• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Oct 10, 1995; 92(21): 9598–9602.

Intracellular coexistence of methano- and thioautotrophic bacteria in a hydrothermal vent mussel.


The coexistence of two phylogenetically distinct symbiont species within a single cell, a condition not previously known in any metazoan, is demonstrated in the gills of a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent mussel (family Mytilidae). Large and small symbiont morphotypes within the gill bacteriocytes are shown to be separate bacterial species by molecular phylogenetic analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The two symbiont species are affiliated with thioautotrophic and methanotrophic symbionts previously found in monospecific associations with closely related mytilids from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and hydrocarbon seeps.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Gray MW. The evolutionary origins of organelles. Trends Genet. 1989 Sep;5(9):294–299. [PubMed]
  • Long SR. Rhizobium-legume nodulation: life together in the underground. Cell. 1989 Jan 27;56(2):203–214. [PubMed]
  • Unterman BM, Baumann P, McLean DL. Pea aphid symbiont relationships established by analysis of 16S rRNAs. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jun;171(6):2970–2974. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cavanaugh CM, Wirsen CO, Jannasch HW. Evidence for methylotrophic symbionts in a hydrothermal vent mussel (bivalvia: mytilidae) from the mid-atlantic ridge. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 Dec;58(12):3799–3803. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Distel DL, Lane DJ, Olsen GJ, Giovannoni SJ, Pace B, Pace NR, Stahl DA, Felbeck H. Sulfur-oxidizing bacterial endosymbionts: analysis of phylogeny and specificity by 16S rRNA sequences. J Bacteriol. 1988 Jun;170(6):2506–2510. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eisen JA, Smith SW, Cavanaugh CM. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. J Bacteriol. 1992 May;174(10):3416–3421. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kim YW, Yasuda M, Yamagishi A, Oshima T, Ohta S. Characterization of the endosymbiont of a deep-sea bivalve, Calyptogena soyoae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 Feb;61(2):823–827. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Distel DL, Cavanaugh CM. Independent phylogenetic origins of methanotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbioses in marine bivalves. J Bacteriol. 1994 Apr;176(7):1932–1938. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coulter-Mackie MB. Single-base sequencing for rapid screening of plasmids for inserts with known mutations and correct orientation. Biotechniques. 1994 Jun;16(6):1026–1030. [PubMed]
  • Smith SW, Overbeek R, Woese CR, Gilbert W, Gillevet PM. The genetic data environment an expandable GUI for multiple sequence analysis. Comput Appl Biosci. 1994 Dec;10(6):671–675. [PubMed]
  • Maidak BL, Larsen N, McCaughey MJ, Overbeek R, Olsen GJ, Fogel K, Blandy J, Woese CR. The Ribosomal Database Project. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Sep;22(17):3485–3487. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Distel DL, DeLong EF, Waterbury JB. Phylogenetic characterization and in situ localization of the bacterial symbiont of shipworms (Teredinidae: Bivalvia) by using 16S rRNA sequence analysis and oligodeoxynucleotide probe hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Aug;57(8):2376–2382. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pinkel D, Landegent J, Collins C, Fuscoe J, Segraves R, Lucas J, Gray J. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with human chromosome-specific libraries: detection of trisomy 21 and translocations of chromosome 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(23):9138–9142. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Li HH, Gyllensten UB, Cui XF, Saiki RK, Erlich HA, Arnheim N. Amplification and analysis of DNA sequences in single human sperm and diploid cells. Nature. 1988 Sep 29;335(6189):414–417. [PubMed]
  • Lim EL, Amaral LA, Caron DA, DeLong EF. Application of rRNA-based probes for observing marine nanoplanktonic protists. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 May;59(5):1647–1655. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zarda B, Amann R, Wallner G, Schleifer KH. Identification of single bacterial cells using digoxigenin-labelled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides. J Gen Microbiol. 1991 Dec;137(12):2823–2830. [PubMed]
  • DeLong EF, Wickham GS, Pace NR. Phylogenetic stains: ribosomal RNA-based probes for the identification of single cells. Science. 1989 Mar 10;243(4896):1360–1363. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...