• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Feb 6, 1996; 93(3): 1071–1076.
PMCID: PMC40032

Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life.

Abstract

A symbiosis-based phylogeny leads to a consistent, useful classification system for all life. "Kingdoms" and "Domains" are replaced by biological names for the most inclusive taxa: Prokarya (bacteria) and Eukarya (symbiosis-derived nucleated organisms). The earliest Eukarya, anaerobic mastigotes, hypothetically originated from permanent whole-cell fusion between members of Archaea (e.g., Thermoplasma-like organisms) and of Eubacteria (e.g., Spirochaeta-like organisms). Molecular biology, life-history, and fossil record evidence support the reunification of bacteria as Prokarya while subdividing Eukarya into uniquely defined subtaxa: Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Woese CR, Kandler O, Wheelis ML. Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jun;87(12):4576–4579. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cavalier-Smith T. Eukaryotes with no mitochondria. Nature. 326(6111):332–333. [PubMed]
  • Gupta RS, Aitken K, Falah M, Singh B. Cloning of Giardia lamblia heat shock protein HSP70 homologs: implications regarding origin of eukaryotic cells and of endoplasmic reticulum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12;91(8):2895–2899. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Golding GB, Gupta RS. Protein-based phylogenies support a chimeric origin for the eukaryotic genome. Mol Biol Evol. 1995 Jan;12(1):1–6. [PubMed]
  • Brown JR, Doolittle WF. Root of the universal tree of life based on ancient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene duplications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 28;92(7):2441–2445. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hensel R, Zwickl P, Fabry S, Lang J, Palm P. Sequence comparison of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from the three urkingdoms: evolutionary implication. Can J Microbiol. 1989 Jan;35(1):81–85. [PubMed]
  • Gunderson J, Hinkle G, Leipe D, Morrison HG, Stickel SK, Odelson DA, Breznak JA, Nerad TA, Müller M, Sogin ML. Phylogeny of trichomonads inferred from small-subunit rRNA sequences. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 1995 Jul-Aug;42(4):411–415. [PubMed]
  • Sogin ML. Early evolution and the origin of eukaryotes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1991 Dec;1(4):457–463. [PubMed]
  • Bryant MP, Wolin EA, Wolin MJ, Wolfe RS. Methanobacillus omelianskii, a symbiotic association of two species of bacteria. Arch Mikrobiol. 1967;59(1):20–31. [PubMed]
  • Guerrero R, Ashen J, Sole M, Margulis L. Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi nov. gen., nov. sp.: variable-diameter composite spirochete from microbial mats. Arch Microbiol. 1993;160:461–470. [PubMed]
  • Korolev EV, Nikonov AV, Brudnaya MS, Snigirevskaya ES, Sabinin GV, Komissarchik YYu, Ivanov PI, Borchsenius SN. Tubular structures of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and their possible participation in cell motility. Microbiology. 1994 Mar;140(Pt 3):671–681. [PubMed]
  • Fuerst JA, Webb RI. Membrane-bounded nucleoid in the eubacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Sep 15;88(18):8184–8188. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hall JL, Ramanis Z, Luck DJ. Basal body/centriolar DNA: molecular genetic studies in Chlamydomonas. Cell. 1989 Oct 6;59(1):121–132. [PubMed]
  • Hall JL, Luck DJ. Basal body-associated DNA: in situ studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 May 23;92(11):5129–5133. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cavalier-Smith T. Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla. Microbiol Rev. 1993 Dec;57(4):953–994. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cleveland LR. The Origin and Evolution of Meiosis. Science. 1947 Mar 14;105(2724):287–289. [PubMed]
  • Kirby H, Margulis L. Harold Kirby's symbionts of termites: karyomastigont reproduction and calonymphid taxonomy. Symbiosis. 1994;16(1):7–63. [PubMed]
  • WHITTAKER RH. On the broad classification of organisms. Q Rev Biol. 1959 Sep;34:210–226. [PubMed]
  • Whittaker RH. New concepts of kingdoms or organisms. Evolutionary relations are better represented by new classifications than by the traditional two kingdoms. Science. 1969 Jan 10;163(3863):150–160. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...