• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. Jan 1989; 8(1): 133–136.
PMCID: PMC400781

N-myc is frequently activated by proviral insertion in MuLV-induced T cell lymphomas.


We report a new common proviral insertion site in murine leukemia virus-induced T cell lymphomas to be N-myc. Proviral activation of N-myc was found in 35% of independently induced primary tumors. The vast majority of the proviral insertions occur within a small segment of the 3'-untranslated region of the N-myc gene, directly downstream of the protein-encoding domain. This results in an increased level of expression of a truncated N-myc mRNA. Together with the previously shown c-myc activation we now find involvement of myc genes in greater than 75% of the primary T cell lymphomas induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus in C57BL10 and BALB/c mice, and show for the first time that N-myc can be over-expressed by a mechanism other than gene amplification.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (798K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Alt FW, DePinho R, Zimmerman K, Legouy E, Hatton K, Ferrier P, Tesfaye A, Yancopoulos G, Nisen P. The human myc gene family. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1986;51(Pt 2):931–941. [PubMed]
  • Chomczynski P, Qasba PK. Alkaline transfer of DNA to plastic membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984 Jul 18;122(1):340–344. [PubMed]
  • Cuypers HT, Selten G, Quint W, Zijlstra M, Maandag ER, Boelens W, van Wezenbeek P, Melief C, Berns A. Murine leukemia virus-induced T-cell lymphomagenesis: integration of proviruses in a distinct chromosomal region. Cell. 1984 May;37(1):141–150. [PubMed]
  • DePinho RA, Legouy E, Feldman LB, Kohl NE, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. Structure and expression of the murine N-myc gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Mar;83(6):1827–1831. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DePinho RA, Hatton KS, Tesfaye A, Yancopoulos GD, Alt FW. The human myc gene family: structure and activity of L-myc and an L-myc pseudogene. Genes Dev. 1987 Dec;1(10):1311–1326. [PubMed]
  • Graham M, Adams JM, Cory S. Murine T lymphomas with retroviral inserts in the chromosomal 15 locus for plasmacytoma variant translocations. Nature. 314(6013):740–743. [PubMed]
  • Jaenisch R, Fan H, Croker B. Infection of preimplantation mouse embryos and of newborn mice with leukemia virus: tissue distribution of viral DNA and RNA and leukemogenesis in the adult animal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Oct;72(10):4008–4012. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kohl NE, Kanda N, Schreck RR, Bruns G, Latt SA, Gilbert F, Alt FW. Transposition and amplification of oncogene-related sequences in human neuroblastomas. Cell. 1983 Dec;35(2 Pt 1):359–367. [PubMed]
  • Kohl NE, Gee CE, Alt FW. Activated expression of the N-myc gene in human neuroblastomas and related tumors. Science. 1984 Dec 14;226(4680):1335–1337. [PubMed]
  • Legouy E, DePinho R, Zimmerman K, Collum R, Yancopoulos G, Mitsock L, Kriz R, Alt FW. Structure and expression of the murine L-myc gene. EMBO J. 1987 Nov;6(11):3359–3366. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mucenski ML, Gilbert DJ, Taylor BA, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG. Common sites of viral integration in lymphomas arising in AKXD recombinant inbred mouse strains. Oncogene Res. 1987;2(1):33–48. [PubMed]
  • Nisen PD, Zimmerman KA, Cotter SV, Gilbert F, Alt FW. Enhanced expression of the N-myc gene in Wilms' tumors. Cancer Res. 1986 Dec;46(12 Pt 1):6217–6222. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Coulson AR, Barrell BG, Smith AJ, Roe BA. Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing. J Mol Biol. 1980 Oct 25;143(2):161–178. [PubMed]
  • Schwab M, Alitalo K, Klempnauer KH, Varmus HE, Bishop JM, Gilbert F, Brodeur G, Goldstein M, Trent J. Amplified DNA with limited homology to myc cellular oncogene is shared by human neuroblastoma cell lines and a neuroblastoma tumour. Nature. 1983 Sep 15;305(5931):245–248. [PubMed]
  • Selten G, Cuypers HT, Zijlstra M, Melief C, Berns A. Involvement of c-myc in MuLV-induced T cell lymphomas in mice: frequency and mechanisms of activation. EMBO J. 1984 Dec 20;3(13):3215–3222. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Selten G, Cuypers HT, Berns A. Proviral activation of the putative oncogene Pim-1 in MuLV induced T-cell lymphomas. EMBO J. 1985 Jul;4(7):1793–1798. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Selten G, Cuypers HT, Boelens W, Robanus-Maandag E, Verbeek J, Domen J, van Beveren C, Berns A. The primary structure of the putative oncogene pim-1 shows extensive homology with protein kinases. Cell. 1986 Aug 15;46(4):603–611. [PubMed]
  • Silver J, Buckler CE. A preferred region for integration of Friend murine leukemia virus in hematopoietic neoplasms is closely linked to the Int-2 oncogene. J Virol. 1986 Dec;60(3):1156–1158. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taya Y, Mizusawa S, Nishimura S. Nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the mouse N-myc gene. EMBO J. 1986 Jun;5(6):1215–1219. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tsichlis PN, Lohse MA, Szpirer C, Szpirer J, Levan G. Cellular DNA regions involved in the induction of rat thymic lymphomas (Mlvi-1, Mlvi-2, Mlvi-3, and c-myc) represent independent loci as determined by their chromosomal map location in the rat. J Virol. 1985 Dec;56(3):938–942. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Voronova AF, Sefton BM. Expression of a new tyrosine protein kinase is stimulated by retrovirus promoter insertion. Nature. 1986 Feb 20;319(6055):682–685. [PubMed]
  • Zimmerman KA, Yancopoulos GD, Collum RG, Smith RK, Kohl NE, Denis KA, Nau MM, Witte ON, Toran-Allerand D, Gee CE, et al. Differential expression of myc family genes during murine development. Nature. 319(6056):780–783. [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...