• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Apr 1985; 82(7): 1979–1983.
PMCID: PMC397465

Expression of glnA in Escherichia coli is regulated at tandem promoters.

Abstract

We have determined that the glnA gene of the complex glnALG operon of Escherichia coli is transcribed from tandem promoters. Expression from the upstream promoter, glnAp1, requires the catabolite activating protein, is repressed by nitrogen regulator I (NRI), the product of glnG, and produces a transcript with an untranslated leader of 187 nucleotides. Expression from the downstream promoter, glnAp2, requires NRI as well as the glnF product; full expression also requires growth in a nitrogen-limited environment. The downstream transcript has an untranslated leader of 73 nucleotides. We also provide evidence that the function of the glnL product is to mediate the interconversion of NRI between a form capable of activating glnAp2 and an inactive form in response to changes in the intracellular concentration of ammonia. The function of the two minor promoters of the glnALG operon, glnAp1 and glnLp, is to maintain the products of glnA, glutamine synthetase, an essential enzyme, and of glnG, NRI, an activator of nitrogen-controlled genes, during carbon-limited growth.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Magasanik B. Genetic control of nitrogen assimilation in bacteria. Annu Rev Genet. 1982;16:135–168. [PubMed]
  • Garcia E, Bancroft S, Rhee SG, Kustu S. The product of a newly identified gene, gInF, is required for synthesis of glutamine synthetase in Salmonella. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Apr;74(4):1662–1666. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gaillardin CM, Magasanik B. Involvement of the product of the glnF gene in the autogenous regulation of glutamine synthetase formation in Klebsiella aerogenes. J Bacteriol. 1978 Mar;133(3):1329–1338. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kustu S, Burton D, Garcia E, McCarter L, McFarland N. Nitrogen control in Salmonella: regulation by the glnR and glnF gene products. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Sep;76(9):4576–4580. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pahel G, Tyler B. A new glnA-linked regulatory gene for glutamine synthetase in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Sep;76(9):4544–4548. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pahel G, Rothstein DM, Magasanik B. Complex glnA-glnL-glnG operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982 Apr;150(1):202–213. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ueno-Nishio S, Backman KC, Magasanik B. Regulation at the glnL-operator-promoter of the complex glnALG operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1983 Mar;153(3):1247–1251. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krajewska-Grynkiewicz K, Kustu S. Evidence that nitrogen regulatory gene ntrC of Salmonella typhimurium is transcribed from the glnA promoter as well as from a separate ntr promoter. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;193(1):135–142. [PubMed]
  • Reitzer LJ, Magasanik B. Isolation of the nitrogen assimilation regulator NR(I), the product of the glnG gene of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Sep;80(18):5554–5558. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ueno-Nishio S, Mango S, Reitzer LJ, Magasanik B. Identification and regulation of the glnL operator-promoter of the complex glnALG operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1984 Oct;160(1):379–384. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Backman K, Chen YM, Magasanik B. Physical and genetic characterization of the glnA--glnG region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Jun;78(6):3743–3747. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chen YM, Backman K, Magasanik B. Characterization of a gene, glnL, the product of which is involved in the regulation of nitrogen utilization in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982 Apr;150(1):214–220. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith GR, Halpern YS, Magasanik B. Genetic and metabolic control of enzymes responsible for histidine degradation in Salmonella typhimurium. 4-imidazolone-5-propionate amidohydrolase and N-formimino-L-glutamate formiminohydrolase. J Biol Chem. 1971 May 25;246(10):3320–3329. [PubMed]
  • Prival MJ, Magasanik B. Resistance to catabolite repression of histidase and proline oxidase during nitrogen-limited growth of Klebsiella aerogenes. J Biol Chem. 1971 Oct 25;246(20):6288–6296. [PubMed]
  • Chaconas G, van de Sande JH. 5'-32P labeling of RNA and DNA restriction fragments. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):75–85. [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):499–560. [PubMed]
  • Aiba H, Adhya S, de Crombrugghe B. Evidence for two functional gal promoters in intact Escherichia coli cells. J Biol Chem. 1981 Nov 25;256(22):11905–11910. [PubMed]
  • Berk AJ, Sharp PA. Sizing and mapping of early adenovirus mRNAs by gel electrophoresis of S1 endonuclease-digested hybrids. Cell. 1977 Nov;12(3):721–732. [PubMed]
  • Hansen U, Tenen DG, Livingston DM, Sharp PA. T antigen repression of SV40 early transcription from two promoters. Cell. 1981 Dec;27(3 Pt 2):603–613. [PubMed]
  • Covarrubias AA, Bastarrachea F. Nucleotide sequence of the glnA control region of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1983;190(1):171–175. [PubMed]
  • Ow DW, Sundaresan V, Rothstein DM, Brown SE, Ausubel FM. Promoters regulated by the glnG (ntrC) and nifA gene products share a heptameric consensus sequence in the -15 region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 May;80(9):2524–2528. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Friedrich B, Magasanik B. Urease of Klebsiella aerogenes: control of its synthesis by glutamine synthetase. J Bacteriol. 1977 Aug;131(2):446–452. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hawley DK, McClure WR. Compilation and analysis of Escherichia coli promoter DNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Apr 25;11(8):2237–2255. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ausubel FM. Regulation of nitrogen fixation genes. Cell. 1984 May;37(1):5–6. [PubMed]
  • Dixon R. Tandem promoters determine regulation of the Klebsiella pneumoniae glutamine synthetase (glnA) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Oct 25;12(20):7811–7830. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...