• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of molpathLink to Publisher's site
Mol Pathol. Apr 1997; 50(2): 57–71.
PMCID: PMC379585

CD44 and the adhesion of neoplastic cells.

Abstract

CD44 is a family of transmembrane glycoproteins that act mainly as a receptor for hyaluronan. It can also bind some other extracellular matrix ligands (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate, fibronectin, serglycin, osteopontin) with lower affinity. CD44 is encoded by a single gene containing 20 exons, 10 of which (v1-v10) are variant exons inserted by alternative splicing. The standard, ubiquitously expressed isoform of CD44, does not contain sequences encoded by these variant exons. Numerous variant isoforms of CD44 containing different combinations of exons v1-v10 inserted into the extracellular domain can be expressed in proliferating epithelial cells and activated lymphocytes. CD44 plays a significant role in lymphocyte homing. Both alternative splicing and glycosylation influence receptor function of the molecule, usually reducing its affinity to hyaluronan. The cytoplasmic domain of CD44 communicates with the cytoskeleton via ankyrin and proteins belonging to the ezrin-moesin-radixin family. Relatively little is known about the intracellular events following interactions of CD44 with its ligands. Some variant isoforms, especially those containing sequences encoded by v6-v10, are overexpressed in both human and animal neoplasms. In a rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma model one of the variant CD44 isoforms was proved to be determinant in the metastatic process. For some human neoplasms (carcinomas of the digestive tract, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, thyroid carcinomas, and others) correlations have been made between the particular pattern of CD44 variants produced by neoplastic cells and clinicopathological parameters of tumours, such as grade, stage, presence of metastases, and survival. In vitro studies indicate that modifications of CD44 expression result in different ligand recognition and influence cell motility, invasive properties, and metastatic potential of experimental tumours. Investigation of CD44 neoexpression can be useful both in early cancer diagnosis and in predicting tumour behaviour. It can also contribute to better understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to neoplastic transformation.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Cobbold S. Human leukocyte differentiation antigens: monoclonal antibody computer databases as a tool for the future. Mol Cell Probes. 1987 Mar;1(1):61–72. [PubMed]
  • Dalchau R, Kirkley J, Fabre JW. Monoclonal antibody to a human brain-granulocyte-T lymphocyte antigen probably homologous to the W 3/13 antigen of the rat. Eur J Immunol. 1980 Oct;10(10):745–749. [PubMed]
  • Haynes BF, Liao HX, Patton KL. The transmembrane hyaluronate receptor (CD44): multiple functions, multiple forms. Cancer Cells. 1991 Sep;3(9):347–350. [PubMed]
  • Lesley J, Hyman R, Kincade PW. CD44 and its interaction with extracellular matrix. Adv Immunol. 1993;54:271–335. [PubMed]
  • Goodfellow PN, Banting G, Wiles MV, Tunnacliffe A, Parkar M, Solomon E, Dalchau R, Fabre JW. The gene, MIC4, which controls expression of the antigen defined by monoclonal antibody F10.44.2, is on human chromosome 11. Eur J Immunol. 1982 Aug;12(8):659–663. [PubMed]
  • Screaton GR, Bell MV, Jackson DG, Cornelis FB, Gerth U, Bell JI. Genomic structure of DNA encoding the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 reveals at least 12 alternatively spliced exons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Dec 15;89(24):12160–12164. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tölg C, Hofmann M, Herrlich P, Ponta H. Splicing choice from ten variant exons establishes CD44 variability. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Mar 11;21(5):1225–1229. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Screaton GR, Bell MV, Bell JI, Jackson DG. The identification of a new alternative exon with highly restricted tissue expression in transcripts encoding the mouse Pgp-1 (CD44) homing receptor. Comparison of all 10 variable exons between mouse, human, and rat. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jun 15;268(17):12235–12238. [PubMed]
  • Sherman L, Sleeman J, Herrlich P, Ponta H. Hyaluronate receptors: key players in growth, differentiation, migration and tumor progression. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1994 Oct;6(5):726–733. [PubMed]
  • Cooper DL, Dougherty GJ. To metastasize or not? Selection of CD44 splice sites. Nat Med. 1995 Jul;1(7):635–637. [PubMed]
  • Kugelman LC, Ganguly S, Haggerty JG, Weissman SM, Milstone LM. The core protein of epican, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan on keratinocytes, is an alternative form of CD44. J Invest Dermatol. 1992 Dec;99(6):886–891. [PubMed]
  • Stamenkovic I, Amiot M, Pesando JM, Seed B. A lymphocyte molecule implicated in lymph node homing is a member of the cartilage link protein family. Cell. 1989 Mar 24;56(6):1057–1062. [PubMed]
  • Nottenburg C, Rees G, St John T. Isolation of mouse CD44 cDNA: structural features are distinct from the primate cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Nov;86(21):8521–8525. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yang B, Yang BL, Savani RC, Turley EA. Identification of a common hyaluronan binding motif in the hyaluronan binding proteins RHAMM, CD44 and link protein. EMBO J. 1994 Jan 15;13(2):286–296. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peach RJ, Hollenbaugh D, Stamenkovic I, Aruffo A. Identification of hyaluronic acid binding sites in the extracellular domain of CD44. J Cell Biol. 1993 Jul;122(1):257–264. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liao HX, Lee DM, Levesque MC, Haynes BF. N-terminal and central regions of the human CD44 extracellular domain participate in cell surface hyaluronan binding. J Immunol. 1995 Oct 15;155(8):3938–3945. [PubMed]
  • Jackson DG, Bell JI, Dickinson R, Timans J, Shields J, Whittle N. Proteoglycan forms of the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44 are alternatively spliced variants containing the v3 exon. J Cell Biol. 1995 Feb;128(4):673–685. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Labarrière N, Piau JP, Otry C, Denis M, Lustenberger P, Meflah K, Le Pendu J. H blood group antigen carried by CD44V modulates tumorigenicity of rat colon carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 1994 Dec 1;54(23):6275–6281. [PubMed]
  • Goldstein LA, Butcher EC. Identification of mRNA that encodes an alternative form of H-CAM(CD44) in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. Immunogenetics. 1990;32(6):389–397. [PubMed]
  • Lokeshwar VB, Bourguignon LY. The lymphoma transmembrane glycoprotein GP85 (CD44) is a novel guanine nucleotide-binding protein which regulates GP85 (CD44)-ankyrin interaction. J Biol Chem. 1992 Nov 5;267(31):22073–22078. [PubMed]
  • Lokeshwar VB, Fregien N, Bourguignon LY. Ankyrin-binding domain of CD44(GP85) is required for the expression of hyaluronic acid-mediated adhesion function. J Cell Biol. 1994 Aug;126(4):1099–1109. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bennett KL, Modrell B, Greenfield B, Bartolazzi A, Stamenkovic I, Peach R, Jackson DG, Spring F, Aruffo A. Regulation of CD44 binding to hyaluronan by glycosylation of variably spliced exons. J Cell Biol. 1995 Dec;131(6 Pt 1):1623–1633. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hardingham TE, Fosang AJ. Proteoglycans: many forms and many functions. FASEB J. 1992 Feb 1;6(3):861–870. [PubMed]
  • Stamenkovic I, Aruffo A, Amiot M, Seed B. The hematopoietic and epithelial forms of CD44 are distinct polypeptides with different adhesion potentials for hyaluronate-bearing cells. EMBO J. 1991 Feb;10(2):343–348. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Terpe HJ, Stark H, Prehm P, Günthert U. CD44 variant isoforms are preferentially expressed in basal epithelial of non-malignant human fetal and adult tissues. Histochemistry. 1994 Feb;101(2):79–89. [PubMed]
  • Mackay CR, Terpe HJ, Stauder R, Marston WL, Stark H, Günthert U. Expression and modulation of CD44 variant isoforms in humans. J Cell Biol. 1994 Jan;124(1-2):71–82. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Iida N, Bourguignon LY. New CD44 splice variants associated with human breast cancers. J Cell Physiol. 1995 Jan;162(1):127–133. [PubMed]
  • Gansauge F, Gansauge S, Zobywalski A, Scharnweber C, Link KH, Nussler AK, Beger HG. Differential expression of CD44 splice variants in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and in normal pancreas. Cancer Res. 1995 Dec 1;55(23):5499–5503. [PubMed]
  • Southgate J, Trejdosiewicz LK, Smith B, Selby PJ. Patterns of splice variant CD44 expression by normal human urothelium in situ and in vitro and by bladder-carcinoma cell lines. Int J Cancer. 1995 Aug 9;62(4):449–456. [PubMed]
  • Neame SJ, Isacke CM. Phosphorylation of CD44 in vivo requires both Ser323 and Ser325, but does not regulate membrane localization or cytoskeletal interaction in epithelial cells. EMBO J. 1992 Dec;11(13):4733–4738. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Isacke CM. The role of the cytoplasmic domain in regulating CD44 function. J Cell Sci. 1994 Sep;107(Pt 9):2353–2359. [PubMed]
  • Herrlich P, Zöller M, Pals ST, Ponta H. CD44 splice variants: metastases meet lymphocytes. Immunol Today. 1993 Aug;14(8):395–399. [PubMed]
  • Sliutz G, Tempfer C, Winkler S, Kohlberger P, Reinthaller A, Kainz C. Immunohistochemical and serological evaluation of CD44 splice variants in human ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer. 1995 Dec;72(6):1494–1497. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Guo YJ, Liu G, Wang X, Jin D, Wu M, Ma J, Sy MS. Potential use of soluble CD44 in serum as indicator of tumor burden and metastasis in patients with gastric or colon cancer. Cancer Res. 1994 Jan 15;54(2):422–426. [PubMed]
  • Underhill CB, Chi-Rosso G, Toole BP. Effects of detergent solubilization on the hyaluronate-binding protein from membranes of simian virus 40-transformed 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem. 1983 Jul 10;258(13):8086–8091. [PubMed]
  • Underhill CB, Thurn AL, Lacy BE. Characterization and identification of the hyaluronate binding site from membranes of SV-3T3 cells. J Biol Chem. 1985 Jul 5;260(13):8128–8133. [PubMed]
  • Underhill CB, Green SJ, Comoglio PM, Tarone G. The hyaluronate receptor is identical to a glycoprotein of Mr 85,000 (gp85) as shown by a monoclonal antibody that interferes with binding activity. J Biol Chem. 1987 Sep 25;262(27):13142–13146. [PubMed]
  • Miyake K, Underhill CB, Lesley J, Kincade PW. Hyaluronate can function as a cell adhesion molecule and CD44 participates in hyaluronate recognition. J Exp Med. 1990 Jul 1;172(1):69–75. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zheng Z, Katoh S, He Q, Oritani K, Miyake K, Lesley J, Hyman R, Hamik A, Parkhouse RM, Farr AG, et al. Monoclonal antibodies to CD44 and their influence on hyaluronan recognition. J Cell Biol. 1995 Jul;130(2):485–495. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Koshiishi I, Shizari M, Underhill CB. CD44 can mediate the adhesion of platelets to hyaluronan. Blood. 1994 Jul 15;84(2):390–396. [PubMed]
  • Milstone LM, Hough-Monroe L, Kugelman LC, Bender JR, Haggerty JG. Epican, a heparan/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan form of CD44, mediates cell-cell adhesion. J Cell Sci. 1994 Nov;107(Pt 11):3183–3190. [PubMed]
  • Weber GF, Ashkar S, Glimcher MJ, Cantor H. Receptor-ligand interaction between CD44 and osteopontin (Eta-1). Science. 1996 Jan 26;271(5248):509–512. [PubMed]
  • Underhill C. CD44: the hyaluronan receptor. J Cell Sci. 1992 Oct;103(Pt 2):293–298. [PubMed]
  • Thomas L, Byers HR, Vink J, Stamenkovic I. CD44H regulates tumor cell migration on hyaluronate-coated substrate. J Cell Biol. 1992 Aug;118(4):971–977. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • He Q, Lesley J, Hyman R, Ishihara K, Kincade PW. Molecular isoforms of murine CD44 and evidence that the membrane proximal domain is not critical for hyaluronate recognition. J Cell Biol. 1992 Dec;119(6):1711–1719. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dougherty GJ, Cooper DL, Memory JF, Chiu RK. Ligand binding specificity of alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms. Recognition and binding of hyaluronan by CD44R1. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 25;269(12):9074–9078. [PubMed]
  • Lokeshwar VB, Bourguignon LY. Post-translational protein modification and expression of ankyrin-binding site(s) in GP85 (Pgp-1/CD44) and its biosynthetic precursors during T-lymphoma membrane biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1991 Sep 25;266(27):17983–17989. [PubMed]
  • Bartolazzi A, Jackson D, Bennett K, Aruffo A, Dickinson R, Shields J, Whittle N, Stamenkovic I. Regulation of growth and dissemination of a human lymphoma by CD44 splice variants. J Cell Sci. 1995 Apr;108(Pt 4):1723–1733. [PubMed]
  • Lesley J, He Q, Miyake K, Hamann A, Hyman R, Kincade PW. Requirements for hyaluronic acid binding by CD44: a role for the cytoplasmic domain and activation by antibody. J Exp Med. 1992 Jan 1;175(1):257–266. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lesley J, Schulte R, Hyman R. Binding of hyaluronic acid to lymphoid cell lines is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against Pgp-1. Exp Cell Res. 1990 Apr;187(2):224–233. [PubMed]
  • Laurent TC, Fraser JR. Hyaluronan. FASEB J. 1992 Apr;6(7):2397–2404. [PubMed]
  • Culty M, Shizari M, Thompson EW, Underhill CB. Binding and degradation of hyaluronan by human breast cancer cell lines expressing different forms of CD44: correlation with invasive potential. J Cell Physiol. 1994 Aug;160(2):275–286. [PubMed]
  • Knudson CB, Knudson W. Hyaluronan-binding proteins in development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. FASEB J. 1993 Oct;7(13):1233–1241. [PubMed]
  • Ruiz P, Schwärzler C, Günthert U. CD44 isoforms during differentiation and development. Bioessays. 1995 Jan;17(1):17–24. [PubMed]
  • Bourguignon LY, Lokeshwar VB, Chen X, Kerrick WG. Hyaluronic acid-induced lymphocyte signal transduction and HA receptor (GP85/CD44)-cytoskeleton interaction. J Immunol. 1993 Dec 15;151(12):6634–6644. [PubMed]
  • Jalkanen S, Jalkanen M. Lymphocyte CD44 binds the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin. J Cell Biol. 1992 Feb;116(3):817–825. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ishii S, Ford R, Thomas P, Nachman A, Steele G, Jr, Jessup JM. CD44 participates in the adhesion of human colorectal carcinoma cells to laminin and type IV collagen. Surg Oncol. 1993 Aug;2(4):255–264. [PubMed]
  • Toyama-Sorimachi N, Sorimachi H, Tobita Y, Kitamura F, Yagita H, Suzuki K, Miyasaka M. A novel ligand for CD44 is serglycin, a hematopoietic cell lineage-specific proteoglycan. Possible involvement in lymphoid cell adherence and activation. J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 31;270(13):7437–7444. [PubMed]
  • Bennett KL, Jackson DG, Simon JC, Tanczos E, Peach R, Modrell B, Stamenkovic I, Plowman G, Aruffo A. CD44 isoforms containing exon V3 are responsible for the presentation of heparin-binding growth factor. J Cell Biol. 1995 Feb;128(4):687–698. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Denhardt DT, Guo X. Osteopontin: a protein with diverse functions. FASEB J. 1993 Dec;7(15):1475–1482. [PubMed]
  • Bautista DS, Xuan JW, Hota C, Chambers AF, Harris JF. Inhibition of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-mediated cell adhesion to osteopontin by a monoclonal antibody against osteopontin. J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 16;269(37):23280–23285. [PubMed]
  • Xuan JW, Hota C, Chambers AF. Recombinant GST-human osteopontin fusion protein is functional in RGD-dependent cell adhesion. J Cell Biochem. 1994 Feb;54(2):247–255. [PubMed]
  • Hijiya N, Setoguchi M, Matsuura K, Higuchi Y, Akizuki S, Yamamoto S. Cloning and characterization of the human osteopontin gene and its promoter. Biochem J. 1994 Oct 1;303(Pt 1):255–262. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Senger DR, Brown LF, Perruzzi CA, Papadopoulos-Sergiou A, Van de Water L. Osteopontin at the tumor/host interface. Functional regulation by thrombin-cleavage and consequences for cell adhesion. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Apr 21;760:83–100. [PubMed]
  • Jalkanen ST, Bargatze RF, Herron LR, Butcher EC. A lymphoid cell surface glycoprotein involved in endothelial cell recognition and lymphocyte homing in man. Eur J Immunol. 1986 Oct;16(10):1195–1202. [PubMed]
  • Arch R, Wirth K, Hofmann M, Ponta H, Matzku S, Herrlich P, Zöller M. Participation in normal immune responses of a metastasis-inducing splice variant of CD44. Science. 1992 Jul 31;257(5070):682–685. [PubMed]
  • Koopman G, Heider KH, Horst E, Adolf GR, van den Berg F, Ponta H, Herrlich P, Pals ST. Activated human lymphocytes and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas express a homologue of the rat metastasis-associated variant of CD44. J Exp Med. 1993 Apr 1;177(4):897–904. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • de los Toyos J, Jalkanen S, Butcher EC. Flow cytometric analysis of the Hermes homing-associated antigen on human lymphocyte subsets. Blood. 1989 Aug 1;74(2):751–760. [PubMed]
  • O'Neill HC. Antibody which defines a subset of bone marrow cells that can migrate to thymus. Immunology. 1989 Sep;68(1):59–65. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Horst E, Meijer CJ, Radaskiewicz T, van Dongen JJ, Pieters R, Figdor CG, Hooftman A, Pals ST. Expression of a human homing receptor (CD44) in lymphoid malignancies and related stages of lymphoid development. Leukemia. 1990 May;4(5):383–389. [PubMed]
  • Miyake K, Medina KL, Hayashi S, Ono S, Hamaoka T, Kincade PW. Monoclonal antibodies to Pgp-1/CD44 block lympho-hemopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures. J Exp Med. 1990 Feb 1;171(2):477–488. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bourguignon LY, Walker G, Suchard SJ, Balazovich K. A lymphoma plasma membrane-associated protein with ankyrin-like properties. J Cell Biol. 1986 Jun;102(6):2115–2124. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kalomiris EL, Bourguignon LY. Mouse T lymphoma cells contain a transmembrane glycoprotein (GP85) that binds ankyrin. J Cell Biol. 1988 Feb;106(2):319–327. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Perschl A, Lesley J, English N, Trowbridge I, Hyman R. Role of CD44 cytoplasmic domain in hyaluronan binding. Eur J Immunol. 1995 Feb;25(2):495–501. [PubMed]
  • Murakami S, Shimabukuro Y, Miki Y, Saho T, Hino E, Kasai D, Nozaki T, Kusumoto Y, Okada H. Inducible binding of human lymphocytes to hyaluronate via CD44 does not require cytoskeleton association but does require new protein synthesis. J Immunol. 1994 Jan 15;152(2):467–477. [PubMed]
  • Tsukita S, Oishi K, Sato N, Sagara J, Kawai A, Tsukita S. ERM family members as molecular linkers between the cell surface glycoprotein CD44 and actin-based cytoskeletons. J Cell Biol. 1994 Jul;126(2):391–401. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sato N, Funayama N, Nagafuchi A, Yonemura S, Tsukita S, Tsukita S. A gene family consisting of ezrin, radixin and moesin. Its specific localization at actin filament/plasma membrane association sites. J Cell Sci. 1992 Sep;103(Pt 1):131–143. [PubMed]
  • Günthert U, Hofmann M, Rudy W, Reber S, Zöller M, Haussmann I, Matzku S, Wenzel A, Ponta H, Herrlich P. A new variant of glycoprotein CD44 confers metastatic potential to rat carcinoma cells. Cell. 1991 Apr 5;65(1):13–24. [PubMed]
  • Seiter S, Arch R, Reber S, Komitowski D, Hofmann M, Ponta H, Herrlich P, Matzku S, Zöller M. Prevention of tumor metastasis formation by anti-variant CD44. J Exp Med. 1993 Feb 1;177(2):443–455. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsumura Y, Tarin D. Significance of CD44 gene products for cancer diagnosis and disease evaluation. Lancet. 1992 Oct 31;340(8827):1053–1058. [PubMed]
  • Joensuu H, Ristamäki R, Klemi PJ, Jalkanen S. Lymphocyte homing receptor (CD44) expression is associated with poor prognosis in gastrointestinal lymphoma. Br J Cancer. 1993 Aug;68(2):428–432. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Salles G, Zain M, Jiang WM, Boussiotis VA, Shipp MA. Alternatively spliced CD44 transcripts in diffuse large-cell lymphomas: characterization and comparison with normal activated B cells and epithelial malignancies. Blood. 1993 Dec 15;82(12):3539–3547. [PubMed]
  • Terpe HJ, Koopmann R, Imhof BA, Günthert U. Expression of integrins and CD44 isoforms in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: CD44 variant isoforms are preferentially expressed in high-grade malignant lymphomas. J Pathol. 1994 Oct;174(2):89–100. [PubMed]
  • Stauder R, Eisterer W, Thaler J, Günthert U. CD44 variant isoforms in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a new independent prognostic factor. Blood. 1995 May 15;85(10):2885–2899. [PubMed]
  • Driessens MH, Stroeken PJ, Rodriguez Erena NF, van der Valk MA, van Rijthoven EA, Roos E. Targeted disruption of CD44 in MDAY-D2 lymphosarcoma cells has no effect on subcutaneous growth or metastatic capacity. J Cell Biol. 1995 Dec;131(6 Pt 2):1849–1855. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ristamäki R, Joensuu H, Salmi M, Jalkanen S. Serum CD44 in malignant lymphoma: an association with treatment response. Blood. 1994 Jul 1;84(1):238–243. [PubMed]
  • Manten-Horst E, Danen EH, Smit L, Snoek M, Le Poole IC, Van Muijen GN, Pals ST, Ruiter DJ. Expression of CD44 splice variants in human cutaneous melanoma and melanoma cell lines is related to tumor progression and metastatic potential. Int J Cancer. 1995 Jun 22;64(3):182–188. [PubMed]
  • Seiter S, Schadendorf D, Herrmann K, Schneider M, Rösel M, Arch R, Tilgen W, Zöller M. Expression of CD44 variant isoforms in malignant melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 1996 Mar;2(3):447–456. [PubMed]
  • van Muijen GN, Danen EH, Veerkamp JH, Ruiter DJ, Lesley J, van den Heuvel LP. Glycoconjugate profile and CD44 expression in human melanoma cell lines with different metastatic capacity. Int J Cancer. 1995 Apr 10;61(2):241–248. [PubMed]
  • Bartolazzi A, Peach R, Aruffo A, Stamenkovic I. Interaction between CD44 and hyaluronate is directly implicated in the regulation of tumor development. J Exp Med. 1994 Jul 1;180(1):53–66. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Birch M, Mitchell S, Hart IR. Isolation and characterization of human melanoma cell variants expressing high and low levels of CD44. Cancer Res. 1991 Dec 15;51(24):6660–6667. [PubMed]
  • Wielenga VJ, Heider KH, Offerhaus GJ, Adolf GR, van den Berg FM, Ponta H, Herrlich P, Pals ST. Expression of CD44 variant proteins in human colorectal cancer is related to tumor progression. Cancer Res. 1993 Oct 15;53(20):4754–4756. [PubMed]
  • Mulder JW, Wielenga VJ, Polak MM, van den Berg FM, Adolf GR, Herrlich P, Pals ST, Offerhaus GJ. Expression of mutant p53 protein and CD44 variant proteins in colorectal tumorigenesis. Gut. 1995 Jan;36(1):76–80. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kim H, Yang XL, Rosada C, Hamilton SR, August JT. CD44 expression in colorectal adenomas is an early event occurring prior to K-ras and p53 gene mutation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994 May 1;310(2):504–507. [PubMed]
  • Finn L, Dougherty G, Finley G, Meisler A, Becich M, Cooper DL. Alternative splicing of CD44 pre-mRNA in human colorectal tumors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Apr 29;200(2):1015–1022. [PubMed]
  • Heider KH, Hofmann M, Hors E, van den Berg F, Ponta H, Herrlich P, Pals ST. A human homologue of the rat metastasis-associated variant of CD44 is expressed in colorectal carcinomas and adenomatous polyps. J Cell Biol. 1993 Jan;120(1):227–233. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tanabe KK, Ellis LM, Saya H. Expression of CD44R1 adhesion molecule in colon carcinomas and metastases. Lancet. 1993 Mar 20;341(8847):725–726. [PubMed]
  • Ichikawa W. Positive relationship between expression of CD44 and hepatic metastases in colorectal cancer. Pathobiology. 1994;62(4):172–179. [PubMed]
  • Abbasi AM, Chester KA, Talbot IC, Macpherson AS, Boxer G, Forbes A, Malcolm AD, Begent RH. CD44 is associated with proliferation in normal and neoplastic human colorectal epithelial cells. Eur J Cancer. 1993;29A(14):1995–2002. [PubMed]
  • Mulder JW, Kruyt PM, Sewnath M, Oosting J, Seldenrijk CA, Weidema WF, Offerhaus GJ, Pals ST. Colorectal cancer prognosis and expression of exon-v6-containing CD44 proteins. Lancet. 1994 Nov 26;344(8935):1470–1472. [PubMed]
  • Finke LH, Terpe HJ, Zörb C, Haensch W, Schlag PM. Colorectal cancer prognosis and expression of exon-v6-containing CD44 proteins. Lancet. 1995 Mar 4;345(8949):583–583. [PubMed]
  • Sugino T, Gorham H, Yoshida K, Bolodeoku J, Nargund V, Cranston D, Goodison S, Tarin D. Progressive loss of CD44 gene expression in invasive bladder cancer. Am J Pathol. 1996 Sep;149(3):873–882. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Takeuchi K, Yamaguchi A, Urano T, Goi T, Nakagawara G, Shiku H. Expression of CD44 variant exons 8-10 in colorectal cancer and its relationship to metastasis. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1995 Mar;86(3):292–297. [PubMed]
  • Tanabe KK, Stamenkovic I, Cutler M, Takahashi K. Restoration of CD44H expression in colon carcinomas reduces tumorigenicity. Ann Surg. 1995 Oct;222(4):493–503. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rodriguez C, Monges G, Rouanet P, Dutrillaux B, Lefrançois D, Theillet C. CD44 expression patterns in breast and colon tumors: a PCR-based study of splice variants. Int J Cancer. 1995 Oct 20;64(5):347–354. [PubMed]
  • Gorham H, Sugino T, Woodman AC, Tarin D. Cellular distribution of CD44 gene transcripts in colorectal carcinomas and in normal colonic mucosa. J Clin Pathol. 1996 Jun;49(6):482–488. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gorham H, Sugino T, Bolodeoku J, Yoshida K, Goodison S, Tarin D. Distribution of CD44 messenger RNA in archival paraffin wax embedded tumours and normal tissues viewed by in situ hybridisation. Clin Mol Pathol. 1996 Jun;49(3):M147–M150. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yoshida K, Bolodeoku J, Sugino T, Goodison S, Matsumura Y, Warren BF, Toge T, Tahara E, Tarin D. Abnormal retention of intron 9 in CD44 gene transcripts in human gastrointestinal tumors. Cancer Res. 1995 Oct 1;55(19):4273–4277. [PubMed]
  • Matsumura Y, Sugiyama M, Matsumura S, Hayle AJ, Robinson P, Smith JC, Tarin D. Unusual retention of introns in CD44 gene transcripts in bladder cancer provides new diagnostic and clinical oncological opportunities. J Pathol. 1995 Sep;177(1):11–20. [PubMed]
  • Yoshida K, Sugino T, Bolodeoku J, Warren BF, Goodison S, Woodman A, Toge T, Tahara E, Tarin D. Detection of exfoliated carcinoma cells in colonic luminal washings by identification of deranged patterns of expression of the CD44 gene. J Clin Pathol. 1996 Apr;49(4):300–305. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Takahashi K, Stamenkovic I, Cutler M, Saya H, Tanabe KK. CD44 hyaluronate binding influences growth kinetics and tumorigenicity of human colon carcinomas. Oncogene. 1995 Dec 7;11(11):2223–2232. [PubMed]
  • Naitoh H, Yazawa S, Asao T, Nakajima T, Nakamura J, Takenoshita S, Nagamachi Y. The recognition of cancer-associated fucosylated antigens in colorectal cancer by a novel monoclonal antibody, YB-2. Surg Today. 1994;24(4):382–384. [PubMed]
  • Yamaguchi A, Saito M, Gio T, Iida A, Takeuchi K, Hirose K, Nakagawara G, Urano T, Furukawa K, Shiku H. Expression of CD44 variant exons 8-10 in gastric cancer. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1995 Dec;86(12):1166–1171. [PubMed]
  • Dämmrich J, Vollmers HP, Heider KH, Müller-Hermelink HK. Importance of different CD44v6 expression in human gastric intestinal and diffuse type cancers for metastatic lymphogenic spreading. J Mol Med (Berl) 1995 Aug;73(8):395–401. [PubMed]
  • Figge J, del Rosario AD, Gerasimov G, Dedov I, Bronstein M, Troshina K, Alexandrova G, Kallakury BV, Bui HX, Bratslavsky G, et al. Preferential expression of the cell adhesion molecule CD44 in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Exp Mol Pathol. 1994 Dec;61(3):203–211. [PubMed]
  • Friedrichs K, Franke F, Lisboa BW, Kügler G, Gille I, Terpe HJ, Hölzel F, Maass H, Günthert U. CD44 isoforms correlate with cellular differentiation but not with prognosis in human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1995 Nov 15;55(22):5424–5433. [PubMed]
  • Kaufmann M, Heider KH, Sinn HP, von Minckwitz G, Ponta H, Herrlich P. CD44 variant exon epitopes in primary breast cancer and length of survival. Lancet. 1995 Mar 11;345(8950):615–619. [PubMed]
  • Sinn HP, Heider KH, Skroch-Angel P, von Minckwitz G, Kaufmann M, Herrlich P, Ponta H. Human mammary carcinomas express homologues of rat metastasis-associated variants of CD44. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1995;36(3):307–313. [PubMed]
  • Rall CJ, Rustgi AK. CD44 isoform expression in primary and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 1995 May 1;55(9):1831–1835. [PubMed]
  • Takada M, Yamamoto M, Saitoh Y. The significance of CD44 in human pancreatic cancer: I. High expression of CD44 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreas. 1994 Nov;9(6):748–752. [PubMed]
  • Takada M, Yamamoto M, Saitoh Y. The significance of CD44 in human pancreatic cancer: II. The role of CD44 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma invasion. Pancreas. 1994 Nov;9(6):753–757. [PubMed]
  • Fujita N, Yaegashi N, Ide Y, Sato S, Nakamura M, Ishiwata I, Yajima A. Expression of CD44 in normal human versus tumor endometrial tissues: possible implication of reduced expression of CD44 in lymph-vascular space involvement of cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1994 Jul 15;54(14):3922–3928. [PubMed]
  • Kainz C, Kohlberger P, Tempfer C, Sliutz G, Gitsch G, Reinthaller A, Breitenecker G. Prognostic value of CD44 splice variants in human stage III cervical cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1995 Sep;31A(10):1706–1709. [PubMed]
  • Dall P, Heider KH, Hekele A, von Minckwitz G, Kaufmann M, Ponta H, Herrlich P. Surface protein expression and messenger RNA-splicing analysis of CD44 in uterine cervical cancer and normal cervical epithelium. Cancer Res. 1994 Jul 1;54(13):3337–3341. [PubMed]
  • Uhl-Steidl M, Müller-Holzner E, Zeimet AG, Adolf GR, Daxenbichler G, Marth C, Dapunt O. Prognostic value of CD44 splice variant expression in ovarian cancer. Oncology. 1995 Sep-Oct;52(5):400–406. [PubMed]
  • Brooks L, Niedobitek G, Agathanggelou A, Farrell PJ. The expression of variant CD44 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is unrelated to expression of LMP-1. Am J Pathol. 1995 May;146(5):1102–1112. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Penno MB, August JT, Baylin SB, Mabry M, Linnoila RI, Lee VS, Croteau D, Yang XL, Rosada C. Expression of CD44 in human lung tumors. Cancer Res. 1994 Mar 1;54(5):1381–1387. [PubMed]
  • Chaudhry A, Gobl A, Eriksson B, Skogseid B, Oberg K. Different splice variants of CD44 are expressed in gastrinomas but not in other subtypes of endocrine pancreatic tumors. Cancer Res. 1994 Feb 15;54(4):981–986. [PubMed]
  • Clarke MR, Landreneau RJ, Resnick NM, Crowley R, Dougherty GJ, Cooper DL, Yousem SA. Prognostic significance of CD44 expression in adenocarcinoma of the lung. Clin Mol Pathol. 1995 Aug;48(4):M200–M204. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cannistra SA, Kansas GS, Niloff J, DeFranzo B, Kim Y, Ottensmeier C. Binding of ovarian cancer cells to peritoneal mesothelium in vitro is partly mediated by CD44H. Cancer Res. 1993 Aug 15;53(16):3830–3838. [PubMed]
  • Terpe HJ, Störkel S, Zimmer U, Anquez V, Fischer C, Pantel K, Günthert U. Expression of CD44 isoforms in renal cell tumors. Positive correlation to tumor differentiation. Am J Pathol. 1996 Feb;148(2):453–463. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shtivelman E, Bishop JM. Expression of CD44 is repressed in neuroblastoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Nov;11(11):5446–5453. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gross N, Beretta C, Peruisseau G, Jackson D, Simmons D, Beck D. CD44H expression by human neuroblastoma cells: relation to MYCN amplification and lineage differentiation. Cancer Res. 1994 Aug 1;54(15):4238–4242. [PubMed]
  • Combaret V, Coll JL, Favrot MC. Expression of integrin and CD44 adhesion molecules on neuroblastoma: the relation to tumor aggressiveness and embryonic neural-crest differentiation. Invasion Metastasis. 1994;14(1-6):156–163. [PubMed]
  • Combaret V, Lasset C, Frappaz D, Bouvier R, Thiesse P, Rebillard AC, Philip T, Favrot MC. Evaluation of CD44 prognostic value in neuroblastoma: comparison with the other prognostic factors. Eur J Cancer. 1995;31A(4):545–549. [PubMed]
  • Ariza A, López D, Mate JL, Isamat M, Musulén E, Pujol M, Ley A, Navas-Palacios JJ. Role of CD44 in the invasiveness of glioblastoma multiforme and the noninvasiveness of meningioma: an immunohistochemistry study. Hum Pathol. 1995 Oct;26(10):1144–1147. [PubMed]
  • Eibl RH, Pietsch T, Moll J, Skroch-Angel P, Heider KH, von Ammon K, Wiestler OD, Ponta H, Kleihues P, Herrlich P. Expression of variant CD44 epitopes in human astrocytic brain tumors. J Neurooncol. 1995 Dec;26(3):165–170. [PubMed]
  • Kaaijk P, Troost D, Morsink F, Keehnen RM, Leenstra S, Bosch DA, Pals ST. Expression of CD44 splice variants in human primary brain tumors. J Neurooncol. 1995 Dec;26(3):185–190. [PubMed]
  • Sherman L, Skroch-Angel P, Moll J, Schwechheimer K, Ponta H, Herrlich P, Hofmann M. Schwann cell tumors express characteristic patterns of CD44 splice variants. J Neurooncol. 1995 Dec;26(3):171–184. [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular Pathology : MP are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links