• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Apr 1983; 80(7): 1816–1820.
PMCID: PMC393700

The distribution of interspersed repeats is nonuniform and conserved in the mouse and human genomes.


We investigated the genomic distribution of mouse and human repeated sequences by assessing their relative amounts in the four major components into which these genomes can be resolved by density gradient centrifugation techniques. These components are families of fragments that account for most or all of main-band DNAs, range in dG + dC content from 37% to 49%, and are derived by preparative breakage from long DNA segments (greater than 300 kb) of fairly homogeneous composition, the isochores. The results indicate that the short repeats of the B1 family of mouse and of the Alu I family of man are most frequent in the heavy components, whereas the long repeats of the BamHI family of mouse and of the Kpn I family of man are mainly present in the two light components. These results show that the genomic distribution of repeated sequences is nonuniform and conserved in two mammalian species. In addition, we observed that the base composition of two classes of repeats (60% dG + dC for short repeats; 39% dG + dC for long repeats) is correlated with the composition of the major components in which they are embedded. Finally, we obtained evidence that not only the short repeats but also the long repeats are transcribed, these transcripts having been found in mouse poly(A)+ mRNA.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Filipski J, Thiery JP, Bernardi G. An analysis of the bovine genome by Cs2SO4-Ag density gradient centrifugation. J Mol Biol. 1973 Oct 15;80(1):177–197. [PubMed]
  • Thiery JP, Macaya G, Bernardi G. An analysis of eukaryotic genomes by density gradient centrifugation. J Mol Biol. 1976 Nov;108(1):219–235. [PubMed]
  • Macaya G, Thiery JP, Bernardi G. An approach to the organization of eukaryotic genomes at a macromolecular level. J Mol Biol. 1976 Nov;108(1):237–254. [PubMed]
  • Cuny G, Soriano P, Macaya G, Bernardi G. The major components of the mouse and human genomes. 1. Preparation, basic properties and compositional heterogeneity. Eur J Biochem. 1981 Apr;115(2):227–233. [PubMed]
  • Soriano P, Macaya G, Bernardi G. The major components of the mouse and human genomes. 2. Reassociation kinetics. Eur J Biochem. 1981 Apr;115(2):235–239. [PubMed]
  • Olofsson B, Bernardi G. Organization of nucleotide sequences in the chicken genome. Eur J Biochem. 1983 Feb 1;130(2):241–245. [PubMed]
  • Singer MF. SINEs and LINEs: highly repeated short and long interspersed sequences in mammalian genomes. Cell. 1982 Mar;28(3):433–434. [PubMed]
  • Singer MF. Highly repeated sequences in mammalian genomes. Int Rev Cytol. 1982;76:67–112. [PubMed]
  • Meunier-Rotival M, Soriano P, Cuny G, Strauss F, Bernardi G. Sequence organization and genomic distribution of the major family of interspersed repeats of mouse DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Jan;79(2):355–359. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ramsey JC, Steele WJ. A procedure for the quantitative recovery of homogeneous populations of undegraded free and bound polysomes from rat liver. Biochemistry. 1976 Apr 20;15(8):1704–1712. [PubMed]
  • Dodemont HJ, Soriano P, Quax WJ, Ramaekers F, Lenstra JA, Groenen MA, Bernardi G, Bloemendal H. The genes coding for the cytoskeletal proteins actin and vimentin in warm-blooded vertebrates. EMBO J. 1982;1(2):167–171. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grunstein M, Hogness DS. Colony hybridization: a method for the isolation of cloned DNAs that contain a specific gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Oct;72(10):3961–3965. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rubin CM, Deininger PL, Houck CM, Schmid CW. A dimer satellite sequence in bonnet monkey DNA consists of distinct monomer subunits. J Mol Biol. 1980 Jan 15;136(2):151–167. [PubMed]
  • Grimaldi G, Queen C, Singer MF. Interspersed repeated sequences in the African green monkey genome that are homologous to the human Alu family. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Nov 11;9(21):5553–5568. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krayev AS, Kramerov DA, Skryabin KG, Ryskov AP, Bayev AA, Georgiev GP. The nucleotide sequence of the ubiquitous repetitive DNA sequence B1 complementary to the most abundant class of mouse fold-back RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1980 Mar 25;8(6):1201–1215. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brégégère F, Abastado JP, Kvist S, Rask L, Lalanne JL, Garoff H, Cami B, Wiman K, Larhammar D, Peterson PA, et al. Structure of C-terminal half of two H-2 antigens from cloned mRNA. Nature. 1981 Jul 2;292(5818):78–81. [PubMed]
  • Cortadas J, Macaya G, Bernardi G. An analysis of the bovine genome by density gradient centrifugation: fractionation in Cs2SO4/3,6-bis(acetatomercurimethyl)dioxane density gradient. Eur J Biochem. 1977 Jun 1;76(1):13–19. [PubMed]
  • Prunell A, Bernardi G. Fractionation of native and denatured deoxyribonucleic acid on agarose columns. J Biol Chem. 1973 May 25;248(10):3433–3440. [PubMed]
  • Eigner J, Doty P. The native, denatured and renatured states of deoxyribonucleic acid. J Mol Biol. 1965 Jul;12(3):549–580. [PubMed]
  • Cortadas J, Olofsson B, Meunier-Rotival M, Macaya G, Bernardi G. THE DNA components of the chicken genome. Eur J Biochem. 1979 Aug 15;99(1):179–186. [PubMed]
  • Southern EM. Long range periodicities in mouse satellite DNA. J Mol Biol. 1975 May 5;94(1):51–69. [PubMed]
  • Soriano P, Szabo P, Bernardi G. The scattered distribution of actin genes in the mouse and human genomes. EMBO J. 1982;1(5):579–583. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McMaster GK, Carmichael GG. Analysis of single- and double-stranded nucleic acids on polyacrylamide and agarose gels by using glyoxal and acridine orange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Nov;74(11):4835–4838. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thomas PS. Hybridization of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transferred to nitrocellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Sep;77(9):5201–5205. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cami B, Brégégère F, Abastado JP, Kourilsky P. Multiple sequences related to classical histocompatibility antigens in the mouse genome. Nature. 1981 Jun 25;291(5817):673–675. [PubMed]
  • Steinmetz M, Frelinger JG, Fisher D, Hunkapiller T, Pereira D, Weissman SM, Uehara H, Nathenson S, Hood L. Three cDNA clones encoding mouse transplantation antigens: homology to immunoglobulin genes. Cell. 1981 Apr;24(1):125–134. [PubMed]
  • Tashima M, Calabretta B, Torelli G, Scofield M, Maizel A, Saunders GF. Presence of a highly repetitive and widely dispersed DNA sequence in the human genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Mar;78(3):1508–1512. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Georgiev GP, Ilyin YV, Chmeliauskaite VG, Ryskov AP, Kramerov DA, Skryabin KG, Krayev AS, Lukanidin EM, Grigoryan MS. Mobile dispersed genetic elements and other middle repetitive DNA sequences in the genomes of Drosophila and mouse: transcription and biological significance. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1981;45(Pt 2):641–654. [PubMed]
  • Wu JC, Manuelidis L. Sequence definition and organization of a human repeated DNA. J Mol Biol. 1980 Sep 25;142(3):363–386. [PubMed]
  • Schmid CW, Jelinek WR. The Alu family of dispersed repetitive sequences. Science. 1982 Jun 4;216(4550):1065–1070. [PubMed]
  • Stumph WE, Kristo P, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW. A chicken middle-repetitive DNA sequence which shares homology with mammalian ubiquitous repeats. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Oct 24;9(20):5383–5397. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Manuelidis L. Chromosomal localization of complex and simple repeated human DNAs. Chromosoma. 1978 Mar 22;66(1):23–32. [PubMed]
  • Darling SM, Crampton JM, Williamson R. Organization of a family of highly repetitive sequences within the human genome. J Mol Biol. 1982 Jan 5;154(1):51–63. [PubMed]
  • Kramerov DA, Grigoryan AA, Ryskov AP, Georgiev GP. Long double-stranded sequences (dsRNA-B) of nuclear pre-mRNA consist of a few highly abundant classes of sequences: evidence from DNA cloning experiments. Nucleic Acids Res. 1979 Feb;6(2):697–713. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pan J, Elder JT, Duncan CH, Weissman SM. Structural analysis of interspersed repetitive polymerase III transcription units in human DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Mar 11;9(5):1151–1170. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...