• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Feb 1977; 74(2): 793–797.
PMCID: PMC392381

Evidence for active role of cilia in sensory transduction.

Abstract

Combined high-voltage electron-microscopic and electrophysiological studies strongly suggest that cilia play an active role in sensory transduction in the grasshopper proximal femoral chordotonal organ (FCO) a ciliated mechanoreceptor. The FCO of pro- and mesothoracic legs of Melanoplus bivittatus contains a group of several hundred chorodontal sensilla arranged in a near-parallel bundle and slung between the proximal femur and the knee joint. Both flexion and extension of the tibia stimulate the FCO, which appears to measure the femoro-tibial angle. The FCO's U-shaped response curve indicates that progressive flexion or extension from the resting joint angle of 90 degrees increases the response frequency of individual receptors and recruits additional units as well. Since the FCO is a purely tonic mechanoreceptor, it is possible to fix FCOs during maximum and minimum states of stimulation and electron-microscopically observed changes in the receptor's fine structure. The most conspicuous change is the production of a pronounced bend at the base of the sensory cilia in chordotonal sensilla of maximally stimulated femoral chordotonal organs.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • GRAY EG, PUMPHREY RJ. Ultrastructure of the insect ear. Nature. 1958 Mar 1;181(4609):618–618. [PubMed]
  • Wiederhold ML. Mechanosensory transduction in "sensory" and "motile" cilia. Annu Rev Biophys Bioeng. 1976;5:39–62. [PubMed]
  • Moran DT, Rowley JC, 3rd, Varela FG. Ultrastructure of the grasshopper proximal femoral chordotonal organ. Cell Tissue Res. 1975 Aug 27;161(4):445–457. [PubMed]
  • Moran DT, Rowley JC., 3rd The fine structure of the cockroach subgenual organ. Tissue Cell. 1975;7(1):91–105. [PubMed]
  • Moran DT, Rowley JC. High voltage and scanning electron microscopy of the site of stimulus reception of an insect mechanoreceptor. J Ultrastruct Res. 1975 Jan;50(1):38–46. [PubMed]
  • Moran DT, Chapman KM, Ellis RA. The fine structure of cockroach campaniform sensilla. J Cell Biol. 1971 Jan;48(1):155–173. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moran DT, Varela FG. Microtubules and sensory transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Apr;68(4):757–760. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chapman KM, Duckrow RB, Moran DT. Form and role of deformation in excitation of an insect mechanoreceptor. Nature. 1973 Aug 17;244(5416):453–454. [PubMed]
  • Slifer EH, Sekhon SS. The femoral chordotonal organs of a grasshopper, Orthoptera, Acrididae. J Neurocytol. 1975 Aug;4(4):419–438. [PubMed]
  • Spurr AR. A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res. 1969 Jan;26(1):31–43. [PubMed]
  • Rowley JC, 3rd, Moran DT. A simple procedure for mounting wrinkle-free sections on formvar-coated slot grids. Ultramicroscopy. 1975 Dec;1(2):151–155. [PubMed]
  • Burns MD. Structure and physiology of the locust femoral chordotonal organ. J Insect Physiol. 1974 Jul;20(7):1319–1339. [PubMed]
  • Satir P. How cilia move. Sci Am. 1974 Oct;231(4):44–52. [PubMed]
  • Satir P. Studies on cilia. 3. Further studies on the cilium tip and a "sliding filament" model of ciliary motility. J Cell Biol. 1968 Oct;39(1):77–94. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Warner FD, Satir P. The structural basis of ciliary bend formation. Radial spoke positional changes accompanying microtubule sliding. J Cell Biol. 1974 Oct;63(1):35–63. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gilula NB, Satir P. The ciliary necklace. A ciliary membrane specialization. J Cell Biol. 1972 May;53(2):494–509. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moran DT, Rowley JC, 3rd, Zill SN, Varela FG. The mechanism of sensory transduction in a mechanoreceptor. Functional stages in campaniform sensilla during the molting cycle. J Cell Biol. 1976 Dec;71(3):832–847. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...