Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 20, 1996; 93(17): 9282–9286.

Auxin as a positional signal in pattern formation in plants.


By using a novel, extremely sensitive and specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique we demonstrate in Pinus sylvestris (L.) trees the existence of a steep radial concentration gradient of the endogenous auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, over the lateral meristem responsible for the bulk of plant secondary growth, the vascular cambium. This is the first evidence that plant morphogens, such as indole-3-acetic acid, occur in concentration gradients over developing tissues. This finding gives evidence for a regulatory system in plants based on positional signaling, similar to animal systems.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Gurdon JB, Harger P, Mitchell A, Lemaire P. Activin signalling and response to a morphogen gradient. Nature. 1994 Oct 6;371(6497):487–492. [PubMed]
  • Tickle C. Retinoic acid and chick limb bud development. Dev Suppl. 1991;1:113–121. [PubMed]
  • Holder N. Positional information and pattern formation in plant morphogenesis and a mechanism for the involvement of plant hormones. J Theor Biol. 1979 Mar 21;77(2):195–212. [PubMed]
  • Edlund A, Eklof S, Sundberg B, Moritz T, Sandberg G. A Microscale Technique for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Picogram Amounts of Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Plant Tissues. Plant Physiol. 1995 Jul;108(3):1043–1047. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sundberg B, Tuominen H, Little CHA. Effects of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) Transport Inhibitors N-1-Naphthylphthalamic Acid and Morphactin on Endogenous IAA Dynamics in Relation to Compression Wood Formation in 1-Year-Old Pinus sylvestris (L.) Shoots. Plant Physiol. 1994 Oct;106(2):469–476. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sundberg B, Ericsson A, Little CH, Näsholm T, Gref R. The relationship between crown size and ring width in Pinus sylvestris L. stems: dependence on indole-3-acetic acid, carbohydrates and nitrogen in the cambial region. Tree Physiol. 1993 Jun;12(4):347–362. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...