• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. Feb 1, 1994; 13(3): 595–605.
PMCID: PMC394849

Identification of a novel vertebrate cyclin: cyclin B3 shares properties with both A- and B-type cyclins.

Abstract

Cyclins play a key role in controlling progression through the cell cycle. They act as regulatory subunits of p34cdc2/CDC28 and related cyclin-dependent protein kinases (cdks). In vertebrates, cyclins B1 and B2 function during M phase, whereas cyclin A is required for S phase as well as the G2 to M phase transition. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a novel vertebrate cyclin, termed cyclin B3. The assignment of this cyclin to the B-type subfamily is based on its cDNA-derived sequence and its pattern of expression in synchronized cells, both suggesting a distant relationship to other B-type cyclins. Interestingly, however, cyclin B3 also displays properties that resemble those of A- rather than B-type cyclins. Specifically, cyclin B3 localizes to the cell nucleus throughout the cell cycle, and is able to associate in vivo with at least two kinase subunits, p34cdc2 and p33cdk2. Furthermore, deletion of 26 amino acids from the C-terminus of cyclin B3 impairs both its interaction with kinase catalytic subunits and its nuclear localization, reminiscent of recent results obtained with cyclin A. Based on these observations, we conclude that cyclin B3 may share functional properties with both A- and B-type cyclins.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bailly E, Pines J, Hunter T, Bornens M. Cytoplasmic accumulation of cyclin B1 in human cells: association with a detergent-resistant compartment and with the centrosome. J Cell Sci. 1992 Mar;101(Pt 3):529–545. [PubMed]
  • Bandara LR, Adamczewski JP, Hunt T, La Thangue NB. Cyclin A and the retinoblastoma gene product complex with a common transcription factor. Nature. 1991 Jul 18;352(6332):249–251. [PubMed]
  • Bandara LR, Adamczewski JP, Zamanian M, Poon RY, Hunt T, Thangue NB. Cyclin A recruits p33cdk2 to the cellular transcription factor DRTF1. J Cell Sci Suppl. 1992;16:77–85. [PubMed]
  • Behra R, Christen P, Sonderegger P. Independent quantitation of the mitochondrial and the cytosolic isoenzyme of aspartate aminotransferase in chicken tissues by radioimmunoassays. J Biol Chem. 1981 Apr 10;256(7):3381–3384. [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Bréchot C. Oncogenic activation of cyclin A. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993 Feb;3(1):11–18. [PubMed]
  • Breitbart RE, Andreadis A, Nadal-Ginard B. Alternative splicing: a ubiquitous mechanism for the generation of multiple protein isoforms from single genes. Annu Rev Biochem. 1987;56:467–495. [PubMed]
  • Buendia B, Clarke PR, Félix MA, Karsenti E, Leiss D, Verde F. Regulation of protein kinases associated with cyclin A and cyclin B and their effect on microtubule dynamics and nucleation in Xenopus egg extracts. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1991;56:523–532. [PubMed]
  • Buendia B, Draetta G, Karsenti E. Regulation of the microtubule nucleating activity of centrosomes in Xenopus egg extracts: role of cyclin A-associated protein kinase. J Cell Biol. 1992 Mar;116(6):1431–1442. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cao L, Faha B, Dembski M, Tsai LH, Harlow E, Dyson N. Independent binding of the retinoblastoma protein and p107 to the transcription factor E2F. Nature. 1992 Jan 9;355(6356):176–179. [PubMed]
  • Chen C, Okayama H. High-efficiency transformation of mammalian cells by plasmid DNA. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Aug;7(8):2745–2752. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Clarke PR, Leiss D, Pagano M, Karsenti E. Cyclin A- and cyclin B-dependent protein kinases are regulated by different mechanisms in Xenopus egg extracts. EMBO J. 1992 May;11(5):1751–1761. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Devoto SH, Mudryj M, Pines J, Hunter T, Nevins JR. A cyclin A-protein kinase complex possesses sequence-specific DNA binding activity: p33cdk2 is a component of the E2F-cyclin A complex. Cell. 1992 Jan 10;68(1):167–176. [PubMed]
  • Dingwall C, Laskey RA. Nuclear targeting sequences--a consensus? Trends Biochem Sci. 1991 Dec;16(12):478–481. [PubMed]
  • Draetta G. Cdc2 activation: the interplay of cyclin binding and Thr161 phosphorylation. Trends Cell Biol. 1993 Sep;3(9):287–289. [PubMed]
  • Dulić V, Lees E, Reed SI. Association of human cyclin E with a periodic G1-S phase protein kinase. Science. 1992 Sep 25;257(5078):1958–1961. [PubMed]
  • Epstein CB, Cross FR. CLB5: a novel B cyclin from budding yeast with a role in S phase. Genes Dev. 1992 Sep;6(9):1695–1706. [PubMed]
  • Evan GI, Lewis GK, Ramsay G, Bishop JM. Isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for human c-myc proto-oncogene product. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Dec;5(12):3610–3616. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Evans T, Rosenthal ET, Youngblom J, Distel D, Hunt T. Cyclin: a protein specified by maternal mRNA in sea urchin eggs that is destroyed at each cleavage division. Cell. 1983 Jun;33(2):389–396. [PubMed]
  • Ewen ME, Faha B, Harlow E, Livingston DM. Interaction of p107 with cyclin A independent of complex formation with viral oncoproteins. Science. 1992 Jan 3;255(5040):85–87. [PubMed]
  • Faha B, Ewen ME, Tsai LH, Livingston DM, Harlow E. Interaction between human cyclin A and adenovirus E1A-associated p107 protein. Science. 1992 Jan 3;255(5040):87–90. [PubMed]
  • Fang F, Newport JW. Evidence that the G1-S and G2-M transitions are controlled by different cdc2 proteins in higher eukaryotes. Cell. 1991 Aug 23;66(4):731–742. [PubMed]
  • Fitch I, Dahmann C, Surana U, Amon A, Nasmyth K, Goetsch L, Byers B, Futcher B. Characterization of four B-type cyclin genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 1992 Jul;3(7):805–818. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Forsburg SL, Nurse P. Cell cycle regulation in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1991;7:227–256. [PubMed]
  • Gabrielli BG, Roy LM, Maller JL. Requirement for Cdk2 in cytostatic factor-mediated metaphase II arrest. Science. 1993 Mar 19;259(5102):1766–1769. [PubMed]
  • Galaktionov K, Beach D. Specific activation of cdc25 tyrosine phosphatases by B-type cyclins: evidence for multiple roles of mitotic cyclins. Cell. 1991 Dec 20;67(6):1181–1194. [PubMed]
  • Gallant P, Nigg EA. Cyclin B2 undergoes cell cycle-dependent nuclear translocation and, when expressed as a non-destructible mutant, causes mitotic arrest in HeLa cells. J Cell Biol. 1992 Apr;117(1):213–224. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gautier J, Maller JL. Cyclin B in Xenopus oocytes: implications for the mechanism of pre-MPF activation. EMBO J. 1991 Jan;10(1):177–182. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ghiara JB, Richardson HE, Sugimoto K, Henze M, Lew DJ, Wittenberg C, Reed SI. A cyclin B homolog in S. cerevisiae: chronic activation of the Cdc28 protein kinase by cyclin prevents exit from mitosis. Cell. 1991 Apr 5;65(1):163–174. [PubMed]
  • Giordano A, Whyte P, Harlow E, Franza BR, Jr, Beach D, Draetta G. A 60 kd cdc2-associated polypeptide complexes with the E1A proteins in adenovirus-infected cells. Cell. 1989 Sep 8;58(5):981–990. [PubMed]
  • Girard F, Strausfeld U, Fernandez A, Lamb NJ. Cyclin A is required for the onset of DNA replication in mammalian fibroblasts. Cell. 1991 Dec 20;67(6):1169–1179. [PubMed]
  • Glotzer M, Murray AW, Kirschner MW. Cyclin is degraded by the ubiquitin pathway. Nature. 1991 Jan 10;349(6305):132–138. [PubMed]
  • Grandin N, Reed SI. Differential function and expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae B-type cyclins in mitosis and meiosis. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Apr;13(4):2113–2125. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hamaguchi JR, Tobey RA, Pines J, Crissman HA, Hunter T, Bradbury EM. Requirement for p34cdc2 kinase is restricted to mitosis in the mammalian cdc2 mutant FT210. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jun;117(5):1041–1053. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Harris NL, Senapathy P. Distribution and consensus of branch point signals in eukaryotic genes: a computerized statistical analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 May 25;18(10):3015–3019. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hunt T. Cyclins and their partners: from a simple idea to complicated reality. Semin Cell Biol. 1991 Aug;2(4):213–222. [PubMed]
  • Hunt T, Luca FC, Ruderman JV. The requirements for protein synthesis and degradation, and the control of destruction of cyclins A and B in the meiotic and mitotic cell cycles of the clam embryo. J Cell Biol. 1992 Feb;116(3):707–724. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hunter T, Pines J. Cyclins and cancer. Cell. 1991 Sep 20;66(6):1071–1074. [PubMed]
  • Knoblich JA, Lehner CF. Synergistic action of Drosophila cyclins A and B during the G2-M transition. EMBO J. 1993 Jan;12(1):65–74. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kobayashi H, Minshull J, Ford C, Golsteyn R, Poon R, Hunt T. On the synthesis and destruction of A- and B-type cyclins during oogenesis and meiotic maturation in Xenopus laevis. J Cell Biol. 1991 Aug;114(4):755–765. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kobayashi H, Golsteyn R, Poon R, Stewart E, Gannon J, Minshull J, Smith R, Hunt T. Cyclins and their partners during Xenopus oocyte maturation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1991;56:437–447. [PubMed]
  • Koff A, Cross F, Fisher A, Schumacher J, Leguellec K, Philippe M, Roberts JM. Human cyclin E, a new cyclin that interacts with two members of the CDC2 gene family. Cell. 1991 Sep 20;66(6):1217–1228. [PubMed]
  • Krek W, Nigg EA. Differential phosphorylation of vertebrate p34cdc2 kinase at the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the cell cycle: identification of major phosphorylation sites. EMBO J. 1991 Feb;10(2):305–316. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krek W, Nigg EA. Mutations of p34cdc2 phosphorylation sites induce premature mitotic events in HeLa cells: evidence for a double block to p34cdc2 kinase activation in vertebrates. EMBO J. 1991 Nov;10(11):3331–3341. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krek W, Maridor G, Nigg EA. Casein kinase II is a predominantly nuclear enzyme. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jan;116(1):43–55. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kühne C, Linder P. A new pair of B-type cyclins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that function early in the cell cycle. EMBO J. 1993 Sep;12(9):3437–3447. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lees E, Faha B, Dulic V, Reed SI, Harlow E. Cyclin E/cdk2 and cyclin A/cdk2 kinases associate with p107 and E2F in a temporally distinct manner. Genes Dev. 1992 Oct;6(10):1874–1885. [PubMed]
  • Lehner CF, O'Farrell PH. Expression and function of Drosophila cyclin A during embryonic cell cycle progression. Cell. 1989 Mar 24;56(6):957–968. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lehner CF, O'Farrell PH. The roles of Drosophila cyclins A and B in mitotic control. Cell. 1990 May 4;61(3):535–547. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lehner CF, Kurer V, Eppenberger HM, Nigg EA. The nuclear lamin protein family in higher vertebrates. Identification of quantitatively minor lamin proteins by monoclonal antibodies. J Biol Chem. 1986 Oct 5;261(28):13293–13301. [PubMed]
  • Lew DJ, I Reed S. A proliferation of cyclins. Trends Cell Biol. 1992 Mar;2(3):77–81. [PubMed]
  • Lew DJ, Dulić V, Reed SI. Isolation of three novel human cyclins by rescue of G1 cyclin (Cln) function in yeast. Cell. 1991 Sep 20;66(6):1197–1206. [PubMed]
  • Lorca T, Labbé JC, Devault A, Fesquet D, Strausfeld U, Nilsson J, Nygren PA, Uhlen M, Cavadore JC, Dorée M. Cyclin A-cdc2 kinase does not trigger but delays cyclin degradation in interphase extracts of amphibian eggs. J Cell Sci. 1992 May;102(Pt 1):55–62. [PubMed]
  • Luca FC, Shibuya EK, Dohrmann CE, Ruderman JV. Both cyclin A delta 60 and B delta 97 are stable and arrest cells in M-phase, but only cyclin B delta 97 turns on cyclin destruction. EMBO J. 1991 Dec;10(13):4311–4320. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maridor G, Gallant P, Golsteyn R, Nigg EA. Nuclear localization of vertebrate cyclin A correlates with its ability to form complexes with cdk catalytic subunits. J Cell Sci. 1993 Oct;106(Pt 2):535–544. [PubMed]
  • Meijer L, Arion D, Golsteyn R, Pines J, Brizuela L, Hunt T, Beach D. Cyclin is a component of the sea urchin egg M-phase specific histone H1 kinase. EMBO J. 1989 Aug;8(8):2275–2282. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Minshull J, Blow JJ, Hunt T. Translation of cyclin mRNA is necessary for extracts of activated xenopus eggs to enter mitosis. Cell. 1989 Mar 24;56(6):947–956. [PubMed]
  • Minshull J, Golsteyn R, Hill CS, Hunt T. The A- and B-type cyclin associated cdc2 kinases in Xenopus turn on and off at different times in the cell cycle. EMBO J. 1990 Sep;9(9):2865–2875. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Motokura T, Arnold A. Cyclin D and oncogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993 Feb;3(1):5–10. [PubMed]
  • Motokura T, Keyomarsi K, Kronenberg HM, Arnold A. Cloning and characterization of human cyclin D3, a cDNA closely related in sequence to the PRAD1/cyclin D1 proto-oncogene. J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 5;267(28):20412–20415. [PubMed]
  • Mudryj M, Devoto SH, Hiebert SW, Hunter T, Pines J, Nevins JR. Cell cycle regulation of the E2F transcription factor involves an interaction with cyclin A. Cell. 1991 Jun 28;65(7):1243–1253. [PubMed]
  • Murray AW. Creative blocks: cell-cycle checkpoints and feedback controls. Nature. 1992 Oct 15;359(6396):599–604. [PubMed]
  • Nasmyth K. Control of the yeast cell cycle by the Cdc28 protein kinase. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1993 Apr;5(2):166–179. [PubMed]
  • Nigg EA, Gallant P, Krek W. Regulation of p34cdc2 protein kinase activity by phosphorylation and cyclin binding. Ciba Found Symp. 1992;170:72–96. [PubMed]
  • Norbury C, Nurse P. Animal cell cycles and their control. Annu Rev Biochem. 1992;61:441–470. [PubMed]
  • Norbury C, Blow J, Nurse P. Regulatory phosphorylation of the p34cdc2 protein kinase in vertebrates. EMBO J. 1991 Nov;10(11):3321–3329. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ookata K, Hisanaga S, Okano T, Tachibana K, Kishimoto T. Relocation and distinct subcellular localization of p34cdc2-cyclin B complex at meiosis reinitiation in starfish oocytes. EMBO J. 1992 May;11(5):1763–1772. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Padgett RA, Grabowski PJ, Konarska MM, Seiler S, Sharp PA. Splicing of messenger RNA precursors. Annu Rev Biochem. 1986;55:1119–1150. [PubMed]
  • Pagano M, Pepperkok R, Verde F, Ansorge W, Draetta G. Cyclin A is required at two points in the human cell cycle. EMBO J. 1992 Mar;11(3):961–971. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pagano M, Draetta G, Jansen-Dürr P. Association of cdk2 kinase with the transcription factor E2F during S phase. Science. 1992 Feb 28;255(5048):1144–1147. [PubMed]
  • Pagano M, Pepperkok R, Lukas J, Baldin V, Ansorge W, Bartek J, Draetta G. Regulation of the cell cycle by the cdk2 protein kinase in cultured human fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 1993 Apr;121(1):101–111. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Palmero I, Holder A, Sinclair AJ, Dickson C, Peters G. Cyclins D1 and D2 are differentially expressed in human B-lymphoid cell lines. Oncogene. 1993 Apr;8(4):1049–1054. [PubMed]
  • Peeper DS, Parker LL, Ewen ME, Toebes M, Hall FL, Xu M, Zantema A, van der Eb AJ, Piwnica-Worms H. A- and B-type cyclins differentially modulate substrate specificity of cyclin-cdk complexes. EMBO J. 1993 May;12(5):1947–1954. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pines J. Cyclins: wheels within wheels. Cell Growth Differ. 1991 Jun;2(6):305–310. [PubMed]
  • Pines J. Cell proliferation and control. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1992 Apr;4(2):144–148. [PubMed]
  • Pines J. Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases: take your partners. Trends Biochem Sci. 1993 Jun;18(6):195–197. [PubMed]
  • Pines J, Hunter T. Isolation of a human cyclin cDNA: evidence for cyclin mRNA and protein regulation in the cell cycle and for interaction with p34cdc2. Cell. 1989 Sep 8;58(5):833–846. [PubMed]
  • Pines J, Hunter T. Human cyclin A is adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60 and behaves differently from cyclin B. Nature. 1990 Aug 23;346(6286):760–763. [PubMed]
  • Pines J, Hunter T. Human cyclins A and B1 are differentially located in the cell and undergo cell cycle-dependent nuclear transport. J Cell Biol. 1991 Oct;115(1):1–17. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reed SI. G1-specific cyclins: in search of an S-phase-promoting factor. Trends Genet. 1991 Mar;7(3):95–99. [PubMed]
  • Riabowol K, Draetta G, Brizuela L, Vandre D, Beach D. The cdc2 kinase is a nuclear protein that is essential for mitosis in mammalian cells. Cell. 1989 May 5;57(3):393–401. [PubMed]
  • Richardson H, Lew DJ, Henze M, Sugimoto K, Reed SI. Cyclin-B homologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function in S phase and in G2. Genes Dev. 1992 Nov;6(11):2021–2034. [PubMed]
  • Rosenblatt J, Gu Y, Morgan DO. Human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 is activated during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and associates with cyclin A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Apr 1;89(7):2824–2828. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sap J, Muñoz A, Damm K, Goldberg Y, Ghysdael J, Leutz A, Beug H, Vennström B. The c-erb-A protein is a high-affinity receptor for thyroid hormone. Nature. 1986 Dec 18;324(6098):635–640. [PubMed]
  • Schwob E, Nasmyth K. CLB5 and CLB6, a new pair of B cyclins involved in DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1993 Jul;7(7A):1160–1175. [PubMed]
  • Sherr CJ. Mammalian G1 cyclins. Cell. 1993 Jun 18;73(6):1059–1065. [PubMed]
  • Shirodkar S, Ewen M, DeCaprio JA, Morgan J, Livingston DM, Chittenden T. The transcription factor E2F interacts with the retinoblastoma product and a p107-cyclin A complex in a cell cycle-regulated manner. Cell. 1992 Jan 10;68(1):157–166. [PubMed]
  • Solomon MJ. Activation of the various cyclin/cdc2 protein kinases. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1993 Apr;5(2):180–186. [PubMed]
  • Standart N, Minshull J, Pines J, Hunt T. Cyclin synthesis, modification and destruction during meiotic maturation of the starfish oocyte. Dev Biol. 1987 Nov;124(1):248–258. [PubMed]
  • Studier FW, Rosenberg AH, Dunn JJ, Dubendorff JW. Use of T7 RNA polymerase to direct expression of cloned genes. Methods Enzymol. 1990;185:60–89. [PubMed]
  • Surana U, Robitsch H, Price C, Schuster T, Fitch I, Futcher AB, Nasmyth K. The role of CDC28 and cyclins during mitosis in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Cell. 1991 Apr 5;65(1):145–161. [PubMed]
  • Swenson KI, Farrell KM, Ruderman JV. The clam embryo protein cyclin A induces entry into M phase and the resumption of meiosis in Xenopus oocytes. Cell. 1986 Dec 26;47(6):861–870. [PubMed]
  • Th'ng JP, Wright PS, Hamaguchi J, Lee MG, Norbury CJ, Nurse P, Bradbury EM. The FT210 cell line is a mouse G2 phase mutant with a temperature-sensitive CDC2 gene product. Cell. 1990 Oct 19;63(2):313–324. [PubMed]
  • Thomas L, Clarke PR, Pagano M, Gruenberg J. Inhibition of membrane fusion in vitro via cyclin B but not cyclin A. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 25;267(9):6183–6187. [PubMed]
  • van Loon AE, Colas P, Goedemans HJ, Néant I, Dalbon P, Guerrier P. The role of cyclins in the maturation of Patella vulgata oocytes. EMBO J. 1991 Nov;10(11):3343–3349. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Verde F, Dogterom M, Stelzer E, Karsenti E, Leibler S. Control of microtubule dynamics and length by cyclin A- and cyclin B-dependent kinases in Xenopus egg extracts. J Cell Biol. 1992 Sep;118(5):1097–1108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Walker DH, Maller JL. Role for cyclin A in the dependence of mitosis on completion of DNA replication. Nature. 1991 Nov 28;354(6351):314–317. [PubMed]
  • Wang J, Chenivesse X, Henglein B, Bréchot C. Hepatitis B virus integration in a cyclin A gene in a hepatocellular carcinoma. Nature. 1990 Feb 8;343(6258):555–557. [PubMed]
  • Westendorf JM, Swenson KI, Ruderman JV. The role of cyclin B in meiosis I. J Cell Biol. 1989 Apr;108(4):1431–1444. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Whitfield WG, Gonzalez C, Maldonado-Codina G, Glover DM. The A- and B-type cyclins of Drosophila are accumulated and destroyed in temporally distinct events that define separable phases of the G2-M transition. EMBO J. 1990 Aug;9(8):2563–2572. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xiong Y, Beach D. Population explosion in the cyclin family. Curr Biol. 1991 Dec;1(6):362–364. [PubMed]
  • Xiong Y, Connolly T, Futcher B, Beach D. Human D-type cyclin. Cell. 1991 May 17;65(4):691–699. [PubMed]
  • Zindy F, Lamas E, Chenivesse X, Sobczak J, Wang J, Fesquet D, Henglein B, Bréchot C. Cyclin A is required in S phase in normal epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Feb 14;182(3):1144–1154. [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...