Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 1986; 83(16): 5909–5913.
PMCID: PMC386406

Covalent modification of the glnG product, NRI, by the glnL product, NRII, regulates the transcription of the glnALG operon in Escherichia coli.


Transcription from nitrogen-regulated promoters, such as glnAp2, requires the glnG gene product, NRI, as well as the rpoN(glnF) gene product, sigma60, and is regulated by the glnL gene product, NRII. We find that in a reaction mixture containing NRI, NRII, and ATP, NRII catalyzes the transfer of the gamma phosphate of ATP to NRI. This covalent modification of NRI occurs concurrently with the acquisition of the ability by the reaction mixture to activate transcription from glnAp2. In the presence of PII, the product of glnB, NRII catalyzes the removal of the phosphate from NRI-phosphate. This reaction occurs concurrently with the loss by the reaction mixture of the ability to activate transcription from glnAp2. On the basis of this evidence, we propose that NRI-phosphate activates transcription from nitrogen-regulated promoters and that the role of NRII is control of the formation and breakdown of NRI-phosphate in response to cellular signals of nitrogen availability.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.5M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Reitzer LJ, Magasanik B. Expression of glnA in Escherichia coli is regulated at tandem promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Apr;82(7):1979–1983. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pahel G, Tyler B. A new glnA-linked regulatory gene for glutamine synthetase in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Sep;76(9):4544–4548. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Garcia E, Bancroft S, Rhee SG, Kustu S. The product of a newly identified gene, gInF, is required for synthesis of glutamine synthetase in Salmonella. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Apr;74(4):1662–1666. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chen YM, Backman K, Magasanik B. Characterization of a gene, glnL, the product of which is involved in the regulation of nitrogen utilization in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982 Apr;150(1):214–220. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pahel G, Zelenetz AD, Tyler BM. gltB gene and regulation of nitrogen metabolism by glutamine synthetase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1978 Jan;133(1):139–148. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reitzer LJ, Magasanik B. Isolation of the nitrogen assimilation regulator NR(I), the product of the glnG gene of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Sep;80(18):5554–5558. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hirschman J, Wong PK, Sei K, Keener J, Kustu S. Products of nitrogen regulatory genes ntrA and ntrC of enteric bacteria activate glnA transcription in vitro: evidence that the ntrA product is a sigma factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Nov;82(22):7525–7529. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hunt TP, Magasanik B. Transcription of glnA by purified Escherichia coli components: core RNA polymerase and the products of glnF, glnG, and glnL. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Dec;82(24):8453–8457. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bloom FR, Levin MS, Foor F, Tyler B. Regulation of glutamine synthetase formation in Escherichia coli: characterization of mutants lacking the uridylyltransferase. J Bacteriol. 1978 May;134(2):569–577. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bueno R, Pahel G, Magasanik B. Role of glnB and glnD gene products in regulation of the glnALG operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1985 Nov;164(2):816–822. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Adler SP, Purich D, Stadtman ER. Cascade control of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase. Properties of the PII regulatory protein and the uridylyltransferase-uridylyl-removing enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1975 Aug 25;250(16):6264–6272. [PubMed]
  • Ueno-Nishio S, Backman KC, Magasanik B. Regulation at the glnL-operator-promoter of the complex glnALG operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1983 Mar;153(3):1247–1251. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ueno-Nishio S, Mango S, Reitzer LJ, Magasanik B. Identification and regulation of the glnL operator-promoter of the complex glnALG operon of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1984 Oct;160(1):379–384. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Raibaud O, Schwartz M. Positive control of transcription initiation in bacteria. Annu Rev Genet. 1984;18:173–206. [PubMed]
  • Edelman GM. Cell adhesion and the molecular processes of morphogenesis. Annu Rev Biochem. 1985;54:135–169. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...