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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Jan 1977; 74(1): 375–378.
PMCID: PMC393264

Development of the nervous system of Aplysia californica.

Abstract

The ability to grow the marine molluse Aplysia under laboratory conditions allows a detailed study of the formation of the nervous system and of the development of specific identified cells. I have found that the ganglia develop in a specific temporal order. Cerebral and pedal ganglia develop at hatching, the abdominal, pleural, and osphradial ganglia 3 weeks after hatching, and the buccal ganglia at 4 weeks. The origin of the abdominal ganglion is complex; its anlage forms at 3 weeks from three larval ganglia that fuse to form the abdominal ganglion. Individual cells cannot be distinguished from one another by their location within the ganglion or by their appearance alone until metamorphosis at 5 weeks. After metamorphosis, the identified neuron, R2, suddenly becomes recognizable because of a significant increase in its size.

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Selected References

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  • Kriegstein AR, Castellucci V, Kandel ER. Metamorphosis of Aplysia californica in laboratory culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Sep;71(9):3654–3658. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kupfermann I, Kandel ER. Electrophysiological properties and functional interconnections of two symmetrical neurosecretory clusters (bag cells) in abdominal ganglion of Aplysia. J Neurophysiol. 1970 Nov;33(6):865–876. [PubMed]
  • Giller E, Jr, Schwartz JH. Acetylcholinesterase in identified neurons of abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. J Neurophysiol. 1971 Jan;34(1):108–115. [PubMed]
  • HUGHES GM, TAUC L. AN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE ANATOMICAL RELATIONS OF TWO GIANT NERVE CELLS IN APLYSIA DEPILANS. J Exp Biol. 1963 Sep;40:469–486. [PubMed]

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