• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Oct 1, 1996; 93(20): 10775–10778.

Controlling cell attachment on contoured surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates on gold.


This paper describes a method based on experimentally simple techniques--microcontact printing and micromolding in capillaries--to prepare tissue culture substrates in which both the topology and molecular structure of the interface can be controlled. The method combines optically transparent contoured surfaces with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold to control interfacial characteristics; these tailored interfaces, in turn, control the adsorption of proteins and the attachment of cells. The technique uses replica molding in poly(dimethylsiloxane) molds having micrometer-scale relief patterns on their surfaces to form a contoured film of polyurethane supported on a glass slide. Evaporation of a thin (< 12 nm) film of gold on this surface-contoured polyurethane provides an optically transparent substrate, on which SAMs of terminally functionalized alkanethiolates can be formed. In one procedure, a flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamp was used to form a SAM of hexadecanethiolate on the raised plateaus of the contoured surface by contact printing hexadecanethiol [HS(CH2)15CH3]; a SAM terminated in tri(ethylene glycol) groups was subsequently formed on the bare gold remaining in the grooves by immersing the substrate in a solution of a second alkanethiol [HS(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)3OH]. Then this patterned substrate was immersed in a solution of fibronectin, the protein adsorbed only on the methyl-terminated plateau regions of the substrate [the tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated regions resisted the adsorption of protein]; bovine capillary endothelial cells attached only on the regions that adsorbed fibronectin. A complementary procedure confined protein adsorption and cell attachment to the grooves in this substrate.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Kleinfeld D, Kahler KH, Hockberger PE. Controlled outgrowth of dissociated neurons on patterned substrates. J Neurosci. 1988 Nov;8(11):4098–4120. [PubMed]
  • O'Neill C, Jordan P, Riddle P, Ireland G. Narrow linear strips of adhesive substratum are powerful inducers of both growth and total focal contact area. J Cell Sci. 1990 Apr;95(Pt 4):577–586. [PubMed]
  • Britland S, Clark P, Connolly P, Moores G. Micropatterned substratum adhesiveness: a model for morphogenetic cues controlling cell behavior. Exp Cell Res. 1992 Jan;198(1):124–129. [PubMed]
  • Spargo BJ, Testoff MA, Nielsen TB, Stenger DA, Hickman JJ, Rudolph AS. Spatially controlled adhesion, spreading, and differentiation of endothelial cells on self-assembled molecular monolayers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Nov 8;91(23):11070–11074. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Singhvi R, Kumar A, Lopez GP, Stephanopoulos GN, Wang DI, Whitesides GM, Ingber DE. Engineering cell shape and function. Science. 1994 Apr 29;264(5159):696–698. [PubMed]
  • Chou L, Firth JD, Uitto VJ, Brunette DM. Substratum surface topography alters cell shape and regulates fibronectin mRNA level, mRNA stability, secretion and assembly in human fibroblasts. J Cell Sci. 1995 Apr;108(Pt 4):1563–1573. [PubMed]
  • Clark P, Connolly P, Curtis AS, Dow JA, Wilkinson CD. Cell guidance by ultrafine topography in vitro. J Cell Sci. 1991 May;99(Pt 1):73–77. [PubMed]
  • Hoch HC, Staples RC, Whitehead B, Comeau J, Wolf ED. Signaling for growth orientation and cell differentiation by surface topography in uromyces. Science. 1987 Mar 27;235(4796):1659–1662. [PubMed]
  • Green AM, Jansen JA, van der Waerden JP, von Recum AF. Fibroblast response to microtextured silicone surfaces: texture orientation into or out of the surface. J Biomed Mater Res. 1994 May;28(5):647–653. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt JA, von Recum AF. Macrophage response to microtextured silicone. Biomaterials. 1992;13(15):1059–1069. [PubMed]
  • Ingber DE, Folkman J. Mechanochemical switching between growth and differentiation during fibroblast growth factor-stimulated angiogenesis in vitro: role of extracellular matrix. J Cell Biol. 1989 Jul;109(1):317–330. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wong JY, Langer R, Ingber DE. Electrically conducting polymers can noninvasively control the shape and growth of mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12;91(8):3201–3204. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sigal GB, Bamdad C, Barberis A, Strominger J, Whitesides GM. A self-assembled monolayer for the binding and study of histidine-tagged proteins by surface plasmon resonance. Anal Chem. 1996 Feb 1;68(3):490–497. [PubMed]
  • Ward MD, Buttry DA. In situ interfacial mass detection with piezoelectric transducers. Science. 1990 Aug 31;249(4972):1000–1007. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...