• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of microrevMicrobiol Mol Biol Rev ArchivePermissionsJournals.ASM.orgMMBR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Microbiol Rev. Mar 1992; 56(1): 195–228.
PMCID: PMC372861

Gene regulation of plasmid- and chromosome-determined inorganic ion transport in bacteria.

Abstract

Regulation of chromosomally determined nutrient cation and anion uptake systems shows important similarities to regulation of plasmid-determined toxic ion resistance systems that mediate the outward transport of deleterious ions. Chromosomally determined transport systems result in accumulation of K+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), and additional trace nutrients, while bacterial plasmids harbor highly specific resistance systems for AsO2-, AsO4(3-), CrO4(2-), Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, SbO2-, TeO3(2-), Zn2+, and other toxic ions. To study the regulation of these systems, we need to define both the trans-acting regulatory proteins and the cis-acting target operator DNA regions for the proteins. The regulation of gene expression for K+ and PO4(3-) transport systems involves two-component sensor-effector pairs of proteins. The first protein responds to an extracellular ionic (or related) signal and then transmits the signal to an intracellular DNA-binding protein. Regulation of Fe3+ transport utilizes the single iron-binding and DNA-binding protein Fur. The MerR regulatory protein for mercury resistance both represses and activates transcription. The ArsR regulatory protein functions as a repressor for the arsenic and antimony(III) efflux system. Although the predicted cadR regulatory gene has not been identified, cadmium, lead, bismuth, zinc, and cobalt induce this system in a carefully regulated manner from a single mRNA start site. The cadA Cd2+ resistance determinant encodes an E1(1)-1E2-class efflux ATPase (consisting of two polypeptides, rather than the one earlier identified). Cadmium resistance is also conferred by the czc system (which confers resistances to zinc and cobalt in Alcaligenes species) via a complex efflux pump consisting of four polypeptides. These two cadmium efflux systems are not otherwise related. For chromate resistance, reduced cellular accumulation is again the resistance mechanism, but the regulatory components are not identified. For other toxic heavy metals (with few exceptions), there exist specific plasmid resistances that remain relatively terra incognita for future exploration of bioinorganic molecular genetics and gene regulation.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (7.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Alloing G, Trombe MC, Claverys JP. The ami locus of the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is similar to binding protein-dependent transport operons of gram-negative bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1990 Apr;4(4):633–644. [PubMed]
  • Amemura M, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Nucleotide sequence of the phoM region of Escherichia coli: four open reading frames may constitute an operon. J Bacteriol. 1986 Oct;168(1):294–302. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Amemura M, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Cross talk to the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli by PhoM protein: PhoM is a histidine protein kinase and catalyzes phosphorylation of PhoB and PhoM-open reading frame 2. J Bacteriol. 1990 Nov;172(11):6300–6307. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ames GF, Nikaido K, Groarke J, Petithory J. Reconstitution of periplasmic transport in inside-out membrane vesicles. Energization by ATP. J Biol Chem. 1989 Mar 5;264(7):3998–4002. [PubMed]
  • Ansari AZ, Chael ML, O'Halloran TV. Allosteric underwinding of DNA is a critical step in positive control of transcription by Hg-MerR. Nature. 1992 Jan 2;355(6355):87–89. [PubMed]
  • Armstrong SK, Pettis GS, Forrester LJ, McIntosh MA. The Escherichia coli enterobactin biosynthesis gene, entD: nucleotide sequence and membrane localization of its protein product. Mol Microbiol. 1989 Jun;3(6):757–766. [PubMed]
  • Arnold FH, Haymore BL. Engineered metal-binding proteins: purification to protein folding. Science. 1991 Jun 28;252(5014):1796–1797. [PubMed]
  • Babich K, Engle M, Skinner JS, Laddaga RA. Deletion mutant analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 mercury-resistance determinant. Can J Microbiol. 1991 Aug;37(8):624–631. [PubMed]
  • Bachmann BJ. Linkage map of Escherichia coli K-12, edition 8. Microbiol Rev. 1990 Jun;54(2):130–197. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bagg A, Neilands JB. Molecular mechanism of regulation of siderophore-mediated iron assimilation. Microbiol Rev. 1987 Dec;51(4):509–518. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bagg A, Neilands JB. Ferric uptake regulation protein acts as a repressor, employing iron (II) as a cofactor to bind the operator of an iron transport operon in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1987 Aug 25;26(17):5471–5477. [PubMed]
  • Bell PE, Nau CD, Brown JT, Konisky J, Kadner RJ. Genetic suppression demonstrates interaction of TonB protein with outer membrane transport proteins in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jul;172(7):3826–3829. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bender CL, Malvick DK, Conway KE, George S, Pratt P. Characterization of pXV10A, a Copper Resistance Plasmid in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jan;56(1):170–175. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Braun V, Günter K, Hantke K. Transport of iron across the outer membrane. Biol Met. 1991;4(1):14–22. [PubMed]
  • Brown NL, Misra TK, Winnie JN, Schmidt A, Seiff M, Silver S. The nucleotide sequence of the mercuric resistance operons of plasmid R100 and transposon Tn501: further evidence for mer genes which enhance the activity of the mercuric ion detoxification system. Mol Gen Genet. 1986 Jan;202(1):143–151. [PubMed]
  • Brown NL, Rouch DA, Lee BT. Copper resistance determinants in bacteria. Plasmid. 1992 Jan;27(1):41–51. [PubMed]
  • Cervantes C, Ohtake H, Chu L, Misra TK, Silver S. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jan;172(1):287–291. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cervantes C, Silver S. Plasmid chromate resistance and chromate reduction. Plasmid. 1992 Jan;27(1):65–71. [PubMed]
  • Cha JS, Cooksey DA. Copper resistance in Pseudomonas syringae mediated by periplasmic and outer membrane proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Oct 15;88(20):8915–8919. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chen CM, Misra TK, Silver S, Rosen BP. Nucleotide sequence of the structural genes for an anion pump. The plasmid-encoded arsenical resistance operon. J Biol Chem. 1986 Nov 15;261(32):15030–15038. [PubMed]
  • Chen CM, Ye QZ, Zhu ZM, Wanner BL, Walsh CT. Molecular biology of carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage. Cloning and sequencing of the phn (psiD) genes involved in alkylphosphonate uptake and C-P lyase activity in Escherichia coli B. J Biol Chem. 1990 Mar 15;265(8):4461–4471. [PubMed]
  • Chenault SS, Earhart CF. Organization of genes encoding membrane proteins of the Escherichia coli ferrienterobactin permease. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Jun;5(6):1405–1413. [PubMed]
  • Cooksey DA. Characterization of a Copper Resistance Plasmid Conserved in Copper-Resistant Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987 Feb;53(2):454–456. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cooksey DA, Azad HR, Cha JS, Lim CK. Copper resistance gene homologs in pathogenic and saprophytic bacterial species from tomato. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Feb;56(2):431–435. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cox GB, Webb D, Godovac-Zimmermann J, Rosenberg H. Arg-220 of the PstA protein is required for phosphate transport through the phosphate-specific transport system in Escherichia coli but not for alkaline phosphatase repression. J Bacteriol. 1988 May;170(5):2283–2286. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cox GB, Webb D, Rosenberg H. Specific amino acid residues in both the PstB and PstC proteins are required for phosphate transport by the Escherichia coli Pst system. J Bacteriol. 1989 Mar;171(3):1531–1534. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coy M, Neilands JB. Structural dynamics and functional domains of the fur protein. Biochemistry. 1991 Aug 20;30(33):8201–8210. [PubMed]
  • Crosa JH. Genetics and molecular biology of siderophore-mediated iron transport in bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1989 Dec;53(4):517–530. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Davidson AL, Nikaido H. Overproduction, solubilization, and reconstitution of the maltose transport system from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1990 Mar 15;265(8):4254–4260. [PubMed]
  • Dean DA, Davidson AL, Nikaido H. Maltose transport in membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli is linked to ATP hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Dec;86(23):9134–9138. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • de Lorenzo V, Giovannini F, Herrero M, Neilands JB. Metal ion regulation of gene expression. Fur repressor-operator interaction at the promoter region of the aerobactin system of pColV-K30. J Mol Biol. 1988 Oct 20;203(4):875–884. [PubMed]
  • de Lorenzo V, Wee S, Herrero M, Neilands JB. Operator sequences of the aerobactin operon of plasmid ColV-K30 binding the ferric uptake regulation (fur) repressor. J Bacteriol. 1987 Jun;169(6):2624–2630. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Diels L, Mergeay M. DNA probe-mediated detection of resistant bacteria from soils highly polluted by heavy metals. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 May;56(5):1485–1491. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dreyfuss J, Pardee AB. Regulation of sulfate transport in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1966 Jun;91(6):2275–2280. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eberz G, Eitinger T, Friedrich B. Genetic determinants of a nickel-specific transport system are part of the plasmid-encoded hydrogenase gene cluster in Alcaligenes eutrophus. J Bacteriol. 1989 Mar;171(3):1340–1345. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Efstathiou JD, McKay LL. Inorganic salts resistance associated with a lactose-fermenting plasmid in Streptococcus lactis. J Bacteriol. 1977 Apr;130(1):257–265. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eitinger T, Friedrich B. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and heterologous expression of a high-affinity nickel transport gene from Alcaligenes eutrophus. J Biol Chem. 1991 Feb 15;266(5):3222–3227. [PubMed]
  • Elkins MF, Earhart CF. Nucleotide sequence and regulation of the Escherichia coli gene for ferrienterobactin transport protein FepB. J Bacteriol. 1989 Oct;171(10):5443–5451. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elmore MJ, Lamb AJ, Ritchie GY, Douglas RM, Munro A, Gajewska A, Booth IR. Activation of potassium efflux from Escherichia coli by glutathione metabolites. Mol Microbiol. 1990 Mar;4(3):405–412. [PubMed]
  • Epstein W, Walderhaug MO, Polarek JW, Hesse JE, Dorus E, Daniel JM. The bacterial Kdp K(+)-ATPase and its relation to other transport ATPases, such as the Na+/K(+)- and Ca2(+)-ATPases in higher organisms. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1990 Jan 30;326(1236):479–487. [PubMed]
  • Feng DF, Doolittle RF. Progressive sequence alignment as a prerequisite to correct phylogenetic trees. J Mol Evol. 1987;25(4):351–360. [PubMed]
  • Fisher S, Buxbaum L, Toth K, Eisenstadt E, Silver S. Regulation of manganese accumulation and exchange in Bacillus subtilis W23. J Bacteriol. 1973 Mar;113(3):1373–1380. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Foster TJ. The genetics and biochemistry of mercury resistance. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1987;15(2):117–140. [PubMed]
  • Foster TJ, Brown NL. Identification of the merR gene of R100 by using mer-lac gene and operon fusions. J Bacteriol. 1985 Sep;163(3):1153–1157. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Foster TJ, Nakahara H, Weiss AA, Silver S. Transposon A-generated mutations in the mercuric resistance genes of plasmid R100-1. J Bacteriol. 1979 Oct;140(1):167–181. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frantz B, O'Halloran TV. DNA distortion accompanies transcriptional activation by the metal-responsive gene-regulatory protein MerR. Biochemistry. 1990 May 22;29(20):4747–4751. [PubMed]
  • Gardel C, Johnson K, Jacq A, Beckwith J. The secD locus of E.coli codes for two membrane proteins required for protein export. EMBO J. 1990 Oct;9(10):3209–3216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gibson MM, Bagga DA, Miller CG, Maguire ME. Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: the influence of new mutations conferring Co2+ resistance on the CorA Mg2+ transport system. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Nov;5(11):2753–2762. [PubMed]
  • Green LS, Laudenbach DE, Grossman AR. A region of a cyanobacterial genome required for sulfate transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Mar;86(6):1949–1953. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Griffin HG, Foster TJ, Silver S, Misra TK. Cloning and DNA sequence of the mercuric- and organomercurial-resistance determinants of plasmid pDU1358. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 May;84(10):3112–3116. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Griggs DW, Konisky J. Mechanism for iron-regulated transcription of the Escherichia coli cir gene: metal-dependent binding of fur protein to the promoters. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):1048–1054. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Günter K, Braun V. In vivo evidence for FhuA outer membrane receptor interaction with the TonB inner membrane protein of Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1990 Nov 12;274(1-2):85–88. [PubMed]
  • Hannavy K, Barr GC, Dorman CJ, Adamson J, Mazengera LR, Gallagher MP, Evans JS, Levine BA, Trayer IP, Higgins CF. TonB protein of Salmonella typhimurium. A model for signal transduction between membranes. J Mol Biol. 1990 Dec 20;216(4):897–910. [PubMed]
  • Hantke K. Regulation of ferric iron transport in Escherichia coli K12: isolation of a constitutive mutant. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;182(2):288–292. [PubMed]
  • Hantke K. Selection procedure for deregulated iron transport mutants (fur) in Escherichia coli K 12: fur not only affects iron metabolism. Mol Gen Genet. 1987 Nov;210(1):135–139. [PubMed]
  • Hausinger RP. Nickel utilization by microorganisms. Microbiol Rev. 1987 Mar;51(1):22–42. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • He JJ, Quiocho FA. A nonconservative serine to cysteine mutation in the sulfate-binding protein, a transport receptor. Science. 1991 Mar 22;251(5000):1479–1481. [PubMed]
  • Hellinga HW, Evans PR. Nucleotide sequence and high-level expression of the major Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase. Eur J Biochem. 1985 Jun 3;149(2):363–373. [PubMed]
  • Helmann JD, Ballard BT, Walsh CT. The MerR metalloregulatory protein binds mercuric ion as a tricoordinate, metal-bridged dimer. Science. 1990 Feb 23;247(4945):946–948. [PubMed]
  • Helmann JD, Shewchuk LM, Walsh CT. Regulation of gene expression by mercury. Adv Inorg Biochem. 1990;8:33–61. [PubMed]
  • Helmann JD, Wang Y, Mahler I, Walsh CT. Homologous metalloregulatory proteins from both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria control transcription of mercury resistance operons. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jan;171(1):222–229. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heltzel A, Gambill D, Jackson WJ, Totis PA, Summers AO. Overexpression and DNA-binding properties of the mer-encoded regulatory protein from plasmid NR1 (Tn21). J Bacteriol. 1987 Jul;169(7):3379–3384. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heltzel A, Lee IW, Totis PA, Summers AO. Activator-dependent preinduction binding of sigma-70 RNA polymerase at the metal-regulated mer promoter. Biochemistry. 1990 Oct 16;29(41):9572–9584. [PubMed]
  • Henikoff S, Haughn GW, Calvo JM, Wallace JC. A large family of bacterial activator proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Sep;85(18):6602–6606. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hennecke H. Regulation of bacterial gene expression by metal-protein complexes. Mol Microbiol. 1990 Oct;4(10):1621–1628. [PubMed]
  • Higgins CF, Hinton JC, Hulton CS, Owen-Hughes T, Pavitt GD, Seirafi A. Protein H1: a role for chromatin structure in the regulation of bacterial gene expression and virulence? Mol Microbiol. 1990 Dec;4(12):2007–2012. [PubMed]
  • Hmiel SP, Snavely MD, Florer JB, Maguire ME, Miller CG. Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: genetic characterization and cloning of three magnesium transport loci. J Bacteriol. 1989 Sep;171(9):4742–4751. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hryniewicz MM, Kredich NM. The cysP promoter of Salmonella typhimurium: characterization of two binding sites for CysB protein, studies of in vivo transcription initiation, and demonstration of the anti-inducer effects of thiosulfate. J Bacteriol. 1991 Sep;173(18):5876–5886. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hryniewicz M, Sirko A, Pałucha A, Böck A, Hulanicka D. Sulfate and thiosulfate transport in Escherichia coli K-12: identification of a gene encoding a novel protein involved in thiosulfate binding. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jun;172(6):3358–3366. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ching MH, Kaur P, Karkaria CE, Steiner RF, Rosen BP. Substrate-induced dimerization of the ArsA protein, the catalytic component of an anion-translocating ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1991 Feb 5;266(4):2327–2332. [PubMed]
  • Hsu CM, Rosen BP. Characterization of the catalytic subunit of an anion pump. J Biol Chem. 1989 Oct 15;264(29):17349–17354. [PubMed]
  • Hulton CS, Seirafi A, Hinton JC, Sidebotham JM, Waddell L, Pavitt GD, Owen-Hughes T, Spassky A, Buc H, Higgins CF. Histone-like protein H1 (H-NS), DNA supercoiling, and gene expression in bacteria. Cell. 1990 Nov 2;63(3):631–642. [PubMed]
  • Inoue C, Sugawara K, Kusano T. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans mer operon: sequence analysis of the promoter and adjacent genes. Gene. 1990 Nov 30;96(1):115–120. [PubMed]
  • Inoue C, Sugawara K, Kusano T. The merR regulatory gene in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is spaced apart from the mer structural genes. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Nov;5(11):2707–2718. [PubMed]
  • Inoue C, Sugawara K, Shiratori T, Kusano T, Kitagawa Y. Nucleotide sequence of the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans chromosomal gene encoding mercuric reductase. Gene. 1989 Dec 7;84(1):47–54. [PubMed]
  • Jacobson BL, Quiocho FA. Sulfate-binding protein dislikes protonated oxyacids. A molecular explanation. J Mol Biol. 1988 Dec 5;204(3):783–787. [PubMed]
  • Joerger RD, Bishop PE. Nucleotide sequence and genetic analysis of the nifB-nifQ region from Azotobacter vinelandii. J Bacteriol. 1988 Apr;170(4):1475–1487. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Karkaria CE, Chen CM, Rosen BP. Mutagenesis of a nucleotide-binding site of an anion-translocating ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1990 May 15;265(14):7832–7836. [PubMed]
  • Karkaria CE, Rosen BP. Trinitrophenyl-ATP binding to the ArsA protein: the catalytic subunit of an anion pump. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 Jul;288(1):107–111. [PubMed]
  • Karkaria CE, Steiner RF, Rosen BP. Ligand interactions in the ArsA protein, the catalytic component of an anion-translocating adenosinetriphosphatase. Biochemistry. 1991 Mar 12;30(10):2625–2628. [PubMed]
  • Karpel R, Alon T, Glaser G, Schuldiner S, Padan E. Expression of a sodium proton antiporter (NhaA) in Escherichia coli is induced by Na+ and Li+ ions. J Biol Chem. 1991 Nov 15;266(32):21753–21759. [PubMed]
  • Karpel R, Olami Y, Taglicht D, Schuldiner S, Padan E. Sequencing of the gene ant which affects the Na+/H+ antiporter activity in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 25;263(21):10408–10414. [PubMed]
  • Kasahara M, Makino K, Amemura M, Nakata A, Shinagawa H. Dual regulation of the ugp operon by phosphate and carbon starvation at two interspaced promoters. J Bacteriol. 1991 Jan;173(2):549–558. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaur P, Rosen BP. Plasmid-encoded resistance to arsenic and antimony. Plasmid. 1992 Jan;27(1):29–40. [PubMed]
  • Kimura S, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli: characterization of the promoter of the pstS gene. Mol Gen Genet. 1989 Feb;215(3):374–380. [PubMed]
  • Köster W. Iron(III) hydroxamate transport across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. Biol Met. 1991;4(1):23–32. [PubMed]
  • Kusano T, Ji GY, Inoue C, Silver S. Constitutive synthesis of a transport function encoded by the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans merC gene cloned in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990 May;172(5):2688–2692. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kustu S, North AK, Weiss DS. Prokaryotic transcriptional enhancers and enhancer-binding proteins. Trends Biochem Sci. 1991 Nov;16(11):397–402. [PubMed]
  • Laddaga RA, Chu L, Misra TK, Silver S. Nucleotide sequence and expression of the mercurial-resistance operon from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Aug;84(15):5106–5110. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laddaga RA, Bessen R, Silver S. Cadmium-resistant mutant of Bacillus subtilis 168 with reduced cadmium transport. J Bacteriol. 1985 Jun;162(3):1106–1110. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laimins LA, Rhoads DB, Epstein W. Osmotic control of kdp operon expression in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Jan;78(1):464–468. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laudenbach DE, Grossman AR. Characterization and mutagenesis of sulfur-regulated genes in a cyanobacterium: evidence for function in sulfate transport. J Bacteriol. 1991 May;173(9):2739–2750. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee TY, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Overproduction of acetate kinase activates the phosphate regulon in the absence of the phoR and phoM functions in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990 May;172(5):2245–2249. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liu J, Walsh CT. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase from Escherichia coli: a periplasmic homolog of cyclophilin that is not inhibited by cyclosporin A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jun;87(11):4028–4032. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lloyd-Jones G, Ritchie DA, Strike P. Biochemical and biophysical analysis of plasmid pMJ600-encoded tellurite [TeO2(3-)] resistance. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1991 Jun 1;65(1):19–24. [PubMed]
  • Luecke H, Quiocho FA. High specificity of a phosphate transport protein determined by hydrogen bonds. Nature. 1990 Sep 27;347(6291):402–406. [PubMed]
  • Lund PA, Brown NL. Regulation of transcription in Escherichia coli from the mer and merR promoters in the transposon Tn501. J Mol Biol. 1989 Jan 20;205(2):343–353. [PubMed]
  • Lund PA, Ford SJ, Brown NL. Transcriptional regulation of the mercury-resistance genes of transposon Tn501. J Gen Microbiol. 1986 Feb;132(2):465–480. [PubMed]
  • Makino K, Kim SK, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Nakata A. Molecular analysis of the cryptic and functional phn operons for phosphonate use in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1991 Apr;173(8):2665–2672. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Kawamoto T, Yamada M, Nakata A. Signal transduction in the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli involves phosphotransfer between PhoR and PhoB proteins. J Mol Biol. 1989 Dec 5;210(3):551–559. [PubMed]
  • Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Kimura S, Nakata A, Ishihama A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli. Activation of pstS transcription by PhoB protein in vitro. J Mol Biol. 1988 Sep 5;203(1):85–95. [PubMed]
  • Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Nakata A. Nucleotide sequence of the phoB gene, the positive regulatory gene for the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli K-12. J Mol Biol. 1986 Jul 5;190(1):37–44. [PubMed]
  • Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Nakata A. Nucleotide sequence of the phoR gene, a regulatory gene for the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1986 Dec 5;192(3):549–556. [PubMed]
  • Maloney PC, Ambudkar SV, Anatharam V, Sonna LA, Varadhachary A. Anion-exchange mechanisms in bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1990 Mar;54(1):1–17. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mellano MA, Cooksey DA. Nucleotide sequence and organization of copper resistance genes from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. J Bacteriol. 1988 Jun;170(6):2879–2883. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mellano MA, Cooksey DA. Induction of the copper resistance operon from Pseudomonas syringae. J Bacteriol. 1988 Sep;170(9):4399–4401. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Misra TK, Brown NL, Fritzinger DC, Pridmore RD, Barnes WM, Haberstroh L, Silver S. Mercuric ion-resistance operons of plasmid R100 and transposon Tn501: the beginning of the operon including the regulatory region and the first two structural genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Oct;81(19):5975–5979. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Misra TK, Brown NL, Haberstroh L, Schmidt A, Goddette D, Silver S. Mercuric reductase structural genes from plasmid R100 and transposon Tn501: functional domains of the enzyme. Gene. 1985;34(2-3):253–262. [PubMed]
  • Moore MJ, Distefano MD, Walsh CT, Schiering N, Pai EF. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of the flavoenzyme mercuric ion reductase from Bacillus sp. strain RC607. J Biol Chem. 1989 Aug 25;264(24):14386–14388. [PubMed]
  • Mukhopadhyay D, Yu HR, Nucifora G, Misra TK. Purification and functional characterization of MerD. A coregulator of the mercury resistance operon in gram-negative bacteria. J Biol Chem. 1991 Oct 5;266(28):18538–18542. [PubMed]
  • Munro AW, Ritchie GY, Lamb AJ, Douglas RM, Booth IR. The cloning and DNA sequence of the gene for the glutathione-regulated potassium-efflux system KefC of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Mar;5(3):607–616. [PubMed]
  • Murphy CK, Kalve VI, Klebba PE. Surface topology of the Escherichia coli K-12 ferric enterobactin receptor. J Bacteriol. 1990 May;172(5):2736–2746. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nahlik MS, Brickman TJ, Ozenberger BA, McIntosh MA. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional organization of the Escherichia coli enterobactin biosynthesis cistrons entB and entA. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):784–790. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakahara H, Ishikawa T, Sarai Y, Kondo I. Frequency of heavy-metal resistance in bacteria from inpatients in Japan. Nature. 1977 Mar 10;266(5598):165–167. [PubMed]
  • Nakahara H, Silver S, Miki T, Rownd RH. Hypersensitivity to Hg2+ and hyperbinding activity associated with cloned fragments of the mercurial resistance operon of plasmid NR1. J Bacteriol. 1979 Oct;140(1):161–166. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nau CD, Konisky J. Evolutionary relationship between the TonB-dependent outer membrane transport proteins: nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the Escherichia coli colicin I receptor gene. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):1041–1047. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Neilands JB. Microbial iron compounds. Annu Rev Biochem. 1981;50:715–731. [PubMed]
  • Ni'Bhriain NN, Silver S, Foster TJ. Tn5 insertion mutations in the mercuric ion resistance genes derived from plasmid R100. J Bacteriol. 1983 Aug;155(2):690–703. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nies A, Nies DH, Silver S. Cloning and expression of plasmid genes encoding resistances to chromate and cobalt in Alcaligenes eutrophus. J Bacteriol. 1989 Sep;171(9):5065–5070. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nies A, Nies DH, Silver S. Nucleotide sequence and expression of a plasmid-encoded chromate resistance determinant from Alcaligenes eutrophus. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 5;265(10):5648–5653. [PubMed]
  • Nies D, Mergeay M, Friedrich B, Schlegel HG. Cloning of plasmid genes encoding resistance to cadmium, zinc, and cobalt in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. J Bacteriol. 1987 Oct;169(10):4865–4868. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nies DH. Resistance to cadmium, cobalt, zinc, and nickel in microbes. Plasmid. 1992 Jan;27(1):17–28. [PubMed]
  • Nies DH, Nies A, Chu L, Silver S. Expression and nucleotide sequence of a plasmid-determined divalent cation efflux system from Alcaligenes eutrophus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Oct;86(19):7351–7355. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nies DH, Silver S. Plasmid-determined inducible efflux is responsible for resistance to cadmium, zinc, and cobalt in Alcaligenes eutrophus. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):896–900. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nies DH, Silver S. Metal ion uptake by a plasmid-free metal-sensitive Alcaligenes eutrophus strain. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jul;171(7):4073–4075. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Novick RP, Murphy E, Gryczan TJ, Baron E, Edelman I. Penicillinase plasmids of Staphylococcus aureus: restriction-deletion maps. Plasmid. 1979 Jan;2(1):109–129. [PubMed]
  • Novick RP, Roth C. Plasmid-linked resistance to inorganic salts in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1968 Apr;95(4):1335–1342. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nucifora G, Chu L, Misra TK, Silver S. Cadmium resistance from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadA gene results from a cadmium-efflux ATPase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 May;86(10):3544–3548. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nucifora G, Chu L, Silver S, Misra TK. Mercury operon regulation by the merR gene of the organomercurial resistance system of plasmid pDU1358. J Bacteriol. 1989 Aug;171(8):4241–4247. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nucifora G, Silver S, Misra TK. Down regulation of the mercury resistance operon by the most promoter-distal gene merD. Mol Gen Genet. 1989 Dec;220(1):69–72. [PubMed]
  • O'Halloran TV, Frantz B, Shin MK, Ralston DM, Wright JG. The MerR heavy metal receptor mediates positive activation in a topologically novel transcription complex. Cell. 1989 Jan 13;56(1):119–129. [PubMed]
  • O'Halloran T, Walsh C. Metalloregulatory DNA-binding protein encoded by the merR gene: isolation and characterization. Science. 1987 Jan 9;235(4785):211–214. [PubMed]
  • Ohtake H, Cervantes C, Silver S. Decreased chromate uptake in Pseudomonas fluorescens carrying a chromate resistance plasmid. J Bacteriol. 1987 Aug;169(8):3853–3856. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ostrowski J, Jagura-Burdzy G, Kredich NM. DNA sequences of the cysB regions of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1987 May 5;262(13):5999–6005. [PubMed]
  • Ostrowski J, Kredich NM. Molecular characterization of the cysJIH promoters of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli: regulation by cysB protein and N-acetyl-L-serine. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jan;171(1):130–140. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ouzounis C, Sander C. A structure-derived sequence pattern for the detection of type I copper binding domains in distantly related proteins. FEBS Lett. 1991 Feb 11;279(1):73–78. [PubMed]
  • Owolabi JB, Rosen BP. Differential mRNA stability controls relative gene expression within the plasmid-encoded arsenical resistance operon. J Bacteriol. 1990 May;172(5):2367–2371. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ozenberger BA, Brickman TJ, McIntosh MA. Nucleotide sequence of Escherichia coli isochorismate synthetase gene entC and evolutionary relationship of isochorismate synthetase and other chorismate-utilizing enzymes. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):775–783. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ozenberger BA, Nahlik MS, McIntosh MA. Genetic organization of multiple fep genes encoding ferric enterobactin transport functions in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1987 Aug;169(8):3638–3646. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Padan E, Maisler N, Taglicht D, Karpel R, Schuldiner S. Deletion of ant in Escherichia coli reveals its function in adaptation to high salinity and an alternative Na+/H+ antiporter system(s). J Biol Chem. 1989 Dec 5;264(34):20297–20302. [PubMed]
  • Parkhill J, Brown NL. Site-specific insertion and deletion mutants in the mer promoter-operator region of Tn501; the nineteen base-pair spacer is essential for normal induction of the promoter by MerR. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Sep 11;18(17):5157–5162. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Perry RD, Silver S. Cadmium and manganese transport in Staphylococcus aureus membrane vesicles. J Bacteriol. 1982 May;150(2):973–976. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pflugrath JW, Quiocho FA. Sulphate sequestered in the sulphate-binding protein of Salmonella typhimurium is bound solely by hydrogen bonds. Nature. 1985 Mar 21;314(6008):257–260. [PubMed]
  • Pierce JR, Earhart CF. Escherichia coli K-12 envelope proteins specifically required for ferrienterobactin uptake. J Bacteriol. 1986 Jun;166(3):930–936. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pressler U, Staudenmaier H, Zimmermann L, Braun V. Genetics of the iron dicitrate transport system of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1988 Jun;170(6):2716–2724. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Quiocho FA. Atomic structures of periplasmic binding proteins and the high-affinity active transport systems in bacteria. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1990 Jan 30;326(1236):341–352. [PubMed]
  • Ralston DM, O'Halloran TV. Ultrasensitivity and heavy-metal selectivity of the allosterically modulated MerR transcription complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 May;87(10):3846–3850. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rao NN, Torriani A. Molecular aspects of phosphate transport in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1990 Jul;4(7):1083–1090. [PubMed]
  • Rogers SD, Bhave MR, Mercer JF, Camakaris J, Lee BT. Cloning and characterization of cutE, a gene involved in copper transport in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991 Nov;173(21):6742–6748. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rosen BP, Hsu CM, Karkaria CE, Owolabi JB, Tisa LS. Molecular analysis of an ATP-dependent anion pump. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1990 Jan 30;326(1236):455–463. [PubMed]
  • Rosen BP, Weigel U, Karkaria C, Gangola P. Molecular characterization of an anion pump. The arsA gene product is an arsenite(antimonate)-stimulated ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1988 Mar 5;263(7):3067–3070. [PubMed]
  • Rosen BP, Weigel U, Monticello RA, Edwards BP. Molecular analysis of an anion pump: purification of the ArsC protein. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991 Feb 1;284(2):381–385. [PubMed]
  • Ross W, Park SJ, Summers AO. Genetic analysis of transcriptional activation and repression in the Tn21 mer operon. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jul;171(7):4009–4018. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saito T, Duly D, Williams RJ. The histidines of the iron-uptake regulation protein, Fur. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Apr 10;197(1):39–42. [PubMed]
  • Saito T, Williams RJ. The binding of the ferric uptake regulation protein to a DNA fragment. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Apr 10;197(1):43–47. [PubMed]
  • Saito T, Wormald MR, Williams RJ. Some structural features of the iron-uptake regulation protein. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Apr 10;197(1):29–38. [PubMed]
  • San Francisco MJ, Hope CL, Owolabi JB, Tisa LS, Rosen BP. Identification of the metalloregulatory element of the plasmid-encoded arsenical resistance operon. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Feb 11;18(3):619–624. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • San Francisco MJ, Tisa LS, Rosen BP. Identification of the membrane component of the anion pump encoded by the arsenical resistance operon of R-factor R773. Mol Microbiol. 1989 Jan;3(1):15–21. [PubMed]
  • Schiering N, Kabsch W, Moore MJ, Distefano MD, Walsh CT, Pai EF. Structure of the detoxification catalyst mercuric ion reductase from Bacillus sp. strain RC607. Nature. 1991 Jul 11;352(6331):168–172. [PubMed]
  • Serrano R. Structure and function of proton translocating ATPase in plasma membranes of plants and fungi. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Feb 24;947(1):1–28. [PubMed]
  • Serrano R, Portillo F. Catalytic and regulatory sites of yeast plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase studied by directed mutagenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Jul 25;1018(2-3):195–199. [PubMed]
  • Shea CM, McIntosh MA. Nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of the ferric enterobactin transport system: homology to other periplasmic binding protein-dependent systems in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Jun;5(6):1415–1428. [PubMed]
  • Shewchuk LM, Helmann JD, Ross W, Park SJ, Summers AO, Walsh CT. Transcriptional switching by the MerR protein: activation and repression mutants implicate distinct DNA and mercury(II) binding domains. Biochemistry. 1989 Mar 7;28(5):2340–2344. [PubMed]
  • Siddiqui RA, Benthin K, Schlegel HG. Cloning of pMOL28-encoded nickel resistance genes and expression of the genes in Alcaligenes eutrophus and Pseudomonas spp. J Bacteriol. 1989 Sep;171(9):5071–5078. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siddiqui RA, Schlegel HG, Meyer M. Inducible and constitutive expression of pMOL28-encoded nickel resistance in Alcaligenes eutrophus N9A. J Bacteriol. 1988 Sep;170(9):4188–4193. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Silver S, Budd K, Leahy KM, Shaw WV, Hammond D, Novick RP, Willsky GR, Malamy MH, Rosenberg H. Inducible plasmid-determined resistance to arsenate, arsenite, and antimony (III) in escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1981 Jun;146(3):983–996. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Silver S, Keach D. Energy-dependent arsenate efflux: the mechanism of plasmid-mediated resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Oct;79(20):6114–6118. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Silver S, Misra TK. Plasmid-mediated heavy metal resistances. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1988;42:717–743. [PubMed]
  • Silver S, Nucifora G, Chu L, Misra TK. Bacterial resistance ATPases: primary pumps for exporting toxic cations and anions. Trends Biochem Sci. 1989 Feb;14(2):76–80. [PubMed]
  • Sirko A, Hryniewicz M, Hulanicka D, Böck A. Sulfate and thiosulfate transport in Escherichia coli K-12: nucleotide sequence and expression of the cysTWAM gene cluster. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jun;172(6):3351–3357. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Skinner JS, Ribot E, Laddaga RA. Transcriptional analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 mercury resistance determinant. J Bacteriol. 1991 Aug;173(16):5234–5238. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith K, Novick RP. Genetic studies on plasmid-linked cadmium resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1972 Nov;112(2):761–772. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Snavely MD, Florer JB, Miller CG, Maguire ME. Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: expression of cloned genes for three distinct Mg2+ transport systems. J Bacteriol. 1989 Sep;171(9):4752–4760. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Snavely MD, Florer JB, Miller CG, Maguire ME. Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: 28Mg2+ transport by the CorA, MgtA, and MgtB systems. J Bacteriol. 1989 Sep;171(9):4761–4766. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Snavely MD, Gravina SA, Cheung TT, Miller CG, Maguire ME. Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium. Regulation of mgtA and mgtB expression. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jan 15;266(2):824–829. [PubMed]
  • Snavely MD, Miller CG, Maguire ME. The mgtB Mg2+ transport locus of Salmonella typhimurium encodes a P-type ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jan 15;266(2):815–823. [PubMed]
  • Staab JF, Earhart CF. EntG activity of Escherichia coli enterobactin synthetase. J Bacteriol. 1990 Nov;172(11):6403–6410. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Staudenmaier H, Van Hove B, Yaraghi Z, Braun V. Nucleotide sequences of the fecBCDE genes and locations of the proteins suggest a periplasmic-binding-protein-dependent transport mechanism for iron(III) dicitrate in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989 May;171(5):2626–2633. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stock JB, Ninfa AJ, Stock AM. Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1989 Dec;53(4):450–490. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Storz G, Tartaglia LA, Ames BN. Transcriptional regulator of oxidative stress-inducible genes: direct activation by oxidation. Science. 1990 Apr 13;248(4952):189–194. [PubMed]
  • Summers AO. Organization, expression, and evolution of genes for mercury resistance. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1986;40:607–634. [PubMed]
  • Summers AO, Jacoby GA. Plasmid-determined resistance to boron and chromium compounds in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1978 Apr;13(4):637–640. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tabillion R, Kaltwasser H. Energieabhängige 63Ni-Aufnahme bei Alcaligenes eutrophus Stamm H1 und H16. Arch Microbiol. 1977 May 13;113(1-2):145–151. [PubMed]
  • Taglicht D, Padan E, Schuldiner S. Overproduction and purification of a functional Na+/H+ antiporter coded by nhaA (ant) from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jun 15;266(17):11289–11294. [PubMed]
  • Tetaz TJ, Luke RK. Plasmid-controlled resistance to copper in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1983 Jun;154(3):1263–1268. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tisa LS, Rosen BP. Molecular characterization of an anion pump. The ArsB protein is the membrane anchor for the ArsA protein. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jan 5;265(1):190–194. [PubMed]
  • Tisa LS, Rosen BP. Transport systems encoded by bacterial plasmids. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1990 Aug;22(4):493–507. [PubMed]
  • Torriani A. From cell membrane to nucleotides: the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. Bioessays. 1990 Aug;12(8):371–376. [PubMed]
  • Trevors JT. Copper resistance in bacteria. Microbiol Sci. 1987 Jan;4(1):29–31. [PubMed]
  • Tsai KJ, Yoon KP, Lynn AR. ATP-dependent cadmium transport by the cadA cadmium resistance determinant in everted membrane vesicles of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1992 Jan;174(1):116–121. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tynecka Z, Gos Z, Zajac J. Energy-dependent efflux of cadmium coded by a plasmid resistance determinant in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1981 Aug;147(2):313–319. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Van Hove B, Staudenmaier H, Braun V. Novel two-component transmembrane transcription control: regulation of iron dicitrate transport in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1990 Dec;172(12):6749–6758. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Walderhaug MO, Litwack ED, Epstein W. Wide distribution of homologs of Escherichia coli Kdp K+-ATPase among gram-negative bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):1192–1195. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Walsh CT, Distefano MD, Moore MJ, Shewchuk LM, Verdine GL. Molecular basis of bacterial resistance to organomercurial and inorganic mercuric salts. FASEB J. 1988 Feb;2(2):124–130. [PubMed]
  • Walter EG, Taylor DE. Plasmid-mediated resistance to tellurite: expressed and cryptic. Plasmid. 1992 Jan;27(1):52–64. [PubMed]
  • Wang Y, Moore M, Levinson HS, Silver S, Walsh C, Mahler I. Nucleotide sequence of a chromosomal mercury resistance determinant from a Bacillus sp. with broad-spectrum mercury resistance. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jan;171(1):83–92. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wanner BL, McSharry R. Phosphate-controlled gene expression in Escherichia coli K12 using Mudl-directed lacZ fusions. J Mol Biol. 1982 Jul 5;158(3):347–363. [PubMed]
  • Warner PJ, Williams PH, Bindereif A, Neilands JB. ColV plasmid-specific aerobactin synthesis by invasive strains of Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 1981 Aug;33(2):540–545. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wee S, Neilands JB, Bittner ML, Hemming BC, Haymore BL, Seetharam R. Expression, isolation and properties of Fur (ferric uptake regulation) protein of Escherichia coli K 12. Biol Met. 1988;1(1):62–68. [PubMed]
  • Weiss AA, Silver S, Kinscherf TG. Cation transport alteration associated with plasmid-determined resistance to cadmium in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1978 Dec;14(6):856–865. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weiss DS, Batut J, Klose KE, Keener J, Kustu S. The phosphorylated form of the enhancer-binding protein NTRC has an ATPase activity that is essential for activation of transcription. Cell. 1991 Oct 4;67(1):155–167. [PubMed]
  • Williams PH. Novel iron uptake system specified by ColV plasmids: an important component in the virulence of invasive strains of Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 1979 Dec;26(3):925–932. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Witte W, Green L, Misra TK, Silver S. Resistance to mercury and to cadmium in chromosomally resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Apr;29(4):663–669. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wolfram L, Eitinger T, Friedrich B. Construction and properties of a triprotein containing the high-affinity nickel transporter of Alcaligenes eutrophus. FEBS Lett. 1991 May 20;283(1):109–112. [PubMed]
  • Wu J, Rosen BP. The ArsR protein is a trans-acting regulatory protein. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Jun;5(6):1331–1336. [PubMed]
  • Yamada M, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli: properties of phoR deletion mutants and subcellular localization of PhoR protein. Mol Gen Genet. 1990 Feb;220(3):366–372. [PubMed]
  • Yoon KP, Misra TK, Silver S. Regulation of the cadA cadmium resistance determinant of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. J Bacteriol. 1991 Dec;173(23):7643–7649. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yoon KP, Silver S. A second gene in the Staphylococcus aureus cadA cadmium resistance determinant of plasmid pI258. J Bacteriol. 1991 Dec;173(23):7636–7642. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Microbiological Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...