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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Jul; 75(7): 3050–3054.
PMCID: PMC392711

ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins catalyzed by cholera toxin: basis of the activation of adenylate cyclase.


In the presence of ATP and a cytosolic factor, cholera toxin fragment A1 catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to a number of soluble and membrane-bound proteins of the pigeon erythrocyte. Evidence is presented that suggests that the most readily modified membrane protein (Mr 42,000) is the adenylate cyclase-associated GTP-binding protein. Its modification by toxin is stimulated by guanine nucleotides. Adenylate cyclase activity increases in parallel with the addition of ADP-ribose to this protein and decreases in parallel with the subsequent reversal of ADP-ribosylation by toxin and nicotinamide. The protein is only accessible to toxin A subunits if the erythrocytes are lysed. When adenylate cyclase activity reaches a maximum, the number of ADP-ribose residues bound to this protein (about 1500 per cell) is similar to the reported number of beta-adrenergic receptors.

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Selected References

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