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Microbiol Rev. Sep 1992; 56(3): 412–429.
PMCID: PMC372878

Editing of errors in selection of amino acids for protein synthesis.

Abstract

All living cells must conduct protein synthesis with a high degree of accuracy maintained in the transmission and flow of information from gene to finished protein product. One crucial "quality control" point in maintaining a high level of accuracy is the selectivity by which aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases furnish correctly activated amino acids, attached to tRNA species, as the building blocks for growing protein chains. During selection of amino acids, synthetases very often have to distinguish the cognate substrate from a homolog having just one fewer methyl group in its structure. The binding energy of a methyl group is estimated to contribute only a factor of 100 to the specificity of binding, yet synthetases distinguish such closely related amino acids with a discrimination factor of 10,000 to 100,000. Examples of this include methionine versus homocysteine, isoleucine versus valine, alanine versus glycine, and threonine versus serine. Many investigators have demonstrated in vitro the ability of certain aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to edit, that is, correct or prevent incorrect attachment of amino acids to tRNA molecules. Several major editing pathways are now established from in vitro data. Further, at least some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have recently been shown to carry out the editing function in vivo. Editing has been demonstrated to occur in both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Significant energy is expended by the cell for editing of misactivated amino acids, which can be reflected in the growth rate. Because of this, cellular levels of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as well as amino acid biosynthetic pathways which yield competing substrates for protein synthesis, must be carefully regulated to prevent excessive editing. High-level expression of recombinant proteins imposes a strain on the biosynthetic capacity of the cell which frequently results in misincorporation of abnormal or wrong amino acids owing in part to limited editing by synthetases. Unbalanced amino acid pools associated with some genetic disorders in humans may also lead to errors in tRNA aminoacylation. The availability of X-ray crystallographic structures of some synthetases, combined with site-directed mutagenesis, allows insights into molecular details of the extraordinary selectivity of synthetases, including the editing function.

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