• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. Dec 20, 1989; 8(13): 3985–3995.
PMCID: PMC401573

p34cdc2 is located in both nucleus and cytoplasm; part is centrosomally associated at G2/M and enters vesicles at anaphase.


The cdc2+ gene product p34cdc2 is located immunocytochemically in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of human cells. It is uniformly distributed throughout the cytoplasm and is irregularly distributed in the nucleus. Part of p34cdc2 is associated with the centrosome and centrosomal staining increases late in the cell cycle and at the onset of mitosis. This distribution is corroborated by cell fractionation which also indicates that slower migrating forms of p34cdc2 are found in isolated centrosomes and in Triton-insoluble fractions. We propose that one role of the p34cdc2 protein kinase is to modify the centrosome bringing about formation of the mitotic spindle. At anaphase p34cdc2 becomes associated with vesicles in the middle of the cell between the reforming nuclei. A similar location is found for p13suc1 and we suggest that the vesicular localization plays a role in p34cdc2 kinase inactivation at the end of mitosis.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Akhurst RJ, Flavin NB, Worden J, Lee MG. Intracellular localisation and expression of mammalian CDC2 protein during myogenic differentiation. Differentiation. 1989 Mar;40(1):36–41. [PubMed]
  • Bornens M. Méthode d'isolement de la membrane nucléaire de foie de Rat. C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1968 Feb 5;266(6):596–599. [PubMed]
  • Bornens M, Paintrand M, Berges J, Marty MC, Karsenti E. Structural and chemical characterization of isolated centrosomes. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1987;8(3):238–249. [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Brizuela L, Draetta G, Beach D. p13suc1 acts in the fission yeast cell division cycle as a component of the p34cdc2 protein kinase. EMBO J. 1987 Nov;6(11):3507–3514. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dabauvalle MC, Doree M, Bravo R, Karsenti E. Role of nuclear material in the early cell cycle of Xenopus embryos. Cell. 1988 Feb 26;52(4):525–533. [PubMed]
  • Davis FM, Tsao TY, Fowler SK, Rao PN. Monoclonal antibodies to mitotic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 May;80(10):2926–2930. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Draetta G, Beach D. Activation of cdc2 protein kinase during mitosis in human cells: cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and subunit rearrangement. Cell. 1988 Jul 1;54(1):17–26. [PubMed]
  • Draetta G, Brizuela L, Potashkin J, Beach D. Identification of p34 and p13, human homologs of the cell cycle regulators of fission yeast encoded by cdc2+ and suc1+. Cell. 1987 Jul 17;50(2):319–325. [PubMed]
  • Dunphy WG, Brizuela L, Beach D, Newport J. The Xenopus cdc2 protein is a component of MPF, a cytoplasmic regulator of mitosis. Cell. 1988 Jul 29;54(3):423–431. [PubMed]
  • Gautier J, Norbury C, Lohka M, Nurse P, Maller J. Purified maturation-promoting factor contains the product of a Xenopus homolog of the fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2+. Cell. 1988 Jul 29;54(3):433–439. [PubMed]
  • Gosti-Testu F, Marty MC, Berges J, Maunoury R, Bornens M. Identification of centrosomal proteins in a human lymphoblastic cell line. EMBO J. 1986 Oct;5(10):2545–2550. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Guilly MN, Danon F, Brouet JC, Bornens M, Courvalin JC. Autoantibodies to nuclear lamin B in a patient with thrombopenia. Eur J Cell Biol. 1987 Apr;43(2):266–272. [PubMed]
  • Hara K, Tydeman P, Kirschner M. A cytoplasmic clock with the same period as the division cycle in Xenopus eggs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jan;77(1):462–466. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hayles J, Beach D, Durkacz B, Nurse P. The fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2: isolation of a sequence suc1 that suppresses cdc2 mutant function. Mol Gen Genet. 1986 Feb;202(2):291–293. [PubMed]
  • Karsenti E, Newport J, Hubble R, Kirschner M. Interconversion of metaphase and interphase microtubule arrays, as studied by the injection of centrosomes and nuclei into Xenopus eggs. J Cell Biol. 1984 May;98(5):1730–1745. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krohne G, Stick R, Kleinschmidt JA, Moll R, Franke WW, Hausen P. Immunological localization of a major karyoskeletal protein in nucleoli of oocytes and somatic cells of Xenopus laevis. J Cell Biol. 1982 Sep;94(3):749–754. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuriyama R, Borisy GG. Microtubule-nucleating activity of centrosomes in Chinese hamster ovary cells is independent of the centriole cycle but coupled to the mitotic cycle. J Cell Biol. 1981 Dec;91(3 Pt 1):822–826. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Labbe JC, Lee MG, Nurse P, Picard A, Doree M. Activation at M-phase of a protein kinase encoded by a starfish homologue of the cell cycle control gene cdc2+. Nature. 1988 Sep 15;335(6187):251–254. [PubMed]
  • Labbe JC, Picard A, Peaucellier G, Cavadore JC, Nurse P, Doree M. Purification of MPF from starfish: identification as the H1 histone kinase p34cdc2 and a possible mechanism for its periodic activation. Cell. 1989 Apr 21;57(2):253–263. [PubMed]
  • Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970 Aug 15;227(5259):680–685. [PubMed]
  • Lee MG, Nurse P. Complementation used to clone a human homologue of the fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2. Nature. 1987 May 7;327(6117):31–35. [PubMed]
  • Lee MG, Norbury CJ, Spurr NK, Nurse P. Regulated expression and phosphorylation of a possible mammalian cell-cycle control protein. Nature. 1988 Jun 16;333(6174):676–679. [PubMed]
  • Lohka MJ, Hayes MK, Maller JL. Purification of maturation-promoting factor, an intracellular regulator of early mitotic events. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 May;85(9):3009–3013. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maller JL. Regulation of amphibian oocyte maturation. Cell Differ. 1985 Jun;16(4):211–221. [PubMed]
  • Mitchison T, Kirschner M. Microtubule assembly nucleated by isolated centrosomes. Nature. 1984 Nov 15;312(5991):232–237. [PubMed]
  • Moreno S, Hayles J, Nurse P. Regulation of p34cdc2 protein kinase during mitosis. Cell. 1989 Jul 28;58(2):361–372. [PubMed]
  • Picard A, Karsenti E, Dabauvalle MC, Dorée M. Release of mature starfish oocytes from interphase arrest by microinjection of human centrosomes. Nature. 1987 May 14;327(6118):170–172. [PubMed]
  • Picard A, Harricane MC, Labbe JC, Doree M. Germinal vesicle components are not required for the cell-cycle oscillator of the early starfish embryo. Dev Biol. 1988 Jul;128(1):121–128. [PubMed]
  • Riabowol K, Draetta G, Brizuela L, Vandre D, Beach D. The cdc2 kinase is a nuclear protein that is essential for mitosis in mammalian cells. Cell. 1989 May 5;57(3):393–401. [PubMed]
  • Snyder JA, McIntosh JR. Initiation and growth of microtubules from mitotic centers in lysed mammalian cells. J Cell Biol. 1975 Dec;67(3):744–760. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Snyder JA, Hamilton BT, Mullins JM. Loss of mitotic centrosomal microtubule initiation capacity at the metaphase-anaphase transition. Eur J Cell Biol. 1982 Jun;27(2):191–199. [PubMed]
  • Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Sep;76(9):4350–4354. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vandré DD, Davis FM, Rao PN, Borisy GG. Distribution of cytoskeletal proteins sharing a conserved phosphorylated epitope. Eur J Cell Biol. 1986 Jun;41(1):72–81. [PubMed]
  • Zieve GW, Turnbull D, Mullins JM, McIntosh JR. Production of large numbers of mitotic mammalian cells by use of the reversible microtubule inhibitor nocodazole. Nocodazole accumulated mitotic cells. Exp Cell Res. 1980 Apr;126(2):397–405. [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...