• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Apr 2, 1996; 93(7): 2658–2663.
PMCID: PMC39686

Isolation of a Pax-6 homolog from the ribbonworm Lineus sanguineus.

Abstract

The Pax-6 genes of vertebrates and Drosophila encode transcription factors with highly conserved paired- and homeodomains. They are expressed in the nervous system and the developing eyes. Loss-of-function mutations in mammals and flies lead to a reduction or absence of the eyes. By ectopic expression of Pax-6 in Drosophila ectopic eyes can be induced, indicating a determinative role in eye morphogenesis. We have isolated a Pax-6 homolog of the ribbonworm Lineus sanguineus. This gene shares extensive sequence identity and several conserved splice sites with the mammalian and Drosophila genes. During head regeneration the L. sanguineus Pax-6 homolog is expressed in the central nervous system, in the cerebral organ, and in the eye region. These findings support the hypothesis that Pax-6 was present in primitive metazoa before the evolutionary separation of vertebrates and arthropods and suggest a fundamental role in eye and central nervous system development.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bopp D, Burri M, Baumgartner S, Frigerio G, Noll M. Conservation of a large protein domain in the segmentation gene paired and in functionally related genes of Drosophila. Cell. 1986 Dec 26;47(6):1033–1040. [PubMed]
  • Noll M. Evolution and role of Pax genes. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993 Aug;3(4):595–605. [PubMed]
  • Walther C, Guenet JL, Simon D, Deutsch U, Jostes B, Goulding MD, Plachov D, Balling R, Gruss P. Pax: a murine multigene family of paired box-containing genes. Genomics. 1991 Oct;11(2):424–434. [PubMed]
  • Gruss P, Walther C. Pax in development. Cell. 1992 May 29;69(5):719–722. [PubMed]
  • Walther C, Gruss P. Pax-6, a murine paired box gene, is expressed in the developing CNS. Development. 1991 Dec;113(4):1435–1449. [PubMed]
  • Ton CC, Hirvonen H, Miwa H, Weil MM, Monaghan P, Jordan T, van Heyningen V, Hastie ND, Meijers-Heijboer H, Drechsler M, et al. Positional cloning and characterization of a paired box- and homeobox-containing gene from the aniridia region. Cell. 1991 Dec 20;67(6):1059–1074. [PubMed]
  • Krauss S, Johansen T, Korzh V, Moens U, Ericson JU, Fjose A. Zebrafish pax[zf-a]: a paired box-containing gene expressed in the neural tube. EMBO J. 1991 Dec;10(12):3609–3619. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Püschel AW, Gruss P, Westerfield M. Sequence and expression pattern of pax-6 are highly conserved between zebrafish and mice. Development. 1992 Mar;114(3):643–651. [PubMed]
  • Quiring R, Walldorf U, Kloter U, Gehring WJ. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the Small eye gene in mice and Aniridia in humans. Science. 1994 Aug 5;265(5173):785–789. [PubMed]
  • Chisholm AD, Horvitz HR. Patterning of the Caenorhabditis elegans head region by the Pax-6 family member vab-3. Nature. 1995 Sep 7;377(6544):52–55. [PubMed]
  • Glaser T, Walton DS, Maas RL. Genomic structure, evolutionary conservation and aniridia mutations in the human PAX6 gene. Nat Genet. 1992 Nov;2(3):232–239. [PubMed]
  • Dozier C, Carrière C, Grévin D, Martin P, Quatannens B, Stéhelin D, Saule S. Structure and DNA-binding properties of Pax-QNR, a paired box- and homeobox-containing gene. Cell Growth Differ. 1993 Apr;4(4):281–289. [PubMed]
  • Zhang Y, Emmons SW. Specification of sense-organ identity by a Caenorhabditis elegans Pax-6 homologue. Nature. 1995 Sep 7;377(6544):55–59. [PubMed]
  • Martin P, Carriere C, Dozier C, Quatannens B, Mirabel MA, Vandenbunder B, Stehelin D, Saule S. Characterization of a paired box- and homeobox-containing quail gene (Pax-QNR) expressed in the neuroretina. Oncogene. 1992 Sep;7(9):1721–1728. [PubMed]
  • Li HS, Yang JM, Jacobson RD, Pasko D, Sundin O. Pax-6 is first expressed in a region of ectoderm anterior to the early neural plate: implications for stepwise determination of the lens. Dev Biol. 1994 Mar;162(1):181–194. [PubMed]
  • Hill RE, Favor J, Hogan BL, Ton CC, Saunders GF, Hanson IM, Prosser J, Jordan T, Hastie ND, van Heyningen V. Mouse small eye results from mutations in a paired-like homeobox-containing gene. Nature. 1991 Dec 19;354(6354):522–525. [PubMed]
  • Matsuo T, Osumi-Yamashita N, Noji S, Ohuchi H, Koyama E, Myokai F, Matsuo N, Taniguchi S, Doi H, Iseki S, et al. A mutation in the Pax-6 gene in rat small eye is associated with impaired migration of midbrain crest cells. Nat Genet. 1993 Apr;3(4):299–304. [PubMed]
  • Halder G, Callaerts P, Gehring WJ. Induction of ectopic eyes by targeted expression of the eyeless gene in Drosophila. Science. 1995 Mar 24;267(5205):1788–1792. [PubMed]
  • Hempstead PG, Regular SC, Ball IR. A method for the preparation of high-molecular-weight DNA from marine and freshwater triclads (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria). DNA Cell Biol. 1990 Jan-Feb;9(1):57–61. [PubMed]
  • Chomczynski P, Sacchi N. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem. 1987 Apr;162(1):156–159. [PubMed]
  • McGinnis W, Levine MS, Hafen E, Kuroiwa A, Gehring WJ. A conserved DNA sequence in homoeotic genes of the Drosophila Antennapedia and bithorax complexes. Nature. 308(5958):428–433. [PubMed]
  • Wittbrodt J, Rosa FM. Disruption of mesoderm and axis formation in fish by ectopic expression of activin variants: the role of maternal activin. Genes Dev. 1994 Jun 15;8(12):1448–1462. [PubMed]
  • Hauptmann G, Gerster T. Two-color whole-mount in situ hybridization to vertebrate and Drosophila embryos. Trends Genet. 1994 Aug;10(8):266–266. [PubMed]
  • Czerny T, Busslinger M. DNA-binding and transactivation properties of Pax-6: three amino acids in the paired domain are responsible for the different sequence recognition of Pax-6 and BSAP (Pax-5). Mol Cell Biol. 1995 May;15(5):2858–2871. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turbeville JM, Field KG, Raff RA. Phylogenetic position of phylum Nemertini, inferred from 18S rRNA sequences: molecular data as a test of morphological character homology. Mol Biol Evol. 1992 Mar;9(2):235–249. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...