Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. 1994 Aug 1; 13(15): 3438–3447.
PMCID: PMC395246

Peroxidasin: a novel enzyme-matrix protein of Drosophila development.


Peroxidasin is a novel protein combining peroxidase and extracellular matrix motifs. Hemocytes differentiate early from head mesoderm, make peroxidasin and later phagocytose apoptotic cells. As hemocytes spread throughout the embryo, they synthesize extracellular matrix and peroxidasin, incorporating it into completed basement membranes. Cultured cells secrete peroxidasin; it occurs in larvae and adults. Each 1512 residue chain of the three-armed, disulfide-linked homotrimer combines a peroxidase domain with six leucine-rich regions, four Ig loops, a thrombospondin/procollagen homology and an amphipathic alpha-helix. The peroxidase domain is homologous with human myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. This heme protein catalyzes H2O2-driven radioiodinations, oxidations and formation of dityrosine. We propose that peroxidasin functions uniquely in extracellular matrix consolidation, phagocytosis and defense.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abrams JM, Lux A, Steller H, Krieger M. Macrophages in Drosophila embryos and L2 cells exhibit scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Nov 1;89(21):10375–10379. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Abrams JM, White K, Fessler LI, Steller H. Programmed cell death during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development. 1993 Jan;117(1):29–43. [PubMed]
  • Baenziger J, Kornfeld S. Structure of the carbohydrate units of IgA1 immunoglobulin. II. Structure of the O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharide units. J Biol Chem. 1974 Nov 25;249(22):7270–7281. [PubMed]
  • Beck K, Dixon TW, Engel J, Parry DA. Ionic interactions in the coiled-coil domain of laminin determine the specificity of chain assembly. J Mol Biol. 1993 May 20;231(2):311–323. [PubMed]
  • Blumberg B, MacKrell AJ, Olson PF, Kurkinen M, Monson JM, Natzle JE, Fessler JH. Basement membrane procollagen IV and its specialized carboxyl domain are conserved in Drosophila, mouse, and human. J Biol Chem. 1987 May 5;262(13):5947–5950. [PubMed]
  • Blumberg B, Wright CV, De Robertis EM, Cho KW. Organizer-specific homeobox genes in Xenopus laevis embryos. Science. 1991 Jul 12;253(5016):194–196. [PubMed]
  • Bornstein P. Thrombospondins: structure and regulation of expression. FASEB J. 1992 Nov;6(14):3290–3299. [PubMed]
  • Brown NH. Integrins hold Drosophila together. Bioessays. 1993 Jun;15(6):383–390. [PubMed]
  • Bunch TA, Brower DL. Drosophila cell adhesion molecules. Curr Top Dev Biol. 1993;28:81–123. [PubMed]
  • Campbell AG, Fessler LI, Salo T, Fessler JH. Papilin: a Drosophila proteoglycan-like sulfated glycoprotein from basement membranes. J Biol Chem. 1987 Dec 25;262(36):17605–17612. [PubMed]
  • Davis JQ, McLaughlin T, Bennett V. Ankyrin-binding proteins related to nervous system cell adhesion molecules: candidates to provide transmembrane and intercellular connections in adult brain. J Cell Biol. 1993 Apr;121(1):121–133. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Deits T, Farrance M, Kay ES, Medill L, Turner EE, Weidman PJ, Shapiro BM. Purification and properties of ovoperoxidase, the enzyme responsible for hardening the fertilization membrane of the sea urchin egg. J Biol Chem. 1984 Nov 10;259(21):13525–13533. [PubMed]
  • Dutta C, Henry HL. Detection of hemoprotein peroxidase activity on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. Anal Biochem. 1990 Jan;184(1):96–99. [PubMed]
  • Fessler JH, Fessler LI. Drosophila extracellular matrix. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1989;5:309–339. [PubMed]
  • Foerder CA, Shapiro BM. Release of ovoperoxidase from sea urchin eggs hardens the fertilization membrane with tyrosine crosslinks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Oct;74(10):4214–4218. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Giorgi F, Deri P. Cytochemistry of late ovarian chambers of Drosophila melanogaster. Histochemistry. 1976 Sep 13;48(4):325–334. [PubMed]
  • Gullberg D, Fessler LI, Fessler JH. Differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, and integrin assembly by Drosophila embryo cells cultured on vitronectin and laminin substrates. Dev Dyn. 1994 Feb;199(2):116–128. [PubMed]
  • Hall HG. Hardening of the sea urchin fertilization envelope by peroxidase-catalyzed phenolic coupling of tyrosines. Cell. 1978 Oct;15(2):343–355. [PubMed]
  • Heinecke JW, Li W, Daehnke HL, 3rd, Goldstein JA. Dityrosine, a specific marker of oxidation, is synthesized by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide system of human neutrophils and macrophages. J Biol Chem. 1993 Feb 25;268(6):4069–4077. [PubMed]
  • Hortsch M, Goodman CS. Cell and substrate adhesion molecules in Drosophila. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1991;7:505–557. [PubMed]
  • Hultmark D. Immune reactions in Drosophila and other insects: a model for innate immunity. Trends Genet. 1993 May;9(5):178–183. [PubMed]
  • Krieger M, Abrams JM, Lux A, Steller H. Molecular flypaper, atherosclerosis, and host defense: structure and function of the macrophage scavenger receptor. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1992;57:605–609. [PubMed]
  • Kusche-Gullberg M, Garrison K, MacKrell AJ, Fessler LI, Fessler JH. Laminin A chain: expression during Drosophila development and genomic sequence. EMBO J. 1992 Dec;11(12):4519–4527. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LeGendre N, Matsudaira P. Direct protein microsequencing from Immobilon-P Transfer Membrane. Biotechniques. 1988 Feb;6(2):154–159. [PubMed]
  • Lunstrum GP, Bächinger HP, Fessler LI, Duncan KG, Nelson RE, Fessler JH. Drosophila basement membrane procollagen IV. I. Protein characterization and distribution. J Biol Chem. 1988 Dec 5;263(34):18318–18327. [PubMed]
  • Margolis RK, Margolis RU. Nervous tissue proteoglycans. Experientia. 1993 May 15;49(5):429–446. [PubMed]
  • Morris NP, Keene DR, Glanville RW, Bentz H, Burgeson RE. The tissue form of type VII collagen is an antiparallel dimer. J Biol Chem. 1986 Apr 25;261(12):5638–5644. [PubMed]
  • Nath J, Ohno Y, Gallin JI, Wright DG. A novel post-translational incorporation of tyrosine into multiple proteins in activated human neutrophils. Correlation with phagocytosis and activation of the NADPH oxidase-mediated respiratory burst. J Immunol. 1992 Nov 15;149(10):3360–3371. [PubMed]
  • Ng SW, Wiedemann M, Kontermann R, Petersen G. Molecular characterization of a putative peroxidase gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Dec 29;1171(2):224–228. [PubMed]
  • Olson PF, Fessler LI, Nelson RE, Sterne RE, Campbell AG, Fessler JH. Glutactin, a novel Drosophila basement membrane-related glycoprotein with sequence similarity to serine esterases. EMBO J. 1990 Apr;9(4):1219–1227. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Petri WH, Wyman AR, Kafatos FC. Specific protein synthesis in cellular differentiation. III. The eggshell proteins of Drosophila melanogaster and their program of synthesis. Dev Biol. 1976 Mar;49(1):185–199. [PubMed]
  • Pierce GB, Parchment RE, Lewellyn AL. Hydrogen peroxide as a mediator of programmed cell death in the blastocyst. Differentiation. 1991 Apr;46(3):181–186. [PubMed]
  • Prochownik EV, O'Rourke K, Dixit VM. Expression and analysis of COOH-terminal deletions of the human thrombospondin molecule. J Cell Biol. 1989 Aug;109(2):843–852. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pulido D, Campuzano S, Koda T, Modolell J, Barbacid M. Dtrk, a Drosophila gene related to the trk family of neurotrophin receptors, encodes a novel class of neural cell adhesion molecule. EMBO J. 1992 Feb;11(2):391–404. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rao Y, Wu XF, Gariepy J, Rutishauser U, Siu CH. Identification of a peptide sequence involved in homophilic binding in the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. J Cell Biol. 1992 Aug;118(4):937–949. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rogalski TM, Williams BD, Mullen GP, Moerman DG. Products of the unc-52 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans are homologous to the core protein of the mammalian basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Genes Dev. 1993 Aug;7(8):1471–1484. [PubMed]
  • Rothberg JM, Jacobs JR, Goodman CS, Artavanis-Tsakonas S. slit: an extracellular protein necessary for development of midline glia and commissural axon pathways contains both EGF and LRR domains. Genes Dev. 1990 Dec;4(12A):2169–2187. [PubMed]
  • Schneider R, Schweiger M. A novel modular mosaic of cell adhesion motifs in the extracellular domains of the neurogenic trk and trkB tyrosine kinase receptors. Oncogene. 1991 Oct;6(10):1807–1811. [PubMed]
  • Sottile J, Selegue J, Mosher DF. Synthesis of truncated amino-terminal trimers of thrombospondin. Biochemistry. 1991 Jul 2;30(26):6556–6562. [PubMed]
  • Toraño A, Putnam FW. Complete amino acid sequence of the alpha 2 heavy chain of a human IgA2 immunoglobulin of the A2m (2) allotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Feb;75(2):966–969. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turner ML. Cell adhesion molecules: a unifying approach to topographic biology. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 1992 Aug;67(3):359–377. [PubMed]
  • Volk T, Fessler LI, Fessler JH. A role for integrin in the formation of sarcomeric cytoarchitecture. Cell. 1990 Nov 2;63(3):525–536. [PubMed]
  • Weidman PJ, Shapiro BM. Regulation of extracellular matrix assembly: in vitro reconstitution of a partial fertilization envelope from isolated components. J Cell Biol. 1987 Jul;105(1):561–567. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wright CV, Morita EA, Wilkin DJ, De Robertis EM. The Xenopus XIHbox 6 homeo protein, a marker of posterior neural induction, is expressed in proliferating neurons. Development. 1990 May;109(1):225–234. [PubMed]
  • Zeng J, Fenna RE. X-ray crystal structure of canine myeloperoxidase at 3 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1992 Jul 5;226(1):185–207. [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Conserved Domains
    Conserved Domains
    Link to related CDD entry
  • Gene
    Gene links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • HomoloGene
    HomoloGene links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...