Logo of microrevMicrobiol Mol Biol Rev ArchivePermissionsJournals.ASM.orgMMBR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Microbiol Rev. 1980 Mar; 44(1): 140–173.
PMCID: PMC373237

Biology and physiology of the lower Trypanosomatidae.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (6.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Adar F. Resonance Raman spectra of cytochromes C557 and C558. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1977 May;181(1):5–7. [PubMed]
  • Angelopoulos E. Pellicular microtubules in the family Trypanosomatidae. J Protozool. 1970 Feb;17(1):39–51. [PubMed]
  • ANNEAR DI. Recovery of Strigomonas oncopelti after drying from the liquid state. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1961 Jun;39:295–303. [PubMed]
  • Bacchi CJ, Ciaccio EI, Koren LE. Effects of some antitumor agents on growth and glycolytic enzymes of the flagellate Crithidia. J Bacteriol. 1969 Apr;98(1):23–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bacchi CJ, Hill GC. Crithidia fasciculata: acriflavine-induced changes in soluble enzyme levels. Exp Parasitol. 1972 Apr;31(2):290–298. [PubMed]
  • Borst P, Grivell LA. The mitochondrial genome of yeast. Cell. 1978 Nov;15(3):705–723. [PubMed]
  • Borst P, Hoeijmakers JH. Kinetoplast DNA. Plasmid. 1979 Jan;2(1):20–40. [PubMed]
  • Brooker BE. Desmosomes and hemidesmosomes in the flagellate Crithidia fasciculata. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat. 1970;105(2):155–166. [PubMed]
  • Brooker BE. Flagellar attachment and detachment of Crithidia fasciculata to the gut wall of Anopheles gambiae. Protoplasma. 1971;73(2):191–202. [PubMed]
  • Brooker BE. The fine structure of Crithidia fasciculata with special reference to the organelles involved in the ingestion and digestion of protein. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat. 1971;116(4):532–563. [PubMed]
  • Brooker BE. Modifications in the arrangement of the pellicular microtubules of Crithidia fasciculata in the gut of Anopheles gambiae. Z Parasitenkd. 1972;40(4):271–280. [PubMed]
  • Brooker BE. The cell coat of Crithidia fasciculata. Parasitology. 1976 Jun;72(3):259–267. [PubMed]
  • Brooks AS. Ultrastructure of the flagellar attachment site in three species of trypanosomatids. Trans Am Microsc Soc. 1978 Jul;97(3):287–296. [PubMed]
  • Brun R. Ultrastruktur und Zyklus von Herpetomonas muscarum, "Herpetomonas mirabilis" und Crithidia luciliae in Chrysomyia chloropyga. Acta Trop. 1974;32(3):219–290. [PubMed]
  • Bunn MM, Soares TC, Angluster J, De Souza W. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on Herpetomonas samuelpessoai. Z Parasitenkd. 1977 Jul 29;52(3):245–256. [PubMed]
  • Camargo EP, Freymuller E. Endosymbiont as supplier of ornithine carbamoyltransferase in a trypanosomatid. Nature. 1977 Nov 3;270(5632):52–53. [PubMed]
  • Carter HE, Gaver RC, Yu RK. A novel branched-chain sphingolipid base from Crithidia fasciculata. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1966 Feb 3;22(3):316–320. [PubMed]
  • Carvalho AL, Deane MP. Trypanosomatidae isolated from Zelus leucogrammus (Perty, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), with a discussion on flagellates of insectivorous bugs. J Protozool. 1974 Feb;21(1):5–8. [PubMed]
  • Cerisola JA, Rohwedder R, Bozzini JP, Del Prado CE. Blastocrithidia triatomae n. sp. found in Triatoma infestans from Argentina. J Protozool. 1971 Aug;18(3):503–506. [PubMed]
  • Chang KP. Ultrastructure of symbiotic bacteria in normal and antibiotic-treated Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia oncopelti. J Protozool. 1974 Nov;21(5):699–707. [PubMed]
  • Chang KP. Reduced growth of Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia oncopelti freed of intracellular symbiotes by chloramphenicol. J Protozool. 1975 May;22(2):271–276. [PubMed]
  • Chang KP. Symbiote-free hemoflagellates, Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia oncopelti: their liver factor requirement and serologic identity. J Protozool. 1976 May;23(2):241–244. [PubMed]
  • Chang KP, Chang CS, Sassa S. Heme biosynthesis in bacterium-protozoon symbioses: enzymic defects in host hemoflagellates and complemental role of their intracellular symbiotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Aug;72(8):2979–2983. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chang KP, Trager W. Nutritional significance of symbiotic bacteria in two species of hemoflagellates. Science. 1974 Feb 8;183(4124):531–532. [PubMed]
  • Cheng D, Simpson L. Isolation and characterization of kinetoplast DNA and RNA of Phytomonas davidi. Plasmid. 1978 Jun;1(3):297–315. [PubMed]
  • Chesters JK. Protein synthesis by cell-free extracts of Crithidia oncopelti. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1966 Feb 21;114(2):385–397. [PubMed]
  • CLARK TB, KELLEN WR, LINDEGREN JE, SMITH TA. THE TRANSMISSION OF CRITHIDIA FASCICULATA LEGER 1902 IN CULISETA INCIDENS (THOMSON). J Protozool. 1964 Aug;11:400–402. [PubMed]
  • Coakley CJ, Holwill ME. Effects of pressure and temperature changes on the flagellar movement of crithidia oncopelti. J Exp Biol. 1974 Jun;60(3):605–629. [PubMed]
  • Constantsas NS, Levis GM, Vakirtzi-Lemonias CS. Crithidia fasciculata tyrosine transaminase. I. Development, characterization and differentiation from alanine transaminase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971 Jan 26;230(1):137–145. [PubMed]
  • Cosgrove WB, Skeen MJ. The cell cycle in Crithidia fasciculata. Temporal relationships between synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid in the nucleus and in the kinetoplast. J Protozool. 1970 May;17(2):172–177. [PubMed]
  • COWPERTHWAITE J, WEBER MM, PACKER L, HUTNER SH. Nutrition of Herpetomonas (Strigomonas) culicidarum. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1953 Oct 14;56(5):972–981. [PubMed]
  • Cross GA. Sedimentation roperties of polyribosomes, ribosomes and ribosomal subunits from Crithidia oncopelti. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1970 Apr 15;204(2):470–477. [PubMed]
  • Crowe W, Kushner I. An immunofluorescent method using Crithidia luciliae to detect antibodies to double-stranded DNA. Arthritis Rheum. 1977 Apr;20(3):811–814. [PubMed]
  • Cunningham LV, Kazan BH, Kuwahara SS. Effect of long-chain fatty acids on some trypanosomatid flagellates. J Gen Microbiol. 1972 May;70(3):491–496. [PubMed]
  • Davis P, Christian B, Russell AS. Immunofluorescent technique for the detection of antibodies to n-DNA: comparison with radioimmunoassay. J Rheumatol. 1977 Spring;4(1):15–20. [PubMed]
  • de Souza W. Cytochemical detection of carbohydrates in the Golgi complex of Leptomonas pessoai. Z Parasitenkd. 1976 Feb 6;48(3-4):221–226. [PubMed]
  • De Souza W, Bunn MM, Angluster J. Demonstration of concanavalin A receptors on Leptomonas pessoai cell memebrane. J Protozool. 1976 May;23(2):329–333. [PubMed]
  • De Souza W, Bunn MM, Angluster J. Influence of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on the localization of concanavalin A receptors on the cell membrane of Herpetomonas sp. Cytobiologie. 1976 Dec;14(1):185–189. [PubMed]
  • De Souza W, Rossi MA, Kitajima EW, Santos RR, Roitman I. An electron-microscopic study of Herpetomonase sp. (Leptomonas pessoai). Can J Microbiol. 1976 Feb;22(2):197–203. [PubMed]
  • Dooris PM, McGhee RB. Immunologic and electrophoretic characteristics of two species of Crithidia. J Protozool. 1976 Aug;23(3):433–437. [PubMed]
  • Dwyer DM, Chang KP. Surface membrane carbohydrate alterations of a flagellated protozoan mediated by bacterial endosymbiotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Mar;73(3):852–856. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Edwards C, Lloyd D. Terminal oxidases and carbon monoxide-reacting haemoproteins in the trypanosomatid, Crithidia fasciculata. J Gen Microbiol. 1973 Dec;79(2):275–284. [PubMed]
  • Edwards C, Statham M, LLoyd D. The preparation of large-scale synchronous cultures of the trypanosomatid, Crithidia fasciculata,by cell-size selection: changes in respiration and adenylate charge through the cell-cycle. J Gen Microbiol. 1975 May;88(1):141–152. [PubMed]
  • Ellenbogen BB, Hutner SH, Tamburro KM. Temperature-enhanced osmotic growth requirement of Crithidia. J Protozool. 1972 May;19(2):349–354. [PubMed]
  • Englund PT. The replication of kinetoplast DNA networks in Crithidia fasciculata. Cell. 1978 May;14(1):157–168. [PubMed]
  • Englund PT. Free minicircles of kinetoplast DNA in Crithidia fasciculata. J Biol Chem. 1979 Jun 10;254(11):4895–4900. [PubMed]
  • Esteves MJ, Elias CA, Angluster J, De Souza W. Effect of U.V.-radiation on the cell membrane of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai: binding of concanavalin A. Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med. 1978 Feb;33(2):191–194. [PubMed]
  • Fish WR, Holz GG, Jr, Beach DH. Cultivation of trypanosomatids. J Parasitol. 1978 Jun;64(3):546–547. [PubMed]
  • Fouts DL, Manning JE, Wolstenholme DR. Physicochemical properties of kinetoplast DNA from Crithidia acanthocephali. Crithidia luciliae, and Trypanosoma lewisi. J Cell Biol. 1975 Nov;67(2PT1):378–399. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frank O, Baker H, Hutner SH. Antagonists of growth inhibition of Crithidia by allopurinol, a guanine analog. J Protozool. 1970 May;17(2):153–158. [PubMed]
  • Fukushima T, Shiota T. Pterins in human urine. J Biol Chem. 1972 Jul 25;247(14):4549–4556. [PubMed]
  • GIBBS AJ. Crithidia familiaris N.SP. in Cenaeus carnifex Fabr. (Hemiptera). Parasitology. 1950 Oct;40(3-4):322–327. [PubMed]
  • GIBBS AJ. Leptomonas serpens n. sp., parasitic in the digestive tract and salivary glands of Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae) and in the sap of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and other plants. Parasitology. 1957 Dec;47(3-4):297–303. [PubMed]
  • GILLIES C, HANSON ED. A NEW SPECIES OF LEPTOMONAS PARASITIZING THE MACRONUCLEUS OF PARAMECIUM TRICHIUM. J Protozool. 1963 Nov;10:467–473. [PubMed]
  • Goldberg B, Lambros C, Bacchi CJ, Hutner SH. Inhibition by several standard antiprotozoal drugs of growth and O2 uptake of cells and particulate preparations of a Leptomonas. J Protozool. 1974 May;21(2):322–326. [PubMed]
  • Goldstein JL, Anderson RG, Brown MS. Coated pits, coated vesicles, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Nature. 1979 Jun 21;279(5715):679–685. [PubMed]
  • Goldstein SF, Holwill ME, Silvester NR. The effects of laser microbeam irradiation on the flagellum of Crithidia (Strigomonas) oncopelti. J Exp Biol. 1970 Oct;53(2):401–409. [PubMed]
  • Gottlieb M. Polysaccharides of crithidia fasciculata. Identification and partial characterization of a cell surface constituent. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Jul 17;541(4):444–458. [PubMed]
  • Gottlieb M, Lanzetta PA, Berech J., Jr Crithidia fasciculata: characterization of polysaccharide. Exp Parasitol. 1972 Oct;32(2):206–210. [PubMed]
  • Gottlieb M, Zahalsky M, Zahalsky A. Crithidia as a model organism? J Parasitol. 1972 Oct;58(5):1008–1009. [PubMed]
  • Gray MW. Dinucleotide sequences containing both base and sugar modifications in the ribosomal RNA of Crithidia fasciculata. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974 Dec 6;374(2):253–257. [PubMed]
  • Gruenberg J, Sharma PR, Deshusses J. D-Glucose transport in Trypanosoma brucei. D-Glucose transport is the rate-limiting step of its metabolism. Eur J Biochem. 1978 Sep 1;89(2):461–469. [PubMed]
  • Gueugnot J, Petavy AF, Guillot J, Damez M, Coulet M. Etude de la fixation de diverses lectines à la surface de Crithidia luciliae. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1976;170(4):782–786. [PubMed]
  • Gutteridge WE. Some effects of pentamidine di-isethionate on Crithidia fasciculata. J Protozool. 1969 May;16(2):306–311. [PubMed]
  • Gutteridge WE, Macadam RF. An electron microscopic study of the bipolar bodies in Crithidia oncopelti. J Protozool. 1971 Nov;18(4):637–644. [PubMed]
  • Guttman HN, Eisenman RN. Acriflavin-induced loss of kinetoplast deoxyribonucleic acid in Crithidia fasciculata (Culex pipiens strain). Nature. 1965 Sep 18;207(5003):1280–1281. [PubMed]
  • Hajduk SL. Demonstration of kinetoplast DNA in dyskinetoplastic strains of Trypanosoma equiperdum. Science. 1976 Feb 27;191(4229):858–859. [PubMed]
  • Hajduk SL. Dyskinetoplasty in two species of trypanosomatids. J Cell Sci. 1979 Feb;35:185–202. [PubMed]
  • HANSON WL, McGHEE RB. Experimental infection of the hemipteron Oncopeltus fasciatus with trypanosomatidae isolated from other hosts. J Protozool. 1963 May;10:233–238. [PubMed]
  • Hanson WL, McGhee RB, DeBoe JH. Experimental infection of Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus with Trypanosomatidae of the genera Crithidia and Blastocrithidia. J Protozool. 1968 May;15(2):346–349. [PubMed]
  • Harvey RB, Lee SB. FLAGELLATES OF LATICIFEROUS PLANTS. Plant Physiol. 1943 Oct;18(4):633–655. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Healy GR, Speilman A, Gleason N. Human babesiosis: reservoir in infection on Nantucket Island. Science. 1976 Apr 30;192(4238):479–480. [PubMed]
  • Hill GC. Electron transport systems in kinetoplastida. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Sep 27;456(2):149–193. [PubMed]
  • Hill GC, Anderson WA. Effects of acriflavine on the mitochondria and kinetoplast of Crithidia fasciculata. Correlation of fine structure changes with decreased mitochondrial enzyme activity. J Cell Biol. 1969 May;41(2):547–561. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hill GC, Bonilla CA. In vitro transcription of kinetoplast and nuclear DNA in Kinetoplastida. J Protozool. 1974 Nov;21(5):632–638. [PubMed]
  • Hill GC, Brown CA, Clark MV. Structure and function of mitochondria in crithidia fasciculata. J Protozool. 1968 Feb;15(1):102–109. [PubMed]
  • Hill GC, Chan SK, Smith L. Purification and properties of cytochrome c 555 from a protozoan, Crithidia fasciculata. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971 Nov 2;253(1):78–87. [PubMed]
  • Hill GC, Cross GA. Cyanide-resistant respiration and a branched cytochrome system in Kinetoplastidae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Jun 28;305(3):590–596. [PubMed]
  • Hill GC, Gutteridge WE, Mathewson NW. Purification and properties of cytochromes c from trypanosomatids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971 Aug 27;243(2):225–229. [PubMed]
  • Hill GC, Pettigrew GW. Evidence for the amino-acid sequence of Crithidia fasciculata Cytochrome c555. Eur J Biochem. 1975 Sep 1;57(1):265–271. [PubMed]
  • Hill RC, Morris CA, Weber MM. Chloramphenicol resistant mitochondrial protein synthesis in Crithidia fasciculata. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1975 Oct;170(2):392–399. [PubMed]
  • Hoeijmakers JH, Borst P. RNA from the insect trypanosome Crithidia luciliae contains transcripts of the maxi-circle and not of the mini-circle component of kinetoplast DNA. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Nov 21;521(1):407–411. [PubMed]
  • Holwill ME, McGregor JL. Micromanipulation of the flagellum of Crithidia oncopelti. I. Mechanical effects. J Exp Biol. 1974 Apr;60(2):437–444. [PubMed]
  • Holwill ME, McGregor JL. Control of flagellar wave movement in Crithidia oncopelti. Nature. 1975 May 8;255(5504):157–158. [PubMed]
  • Holwill ME, McGregor JL. Effects of calcium on flagellar movement in the trypanosome Crithidia oncopelti. J Exp Biol. 1976 Aug;65(1):229–242. [PubMed]
  • Ilan J, Ilan J. A possible role of the AUG codon in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in a eukaryotic orgamism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1970 Dec 14;224(2):614–619. [PubMed]
  • Janovy J., Jr Problems in the comparative physiology of some trypanosomatid flagellates. Acta Trop. 1977 Jun;34(2):177–184. [PubMed]
  • Janovy J, Jr, Daggett PM, Lee KW. Herpetomonas megaseliae: architectural rearrangements during amastigote formation. J Parasitol. 1974 Aug;60(4):716–718. [PubMed]
  • Janovy J, Jr, Lee KW, Brumbaugh JA. The differentiation of Herpetomonas megaseliae: ultrastructural observations. J Protozool. 1974 Feb;21(1):53–59. [PubMed]
  • Kidder GW, Nolan LL. Enzymatic synthesis of labeled carbamyl- aspartic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1975 Jul 8;65(1):420–426. [PubMed]
  • Kleisen CM, Borst P. Are 50% of all cellular proteins synthesized on mitochondrial ribosomes in Crithidia luciliae? Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Apr 16;390(1):78–81. [PubMed]
  • Kleisen CM, Borst P. Sequence heterogeneity of the mini-circles of kinetoplast DNA of Crithidia luciliae and evidence for the presence of a component more complex than mini-circle DNA in the kinetoplast network. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Nov 4;407(4):473–478. [PubMed]
  • Kleisen CM, Borst P, Weijers PJ. The structure of kinetoplast DNA. I. Properties of the intact multi-circular complex from Crithidia luciliae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 May 1;390(2):155–167. [PubMed]
  • Kleisen MC, Borst P, Weijers PJ. The structure of kinetoplast DNA. 1. The mini-circles of Crithidia lucilae are heterogeneous in base sequence. Eur J Biochem. 1976 Apr 15;64(1):141–151. [PubMed]
  • Kleisen CM, Weislogel PO, Fonck K, Borst P. The structure of kinetoplast DNA. 2. Characterization of a novel component of high complexity present in the kinetoplast DNA network of Crithidia luciliae. Eur J Biochem. 1976 Apr 15;64(1):153–160. [PubMed]
  • Kolesnikov AA, Abdurazzakov O, Semina IE, Zaitseva GN. Kharakteristika struktury kinetoplastnoi DNK Crithidia oncopelti po kinetike reassotsiatsii i plavleniiu. Biokhimiia. 1977 Aug;42(8):1392–1398. [PubMed]
  • Korn ED, Von Brand T, Tobie EJ. The sterols of Trypanosoma cruzi and Crithidia fasciculata. Comp Biochem Physiol. 1969 Aug 15;30(4):601–610. [PubMed]
  • Kostrikina NA, Biriuzova VI, Salikhov TA, Zaitseva GN. Elektronno-mikroskopicheskoe i biokhimicheskoe izuchenie bipoliarnykh tel kletki Crithidia oncopelti. Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Biol. 1974 Sep-Oct;(5):750–754. [PubMed]
  • Kronick P, Hill GC. Evidence for the functioning of cytochrome o in Kinetoplastida. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974 Nov 19;368(2):173–180. [PubMed]
  • Kusel JP, Boveris A, Storey BT. H2O2 production and cytochrome c peroxidase activity in mitochondria isolated from the trypanosomatid hemoflagellate Crithidia fasciculata. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1973 Oct;158(2):799–805. [PubMed]
  • Kusel JP, Storey BT. Low-temperature spectral properties of the respiratory chain cytochromes of mitochondria from Crithidia fasciculata. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Jun 28;305(3):570–580. [PubMed]
  • Kusel JP, Storey BT. CO-binding pigments and the functional terminal oxidase of the trypanosomatid hemoflagellate Crithidia fasciculata. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Aug 31;314(2):164–177. [PubMed]
  • Kusel JP, Storey BT. Midpoint potentials of the mitochondrial cytochromes of Crithidia fasciculata. J Bacteriol. 1976 Aug;127(2):812–816. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kusel JP, Suriano JR, Weber MM. Isolation, purification, and characterization of Crithidia fasciculata cytochrome c555. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1969 Sep;133(2):293–304. [PubMed]
  • Langridge DF, McGhee RB. Crithidia mellificae n. sp. an acidophilic trypanosomatid of the honey bee Apis mellifera. J Protozool. 1967 Aug;14(3):485–487. [PubMed]
  • Laub-Kupersztejn R, Thirion J. Existence of two distinct protein synthesis systems in the trypanosomatid Crithidia luciliae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974 Mar 27;340(3):314–322. [PubMed]
  • Leaver JL, Ramponi G. Occurrence of histones in the trypanosomatid flagellate Crithidia oncopelti. Biochem J. 1971 Nov;125(2):44P–44P. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Linder JC, Staehelin LA. Plasma membrane specializations in a trypanosomatid flagellate. J Ultrastruct Res. 1977 Aug;60(2):246–262. [PubMed]
  • Linder JC, Staehelin LA. A novel model for fluid secretion by the trypanosomatid contractile vacuole apparatus. J Cell Biol. 1979 Nov;83(2 Pt 1):371–382. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lyddiatt A, Boulter D. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c from the locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal. Biochem J. 1977 May 1;163(2):333–338. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Manaia AC, Roitman I. Effect of ethidium bromide on the oxidative metabolism and enzyme profiles of Crithidia fasciculata. J Protozool. 1977 Feb;24(1):192–195. [PubMed]
  • Marr JJ. Regulation of aerobic fermentation in protozoans. 3. Apparent unimportance of pyruvate kinase in carbohydrate metabolism. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1974 Nov 15;49(3):531–545. [PubMed]
  • Marr JJ, Berens RL. Regulation of aerobic fermentation in protozoans. VI Comparative biochemistry of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans. Acta Trop. 1977 Jun;34(2):143–155. [PubMed]
  • Marr JJ, Birenbaum ME, Ladenson JH. Crithidia fasciculata: appearance kinetics of intermediates and regulation of aerobic fermentation. Exp Parasitol. 1977 Aug;42(2):322–330. [PubMed]
  • McGHEE RB. The infection of avian embryos with crithidia species and Leishmania tarentola. J Infect Dis. 1959 Jul-Aug;105(1):18–25. [PubMed]
  • MCGHEE RB, HANSON WL. COMPARISON OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF LEPTOMONAS ONCOPELTI AND PHYTOMONAS ELMASSIANI. J Protozool. 1964 Nov;11:555–562. [PubMed]
  • McGhee RB, Hanson WL, Schmittner SM. Isolation, cloning and determination of biologic characteristics of five new species of Crithidia. J Protozool. 1969 Aug;16(3):514–520. [PubMed]
  • McGhee RB, McGhee AH. The relation of migration of Oncopeltus fasciatus to distribution of Phytomonas elmassiani in the eastern United States. J Protozool. 1971 May;18(2):344–352. [PubMed]
  • Mcghee RB, Postell FJ. Axenic cultivation of Phytomonas davidi Lafont (Trypanosomatidae), a symbiote of laticiferous plants (Euphorbiaceae). J Protozool. 1976 May;23(2):238–241. [PubMed]
  • Meyer H, Holz GG., Jr Biosynthesis of lipids by kinetoplastid flagellates. J Biol Chem. 1966 Nov 10;241(21):5000–5007. [PubMed]
  • Midgley M. The transport of alpha-aminoisobutyrate into Crithidia fasciculata. Biochem J. 1978 Jul 15;174(1):191–202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Min HS. Studies on the transport of carbohydrate in Crithidia luciliae. J Cell Physiol. 1965 Apr;65(2):243–248. [PubMed]
  • Min HS. Evidence of dual mechanisms for transport of carbohydrate in cells of Crithidia sp. from Arilus cristatus. Life Sci. 1968 Oct 15;7(20):1105–1110. [PubMed]
  • Mol JN, Flavell RA, Borst P. The presence of (dA.dT)20-25 tracts in the DNA of primitive eukaryotes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1976 Sep;3(9):2367–2377. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morales NM, Roberts JF. A comparative study of the ribonucleic acids of three species of trypanosomatids. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1978;59(1):1–4. [PubMed]
  • Morales NM, Roberts JF. The ribonucleic acids of Crithidia fasciculata. J Protozool. 1978 Feb;25(1):140–144. [PubMed]
  • Müller M. Biochemistry of protozoan microbodies: peroxisomes, alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase bodies, hydrogenosomes. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1975;29:467–483. [PubMed]
  • Mundim MH, Roitman I, Hermans MA, Kitajima EW. Simple nutrition of Crithidia deanei, a reduviid trypanosomatid with an endosymbiont. J Protozool. 1974 Oct;21(4):518–521. [PubMed]
  • Newton BA. Biochemical peculiarities of trypanosomatid flagellates. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1968;22:109–130. [PubMed]
  • Nichols JM, Cross GA. Extra components in kinetoplast DNA preparations from Crithidia fasciculata. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1976 Aug 9;71(3):796–802. [PubMed]
  • Nichols JM, Cross GA. Isolation of mitochondria and mitochondrial RNA from Crithidia fasciculata. J Gen Microbiol. 1977 Apr;99(2):291–300. [PubMed]
  • Nicolson GL. The interactions of lectins with animal cell surfaces. Int Rev Cytol. 1974;39:89–190. [PubMed]
  • Opperdoes FR, Borst P, Bakker S, Leene W. Localization of glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase in the mitochondrion and particulate NAD+-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the microbodies of the bloodstream form to Trypanosoma brucei. Eur J Biochem. 1977 Jun 1;76(1):29–39. [PubMed]
  • Opperdoes FR, Rijke DD, Borst P. Reactions involved in energy transfer in trypanosomes-I. Characterization of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator and the ATPase of Crithidia luciliae. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1976;54(1):7–12. [PubMed]
  • Palmer FB. Lipids of Crithidia fasciculata. The occurrence and turnover of phosphoinositides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Sep 25;316(3):296–304. [PubMed]
  • Palmer FB. Biosynthesis of choline and ethanolamine phospholipids in Crithidia fasciculata. J Protozool. 1974 Feb;21(1):160–163. [PubMed]
  • Parthasarathy MV, VAN Slobbe WG, Soudant C. Trypanosomatid flagellate in the Phloem of diseased coconut palms. Science. 1976 Jun 25;192(4246):1346–1348. [PubMed]
  • Paulin JJ. Ultrastructural observations on the kinetosome cycle of Crithidia fasciculata and its significance to other members of the order Kinetoplastida. Trans Am Microsc Soc. 1969 Jul;88(3):400–410. [PubMed]
  • Paulin JJ. The chondriome of selected trypanosomatids. A three-dimensional study based on serial thick sections and high voltage electron microscopy. J Cell Biol. 1975 Aug;66(2):404–413. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paulin JJ. Crithidia fasciculata: reconstruction of the mitochondrion based on serial thick sections and high-voltage electron microscopy. Exp Parasitol. 1977 Apr;41(2):283–289. [PubMed]
  • Paulin JJ, McGhee RB. An ultrasturctural study of the trypanosomatid, Phytomonas elmassiani, from the milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. J Parasitol. 1971 Dec;57(6):1279–1287. [PubMed]
  • Pereira NM, de Souza W, Machado RD, de Castro FT. Isolation and properties of flagella of trypanosomatids. J Protozool. 1977 Nov;24(4):511–514. [PubMed]
  • Pettigrew GW, Aviram I, Schejter A. Physicochemical properties of two atypical cytochromes c, Crithidia cytochrome c-557 and Euglena cytochrome c-558. Biochem J. 1975 Jul;149(1):155–167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pettigrew GW, Leaver JL, Meyer TE, Ryle AP. Purification, properties and amino acid sequence of atypical cytochrome c from two protozoa, Euglena gracilis and Crithidia oncopelti. Biochem J. 1975 May;147(2):291–302. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pettigrew GW, Smith GM. Novel N-terminal protein blocking group identified as dimethylproline. Nature. 1977 Feb 17;265(5595):661–662. [PubMed]
  • Plowman J, Cone JE, Guroff G. Identification of D-erythro-dihydroneopterin triphosphate, the first product of pteridine biosynthesis in Comamonas sp. (ATCC 11299a). J Biol Chem. 1974 Sep 10;249(17):5559–5564. [PubMed]
  • Reijnders L, Sloof P, Sival J, Borst P. Gel electrophoresis of RNA under denaturing conditions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Oct 26;324(3):320–333. [PubMed]
  • Renger HC, Wolstenholme DR. The form and structure of kinetoplast DNA of Crithidia. J Cell Biol. 1972 Aug;54(2):346–364. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rembold H, Buff K. Tetrahydrobiopterin, a cofactor in mitochondrial electron transfer. Effect of tetrahydropterins on intact rat-liver mitochondria. Eur J Biochem. 1972 Aug 4;28(4):579–585. [PubMed]
  • Rembold H, Langenbach T. Effect of colchicine on cell membrane and on biopterin transport in Crithidia fasciculata. J Protozool. 1978 Aug;25(3 Pt 2):404–408. [PubMed]
  • Rembold H, Vaubel A. Energy-dependent transport of pteridines into the trypanosomid flagellate, Crithidia fasciculata. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1970 Oct;351(10):1277–1279. [PubMed]
  • Rembold H, Vaubel A, Rao PJ. Effect of sugars, Na+-, and K+-ions on biopterin transport in Crithidia fasciculata. Arch Mikrobiol. 1974 Apr 10;97(1):51–62. [PubMed]
  • Rogers WE, Wallace FG. Two new subspecies of Herpetomonas muscarum (Leidy, 1856) Kent, 1880. J Protozool. 1971 Nov;18(4):645–654. [PubMed]
  • Shapiro A, Hutner SH, Katz L, Bacchi CJ, Tamburro KO, Baker H. Dense Crithidia growth and heme sparing: relation to Fe, Cu, Mo chelation. J Protozool. 1978 Nov;25(4):530–534. [PubMed]
  • Simpson AM, Simpson L. Isolation and characterization of kinetoplast DNA networks and minicircles from Crithidia fasciculata. J Protozool. 1974 Nov;21(5):774–781. [PubMed]
  • Simpson AM, Simpson L. Pulse-labeling of kinetoplast DNA: localization of 2 sites of synthesis within the networks and kinetics of labeling of closed minicircles. J Protozool. 1976 Nov;23(4):583–587. [PubMed]
  • Simpson L. Behavior of the kinetoplast of Leishmania tarentolae upon cell rupture. J Protozool. 1968 Feb;15(1):132–136. [PubMed]
  • Simpson L. Isolation of maxicircle component of kinetoplast DNA from hemoflagellate protozoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Apr;76(4):1585–1588. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Simpson L, Da Silva A. Isolation and characterization of kinetoplast DNA from Leishmania tarentolae. J Mol Biol. 1971 Mar 28;56(3):443–473. [PubMed]
  • Simpson L, Simpson AG. Kinetoplast RNA of Leishmania tarentolae. Cell. 1978 May;14(1):169–178. [PubMed]
  • Simpson L, Simpson AM, Wesley RD. Replication of the kinetoplast DNA of Leishmania tarentolae and Crithidia fasciculata. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974 May 17;349(2):161–172. [PubMed]
  • Sixel JL, Esteves MJ, Angluster J, De Souza W. Localization of concanavalin A binding sites on the cell membrane of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai: influence of growth conditions. Cytobiologie. 1978 Aug;17(2):421–432. [PubMed]
  • Souto-Padrón T, De Souza W. Ultrastructural localization of basic proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi. J Histochem Cytochem. 1978 May;26(5):349–358. [PubMed]
  • Spencer R, Cross GA. Purification and properties of nucleic acids from an unusual cytoplasmic organelle in the flagellate protozoan Crithidia oncopelti. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 May 1;390(2):141–154. [PubMed]
  • Srivastava HK. Carbon monoxide-reactive haemoproteins in parasitic flagellate Crithidia oncopelti. FEBS Lett. 1971 Aug 15;16(3):189–191. [PubMed]
  • Staehelin LA. Structure and function of intercellular junctions. Int Rev Cytol. 1974;39:191–283. [PubMed]
  • Steinert M. Reversible inhibition of the division of Crithidia luciliae by hydroxyurea and its use for obtaining synchronized cultures. FEBS Lett. 1969 Nov 29;5(4):291–294. [PubMed]
  • Steinert M. Specific loss of kinetoplastic DNA in trypanosomatidae treated with ethidium bromide. Exp Cell Res. 1969 May;55(2):248–252. [PubMed]
  • Steinert M, Van Assel S. The loss of kinetoplastic DNA in two species of Trypanosomatidae treated with acriflavine. J Cell Biol. 1967 Aug;34(2):489–503. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Steinert M, Van Assel S. Base compisition heterogeneity in kinetoplast DNA FROM FOUR SPECIES OF HEMOFLAGELLATES. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1974 Dec 23;61(4):1249–1255. [PubMed]
  • Steinert M, Assel S. Large circular mitochondrial DNA in Crithidia luciliae. Exp Cell Res. 1975 Dec;96(2):406–409. [PubMed]
  • Steinert M, Van Assel S, Borst P, Mol JN, Kleisen CM, Newton BA. Specific detection of kinetoplast DNA in cytological preparations of trypanosomes by hybridization with complementary RNA. Exp Cell Res. 1973 Jan;76(1):175–185. [PubMed]
  • Steinert M, Van Assel S, Steinert G. Etude, par autoradiographie, des effets du bromure d'éthidium sur la synthèse des acides nucléiques de Crithidia luciliae. Exp Cell Res. 1969 Jul;56(1):69–74. [PubMed]
  • Stingl G, Meingassner JG, Swelty P, Knapp W. An immunofluorescence procedure for the demonstration of antibodies to native, double-stranded DNA and of circulating DNA-anti-DNA complexes. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1976 Sep;6(2):131–140. [PubMed]
  • Sukhareva-Nemakova NN, Kornilova VF, Silaev AB. Vliianie tripaflavina na nakoplenie i sostav lipidov kul'tury Crithidia (Strigomonas) oncopelti. Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Biol. 1972 Mar-Apr;2:279–282. [PubMed]
  • Sukhareva-Nemakova NN, Titova TS, Silaev AB. Zavisimost' chuvstvitel'nosti Crithidia oncopelti k olivomitsinu ot soderzhaniia vnutrikletochnykh lipidov. Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Biol. 1975 Jan-Feb;(1):52–63. [PubMed]
  • Sukhareva-Nemakova NN, Zeleneva RN, Silaev AB. Napravlennyi biosintez lipidov v kletkakh prosteishego, ikh sostav i protivoopukholevye svoistva. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. 1972 Feb 21;202(6):1443–1446. [PubMed]
  • Titova TS, Sukhareva-Nemakova NN, Uriniuk VM, Silaey AB. Sostav lipidov Crithidia oncopelti s raznoi chuvstvitel'nost'iu k olivomitsinu. Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Biol. 1976 Sep-Oct;(5):754–759. [PubMed]
  • Toner JJ, Weber MM. Respiratory control in mitochondria from Crithidia fasciculata. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1972 Jan 31;46(2):652–660. [PubMed]
  • TRAGER W, RUDZINSKA MA. THE RIBOFLAVIN REQUIREMENT AND THE EFFECTS OF ACRIFLAVIN ON THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE KINETOPLAST OF LEISHMANIA TARENTOLAE. J Protozool. 1964 Feb;11:133–145. [PubMed]
  • Tuan RS, Chang KP. Isolation of intracellular symbiotes by immune lysis of flagellate protozoa and characterization of their DNA. J Cell Biol. 1975 May;65(2):309–323. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Van Assel S, Steinert M. Nuclear and kinetoplastic DNA replication cycles in normal and synchronously dividing Crithidia luciliae. Exp Cell Res. 1971 Apr;65(2):353–358. [PubMed]
  • Vanyushin BF, Kirnos MD. Structure of animal mitochondrial DNA (base composition, pyrimidine clusters, character of methylation). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Mar 18;475(2):323–336. [PubMed]
  • Vickerman K. On the surface coat and flagellar adhesion in trypanosomes. J Cell Sci. 1969 Jul;5(1):163–193. [PubMed]
  • Vickerman K. The free-living trypanoplasms: descriptions of three species of the genus Procryptobia n.g., and redescription of Dimastigella trypaniformis Sandon, with notes on their relevance to the microscopical diagnosis of disease in man and animals. Trans Am Microsc Soc. 1978 Oct;97(4):485–502. [PubMed]
  • Wallace FG. The trypanosomatid parasites of insects and arachnids. Exp Parasitol. 1966 Feb;18(1):124–193. [PubMed]
  • Wallace FG, Wagner M, Rogers WE. Varying kinetoplast ultrastructure in two subspecies of Herpetomonas muscarum (Leidy). J Protozool. 1973 May;20(2):218–222. [PubMed]
  • Weislogel PO, Hoeijmakers JH, Fairlamb AH, Kleisen CM, Borst P. Characterization of kinetoplast DNA networks from the insect trypanosome Crithidia luciliae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Sep 20;478(2):167–179. [PubMed]
  • Wolstenholme DR, Renger HC, Manning JE, Fouts DL. Kinetoplast DNA of Crithidia. J Protozool. 1974 Nov;21(5):622–631. [PubMed]
  • Zaitseva GN, Kolesnikov AA, Shirshov AT. The genetic system of kinetoplasts in trypanosomatides. Mol Cell Biochem. 1977 Feb 4;14(1-3):47–54. [PubMed]
  • Zeleneva RN, Sukhareva-Nemakova NN, Korzhenko VP. Aminokislotnyi sostav kul'tural'noi zhidkosti Crithidia (Strigomonas) oncopelti. Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Biol. 1973 Jan-Feb;(1):132–134. [PubMed]
  • Zeleneva RN, Sukhareva-Nemakova NN, Silaev AB. Sostav lipidov zhgutinostsa Crithidia oncopelti, kul'tiviruemogo na peptonnoi srede. Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Biol. 1975 Jan-Feb;(1):151–153. [PubMed]

Articles from Microbiological Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...