 8% 2-(+/-)-7-iso-[13C]JA. In soybean plants, JA levels were highest in young leaves, flowers, and fruit (highest in the pericarp). In soybean seeds and seedlings, JA levels were highest in the youngest organs including the hypocotyl hook, plumule, and 12-h axis. In soybean leaves that had been dehydrated to cause a 15% decrease in fresh weight, JA levels increased approximately 5-fold within 2 h and declined to approximately control levels by 4 h. In contrast, a lag time of 1-2 h occurred before abscisic acid accumulation reached a maximum. These results will be discussed in the context of multiple pathways for JA biosynthesis and the role of JA in plant development and responses to environmental signals.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Hamberg M, Gardner HW. Oxylipin pathway to jasmonates: biochemistry and biological significance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Nov 11;1165(1):1–18. [PubMed]
  • Koda Y. The role of jasmonic acid and related compounds in the regulation of plant development. Int Rev Cytol. 1992;135:155–199. [PubMed]
  • Mason HS, Dewald DB, Creelman RA, Mullet JE. Coregulation of soybean vegetative storage protein gene expression by methyl jasmonate and soluble sugars. Plant Physiol. 1992 Mar;98(3):859–867. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Farmer EE, Ryan CA. Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Oct;87(19):7713–7716. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Song WC, Brash AR. Purification of an allene oxide synthase and identification of the enzyme as a cytochrome P-450. Science. 1991 Aug 16;253(5021):781–784. [PubMed]
  • Reinbothe S, Reinbothe C, Heintzen C, Seidenbecher C, Parthier B. A methyl jasmonate-induced shift in the length of the 5' untranslated region impairs translation of the plastid rbcL transcript in barley. EMBO J. 1993 Apr;12(4):1505–1512. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Staswick PE, Su W, Howell SH. Methyl jasmonate inhibition of root growth and induction of a leaf protein are decreased in an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Aug 1;89(15):6837–6840. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mason HS, Mullet JE. Expression of two soybean vegetative storage protein genes during development and in response to water deficit, wounding, and jasmonic acid. Plant Cell. 1990 Jun;2(6):569–579. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bell E, Mullet JE. Lipoxygenase gene expression is modulated in plants by water deficit, wounding, and methyl jasmonate. Mol Gen Genet. 1991 Dec;230(3):456–462. [PubMed]
  • Creelman RA, Tierney ML, Mullet JE. Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jun 1;89(11):4938–4941. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mason HS, DeWald DB, Mullet JE. Identification of a methyl jasmonate-responsive domain in the soybean vspB promoter. Plant Cell. 1993 Mar;5(3):241–251. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DeWald DB, Sadka A, Mullet JE. Sucrose Modulation of Soybean Vsp Gene Expression Is Inhibited by Auxin. Plant Physiol. 1994 Feb;104(2):439–444. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sadka A, DeWald DB, May GD, Park WD, Mullet JE. Phosphate Modulates Transcription of Soybean VspB and Other Sugar-Inducible Genes. Plant Cell. 1994 May;6(5):737–749. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ryan CA. The search for the proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor, PIIF. Plant Mol Biol. 1992 May;19(1):123–133. [PubMed]
  • Gundlach H, Müller MJ, Kutchan TM, Zenk MH. Jasmonic acid is a signal transducer in elicitor-induced plant cell cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 15;89(6):2389–2393. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Choi D, Bostock RM, Avdiushko S, Hildebrand DF. Lipid-derived signals that discriminate wound- and pathogen-responsive isoprenoid pathways in plants: methyl jasmonate and the fungal elicitor arachidonic acid induce different 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase genes and antimicrobial isoprenoids in Solanum tuberosum L. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Mar 15;91(6):2329–2333. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Andresen I, Becker W, Schlüter K, Burges J, Parthier B, Apel K. The identification of leaf thionin as one of the main jasmonate-induced proteins of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Plant Mol Biol. 1992 May;19(2):193–204. [PubMed]
  • Xu Y, Chang PFL, Liu D, Narasimhan ML, Raghothama KG, Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA. Plant Defense Genes Are Synergistically Induced by Ethylene and Methyl Jasmonate. Plant Cell. 1994 Aug;6(8):1077–1085. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peever TL, Higgins VJ. Electrolyte Leakage, Lipoxygenase, and Lipid Peroxidation Induced in Tomato Leaf Tissue by Specific and Nonspecific Elicitors from Cladosporium fulvum. Plant Physiol. 1989 Jul;90(3):867–875. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Horton RF. Methyl jasmonate and transpiration in barley. Plant Physiol. 1991 Aug;96(4):1376–1378. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cosgrove DJ, Hedrich R. Stretch-activated chloride, potassium, and calcium channels coexisting in plasma membranes of guard cells of Vicia faba L. Planta. 1991 Dec;186(1):143–153. [PubMed]
  • Jaffe MJ, Galston AW. Physiological studies on pea tendrils. I. Growth and coiling following mechanical stimulation. Plant Physiol. 1966 Jun;41(6):1014–1025. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pearce G, Strydom D, Johnson S, Ryan CA. A polypeptide from tomato leaves induces wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor proteins. Science. 1991 Aug 23;253(5022):895–897. [PubMed]
  • Grimes HD, Koetje DS, Franceschi VR. Expression, activity, and cellular accumulation of methyl jasmonate-responsive lipoxygenase in soybean seedlings. Plant Physiol. 1992 Sep;100(1):433–443. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson R, Ryan CA. Wound-inducible potato inhibitor II genes: enhancement of expression by sucrose. Plant Mol Biol. 1990 Apr;14(4):527–536. [PubMed]
  • Demmig B, Winter K, Krüger A, Czygan FC. Zeaxanthin and the Heat Dissipation of Excess Light Energy in Nerium oleander Exposed to a Combination of High Light and Water Stress. Plant Physiol. 1988 May;87(1):17–24. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Franceschi VR, Grimes HD. Induction of soybean vegetative storage proteins and anthocyanins by low-level atmospheric methyl jasmonate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Aug 1;88(15):6745–6749. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles