• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. Dec 1, 1995; 14(23): 5957–5964.
PMCID: PMC394715

Induction of c-fos expression through JNK-mediated TCF/Elk-1 phosphorylation.

Abstract

Growth factors induce c-fos transcription by stimulating phosphorylation of transcription factor TCF/Elk-1, which binds to the serum response element (SRE). Under such conditions Elk-1 could be phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1 and ERK2. However, c-fos transcription and SRE activity are also induced by stimuli, such as UV irradiation and activation of the protein kinase MEKK1, that cause only an insignificant increase in ERK1/2 activity. However, both of these stimuli strongly activate two other MAPKs, JNK1 and JNK2, and stimulate Elk-1 transcriptional activity and phosphorylation. We find that the JNKs are the predominant Elk-1 activation domain kinases in extracts of UV-irradiated cells and that immunopurified JNK1/2 phosphorylate Elk-1 on the same major sites recognized by ERK1/2, that potentiate its transcriptional activity. Finally, we show that UV irradiation, but not serum or phorbol esters, stimulate translocation of JNK1 to the nucleus. As Elk-1 is most likely phosphorylated while bound to the c-fos promoter, these results suggest that UV irradiation and MEKK1 activation stimulate TCF/Elk-1 activity through JNK activation, while growth factors induce c-fos through ERK activation.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Boyle WJ, van der Geer P, Hunter T. Phosphopeptide mapping and phosphoamino acid analysis by two-dimensional separation on thin-layer cellulose plates. Methods Enzymol. 1991;201:110–149. [PubMed]
  • Büscher M, Rahmsdorf HJ, Litfin M, Karin M, Herrlich P. Activation of the c-fos gene by UV and phorbol ester: different signal transduction pathways converge to the same enhancer element. Oncogene. 1988 Sep;3(3):301–311. [PubMed]
  • Darnell JE, Jr, Kerr IM, Stark GR. Jak-STAT pathways and transcriptional activation in response to IFNs and other extracellular signaling proteins. Science. 1994 Jun 3;264(5164):1415–1421. [PubMed]
  • Dérijard B, Hibi M, Wu IH, Barrett T, Su B, Deng T, Karin M, Davis RJ. JNK1: a protein kinase stimulated by UV light and Ha-Ras that binds and phosphorylates the c-Jun activation domain. Cell. 1994 Mar 25;76(6):1025–1037. [PubMed]
  • Dérijard B, Raingeaud J, Barrett T, Wu IH, Han J, Ulevitch RJ, Davis RJ. Independent human MAP-kinase signal transduction pathways defined by MEK and MKK isoforms. Science. 1995 Feb 3;267(5198):682–685. [PubMed]
  • Devary Y, Gottlieb RA, Lau LF, Karin M. Rapid and preferential activation of the c-jun gene during the mammalian UV response. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 May;11(5):2804–2811. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DiDonato JA, Mercurio F, Karin M. Phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha precedes but is not sufficient for its dissociation from NF-kappa B. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Mar;15(3):1302–1311. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gille H, Sharrocks AD, Shaw PE. Phosphorylation of transcription factor p62TCF by MAP kinase stimulates ternary complex formation at c-fos promoter. Nature. 1992 Jul 30;358(6385):414–417. [PubMed]
  • Gille H, Kortenjann M, Thomae O, Moomaw C, Slaughter C, Cobb MH, Shaw PE. ERK phosphorylation potentiates Elk-1-mediated ternary complex formation and transactivation. EMBO J. 1995 Mar 1;14(5):951–962. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gonzalez FA, Seth A, Raden DL, Bowman DS, Fay FS, Davis RJ. Serum-induced translocation of mitogen-activated protein kinase to the cell surface ruffling membrane and the nucleus. J Cell Biol. 1993 Sep;122(5):1089–1101. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gupta S, Campbell D, Dérijard B, Davis RJ. Transcription factor ATF2 regulation by the JNK signal transduction pathway. Science. 1995 Jan 20;267(5196):389–393. [PubMed]
  • Hayes TE, Kitchen AM, Cochran BH. Inducible binding of a factor to the c-fos regulatory region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Mar;84(5):1272–1276. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Herrera RE, Shaw PE, Nordheim A. Occupation of the c-fos serum response element in vivo by a multi-protein complex is unaltered by growth factor induction. Nature. 1989 Jul 6;340(6228):68–70. [PubMed]
  • Hibi M, Lin A, Smeal T, Minden A, Karin M. Identification of an oncoprotein- and UV-responsive protein kinase that binds and potentiates the c-Jun activation domain. Genes Dev. 1993 Nov;7(11):2135–2148. [PubMed]
  • Hill CS, Treisman R. Transcriptional regulation by extracellular signals: mechanisms and specificity. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):199–211. [PubMed]
  • Hill CS, Marais R, John S, Wynne J, Dalton S, Treisman R. Functional analysis of a growth factor-responsive transcription factor complex. Cell. 1993 Apr 23;73(2):395–406. [PubMed]
  • Hipskind RA, Rao VN, Mueller CG, Reddy ES, Nordheim A. Ets-related protein Elk-1 is homologous to the c-fos regulatory factor p62TCF. Nature. 1991 Dec 19;354(6354):531–534. [PubMed]
  • Kallunki T, Su B, Tsigelny I, Sluss HK, Dérijard B, Moore G, Davis R, Karin M. JNK2 contains a specificity-determining region responsible for efficient c-Jun binding and phosphorylation. Genes Dev. 1994 Dec 15;8(24):2996–3007. [PubMed]
  • Karin M, Hunter T. Transcriptional control by protein phosphorylation: signal transmission from the cell surface to the nucleus. Curr Biol. 1995 Jul 1;5(7):747–757. [PubMed]
  • Kyriakis JM, Banerjee P, Nikolakaki E, Dai T, Rubie EA, Ahmad MF, Avruch J, Woodgett JR. The stress-activated protein kinase subfamily of c-Jun kinases. Nature. 1994 May 12;369(6476):156–160. [PubMed]
  • Lenormand P, Sardet C, Pagès G, L'Allemain G, Brunet A, Pouysségur J. Growth factors induce nuclear translocation of MAP kinases (p42mapk and p44mapk) but not of their activator MAP kinase kinase (p45mapkk) in fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 1993 Sep;122(5):1079–1088. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lillie JW, Green MR. Transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein. Nature. 1989 Mar 2;338(6210):39–44. [PubMed]
  • Lin A, Minden A, Martinetto H, Claret FX, Lange-Carter C, Mercurio F, Johnson GL, Karin M. Identification of a dual specificity kinase that activates the Jun kinases and p38-Mpk2. Science. 1995 Apr 14;268(5208):286–290. [PubMed]
  • Livingstone C, Patel G, Jones N. ATF-2 contains a phosphorylation-dependent transcriptional activation domain. EMBO J. 1995 Apr 18;14(8):1785–1797. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marais R, Wynne J, Treisman R. The SRF accessory protein Elk-1 contains a growth factor-regulated transcriptional activation domain. Cell. 1993 Apr 23;73(2):381–393. [PubMed]
  • Marshall CJ. Specificity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: transient versus sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):179–185. [PubMed]
  • Meyer TE, Habener JF. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) and related transcription-activating deoxyribonucleic acid-binding proteins. Endocr Rev. 1993 Jun;14(3):269–290. [PubMed]
  • Minden A, Lin A, McMahon M, Lange-Carter C, Dérijard B, Davis RJ, Johnson GL, Karin M. Differential activation of ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases by Raf-1 and MEKK. Science. 1994 Dec 9;266(5191):1719–1723. [PubMed]
  • Minden A, Lin A, Smeal T, Dérijard B, Cobb M, Davis R, Karin M. c-Jun N-terminal phosphorylation correlates with activation of the JNK subgroup but not the ERK subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Oct;14(10):6683–6688. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Price MA, Rogers AE, Treisman R. Comparative analysis of the ternary complex factors Elk-1, SAP-1a and SAP-2 (ERP/NET). EMBO J. 1995 Jun 1;14(11):2589–2601. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Radler-Pohl A, Sachsenmaier C, Gebel S, Auer HP, Bruder JT, Rapp U, Angel P, Rahmsdorf HJ, Herrlich P. UV-induced activation of AP-1 involves obligatory extranuclear steps including Raf-1 kinase. EMBO J. 1993 Mar;12(3):1005–1012. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rivera VM, Miranti CK, Misra RP, Ginty DD, Chen RH, Blenis J, Greenberg ME. A growth factor-induced kinase phosphorylates the serum response factor at a site that regulates its DNA-binding activity. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Oct;13(10):6260–6273. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sachsenmaier C, Radler-Pohl A, Zinck R, Nordheim A, Herrlich P, Rahmsdorf HJ. Involvement of growth factor receptors in the mammalian UVC response. Cell. 1994 Sep 23;78(6):963–972. [PubMed]
  • Sánchez I, Hughes RT, Mayer BJ, Yee K, Woodgett JR, Avruch J, Kyriakis JM, Zon LI. Role of SAPK/ERK kinase-1 in the stress-activated pathway regulating transcription factor c-Jun. Nature. 1994 Dec 22;372(6508):794–798. [PubMed]
  • Schreiber M, Baumann B, Cotten M, Angel P, Wagner EF. Fos is an essential component of the mammalian UV response. EMBO J. 1995 Nov 1;14(21):5338–5349. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Storrie B, Madden EA. Isolation of subcellular organelles. Methods Enzymol. 1990;182:203–225. [PubMed]
  • Su B, Jacinto E, Hibi M, Kallunki T, Karin M, Ben-Neriah Y. JNK is involved in signal integration during costimulation of T lymphocytes. Cell. 1994 Jun 3;77(5):727–736. [PubMed]
  • Treisman R. The serum response element. Trends Biochem Sci. 1992 Oct;17(10):423–426. [PubMed]
  • van Dam H, Duyndam M, Rottier R, Bosch A, de Vries-Smits L, Herrlich P, Zantema A, Angel P, van der Eb AJ. Heterodimer formation of cJun and ATF-2 is responsible for induction of c-jun by the 243 amino acid adenovirus E1A protein. EMBO J. 1993 Feb;12(2):479–487. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Dam H, Wilhelm D, Herr I, Steffen A, Herrlich P, Angel P. ATF-2 is preferentially activated by stress-activated protein kinases to mediate c-jun induction in response to genotoxic agents. EMBO J. 1995 Apr 18;14(8):1798–1811. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yan M, Dai T, Deak JC, Kyriakis JM, Zon LI, Woodgett JR, Templeton DJ. Activation of stress-activated protein kinase by MEKK1 phosphorylation of its activator SEK1. Nature. 1994 Dec 22;372(6508):798–800. [PubMed]
  • Zinck R, Hipskind RA, Pingoud V, Nordheim A. c-fos transcriptional activation and repression correlate temporally with the phosphorylation status of TCF. EMBO J. 1993 Jun;12(6):2377–2387. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...