• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of microrevMicrobiol Mol Biol Rev ArchivePermissionsJournals.ASM.orgMMBR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Microbiol Rev. Sep 1991; 55(3): 476–511.
PMCID: PMC372831

Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen.

Abstract

The gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous, intracellular pathogen which has been implicated within the past decade as the causative organism in several outbreaks of foodborne disease. Listeriosis, with a mortality rate of about 24%, is found mainly among pregnant women, their fetuses, and immunocompromised persons, with symptoms of abortion, neonatal death, septicemia, and meningitis. Epidemiological investigations can make use of strain-typing procedures such as DNA restriction enzyme analysis or electrophoretic enzyme typing. The organism has a multifactorial virulence system, with the thiol-activated hemolysin, listeriolysin O, being identified as playing a crucial role in the organism's ability to multiply within host phagocytic cells and to spread from cell to cell. The organism occurs widely in food, with the highest incidences being found in meat, poultry, and seafood products. Improved methods for detecting and enumerating the organism in foodstuffs are now available, including those based on the use of monoclonal antibodies, DNA probes, or the polymerase chain reaction. As knowledge of the molecular and applied biology of L. monocytogenes increases, progress can be made in the prevention and control of human infection.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (7.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Adams TJ, Vartivarian S, Cowart RE. Iron acquisition systems of Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1990 Aug;58(8):2715–2718. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Albritton WL, Cochi SL, Feeley JC. Overview of neonatal listeriosis. Clin Invest Med. 1984;7(4):311–314. [PubMed]
  • Al-Dajani O, Khatib R. Cryptogenic liver abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes. J Infect Dis. 1983 May;147(5):961–961. [PubMed]
  • Allerberger F, Guggenbichler JP. Listeriosis in Austria--report of an outbreak in 1986. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1989;36(2-3):149–152. [PubMed]
  • al-Zoreky N, Sandine WE. Highly selective medium for isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Oct;56(10):3154–3157. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Audurier A, Martin C. Phage typing of Listeria monocytogenes. Int J Food Microbiol. 1989 Jun;8(3):251–257. [PubMed]
  • Audurier A, Pardon P, Marly J, Lantier F. Experimental infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua. Ann Microbiol (Paris) 1980 Jul-Aug;131B(1):47–57. [PubMed]
  • Audurier A, Taylor AG, Carbonnelle B, McLauchlin J. A phage typing system for Listeria monocytogenes and its use in epidemiological studies. Clin Invest Med. 1984;7(4):229–232. [PubMed]
  • Azadian BS, Finnerty GT, Pearson AD. Cheese-borne listeria meningitis in immunocompetent patient. Lancet. 1989 Feb 11;1(8633):322–323. [PubMed]
  • Bailey JS, Fletcher DL, Cox NA. Listeria monocytogenes colonization of broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 1990 Mar;69(3):457–461. [PubMed]
  • Bannister BA. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis associated with eating soft cheese. J Infect. 1987 Sep;15(2):165–168. [PubMed]
  • Beattie IA, Swaminathan B, Ziegler HK. Cloning and characterization of T-cell-reactive protein antigens from Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1990 Sep;58(9):2792–2803. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Becroft DM, Farmer K, Seddon RJ, Sowden R, Stewart JH, Vines A, Wattie DA. Epidemic listeriosis in the newborn. Br Med J. 1971 Sep 25;3(5777):747–751. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berche P, Gaillard JL, Geoffroy C, Alouf JE. T cell recognition of listeriolysin O is induced during infection with Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol. 1987 Dec 1;139(11):3813–3821. [PubMed]
  • Berche P, Gaillard JL, Richard S. Invasiveness and intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Infection. 1988;16 (Suppl 2):S145–S148. [PubMed]
  • Berche P, Gaillard JL, Sansonetti PJ. Intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes as a prerequisite for in vivo induction of T cell-mediated immunity. J Immunol. 1987 Apr 1;138(7):2266–2271. [PubMed]
  • Bessesen MT, Luo QA, Rotbart HA, Blaser MJ, Ellison RT., 3rd Detection of Listeria monocytogenes by using the polymerase chain reaction. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Sep;56(9):2930–2932. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beuchat LR, Brackett RE. Inhibitory effects of raw carrots on Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jun;56(6):1734–1742. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bibb WF, Schwartz B, Gellin BG, Plikaytis BD, Weaver RE. Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and application of the method to epidemiologic investigations. Int J Food Microbiol. 1989 Jun;8(3):233–239. [PubMed]
  • Bielecki J, Youngman P, Connelly P, Portnoy DA. Bacillus subtilis expressing a haemolysin gene from Listeria monocytogenes can grow in mammalian cells. Nature. 1990 May 10;345(6271):175–176. [PubMed]
  • Booth LV, Walters MT, Tuck AC, Luqmani RA, Cawley MI. Listeria monocytogenes infection in a prosthetic knee joint in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1990 Jan;49(1):58–59. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Border PM, Howard JJ, Plastow GS, Siggens KW. Detection of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes using polymerase chain reaction. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1990 Sep;11(3):158–162. [PubMed]
  • Bortolussi R, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, van Asbeck BS, Verhoef J. Relationship of bacterial growth phase to killing of Listeria monocytogenes by oxidative agents generated by neutrophils and enzyme systems. Infect Immun. 1987 Dec;55(12):3197–3203. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Breer C, Schopfer K. Listeria and food. Lancet. 1988 Oct 29;2(8618):1022–1022. [PubMed]
  • Breer C, Schopfer K. Listerien in Nahrungsmitteln. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1989 Mar 11;119(10):306–311. [PubMed]
  • Buchanan RL, Stahl HG, Bencivengo MM, Del Corral F. Comparison of lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam and modified Vogel Johnson agars for detection of Listeria spp. in retail-level meats, poultry, and seafood. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Mar;55(3):599–603. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bucher HU, Nadal D, Mieth D. Listeriose beim Neugeborenen: bessere Prognose dank Früherkennung. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1989 Jun;137(6):321–325. [PubMed]
  • Bunning VK, Donnelly CW, Peeler JT, Briggs EH, Bradshaw JG, Crawford RG, Beliveau CM, Tierney JT. Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes within bovine milk phagocytes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Feb;54(2):364–370. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Butman BT, Plank MC, Durham RJ, Mattingly JA. Monoclonal antibodies which identify a genus-specific Listeria antigen. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Jun;54(6):1564–1569. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cain DB, McCann VL. An unusual case of cutaneous listeriosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 May;23(5):976–977. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Campbell DM. Human listeriosis in Scotland 1967-1988. J Infect. 1990 May;20(3):241–250. [PubMed]
  • Canfield MA, Walterspiel JN, Edwards MS, Baker CJ, Wait RB, Urteaga JN. An epidemic of perinatal listeriosis serotype 1b in Hispanics in a Houston hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1985 Jan-Feb;4(1):106–106. [PubMed]
  • Carbonnelle B, Cottin J, Parvery F, Chambreuil G, Kouyoumdjian S, Le Lirzin M, Cordier G, Vincent F. Epidémie de listériose dans l'Ouest de la France (1975--1976). Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 1979 Apr 26;26(6):451–467. [PubMed]
  • Carvajal A, Frederiksen W. Fatal endocarditis due to Listeria monocytogenes. Rev Infect Dis. 1988 May-Jun;10(3):616–623. [PubMed]
  • Chakraborty T, Goebel W. Recent developments in the study of virulence in Listeria monocytogenes. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1988;138:41–58. [PubMed]
  • Chenevert J, Mengaud J, Gormley E, Cossart P. A DNA probe specific for L. monocytogenes in the genus Listeria. Int J Food Microbiol. 1989 Jul;8(4):317–319. [PubMed]
  • Choutet P, Besnier JM, Hurtault S, Barrier J, Raffi F, Verceletto M, Achard J, Becq-Giraudon B, Bellot M. Listériose neuro-méningée de l'adulte, en dehors de la grossesse. Pronostic et évolution des manifestations neurologiques. Etude rétrospective de 63 observations. Presse Med. 1987 May 16;16(18):885–888. [PubMed]
  • Ciesielski CA, Hightower AW, Parsons SK, Broome CV. Listeriosis in the United States: 1980-1982. Arch Intern Med. 1988 Jun;148(6):1416–1419. [PubMed]
  • Conner DE, Brackett RE, Beuchat LR. Effect of temperature, sodium chloride, and pH on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage juice. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Jul;52(1):59–63. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cossart P. The listeriolysin O gene: a chromosomal locus crucial for the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes. Infection. 1988;16 (Suppl 2):S157–S159. [PubMed]
  • Cossart P, Mengaud J. Listeria monocytogenes. A model system for the molecular study of intracellular parasitism. Mol Biol Med. 1989 Oct;6(5):463–474. [PubMed]
  • Cossart P, Vicente MF, Mengaud J, Baquero F, Perez-Diaz JC, Berche P. Listeriolysin O is essential for virulence of Listeria monocytogenes: direct evidence obtained by gene complementation. Infect Immun. 1989 Nov;57(11):3629–3636. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cowart RE, Lashmet J, McIntosh ME, Adams TJ. Adherence of a virulent strain of Listeria monocytogenes to the surface of a hepatocarcinoma cell line via lectin-substrate interaction. Arch Microbiol. 1990;153(3):282–286. [PubMed]
  • Cruikshank DP, Warenski JC. First-trimester maternal Listeria monocytogenes sepsis and chorioamnionitis with normal neonatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Mar;73(3 Pt 2):469–471. [PubMed]
  • Curosh NA, Perednia DA. Listeria monocytogenes septic arthritis. A case report and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med. 1989 May;149(5):1207–1208. [PubMed]
  • Czuprynski CJ, Brown JF, Roll JT. Growth at reduced temperatures increases the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes for intravenously but not intragastrically inoculated mice. Microb Pathog. 1989 Sep;7(3):213–223. [PubMed]
  • Czuprynski CJ, Noel EJ, Doyle MP, Schultz RD. Ingestion and killing of Listeria monocytogenes by blood and milk phagocytes from mastitic and normal cattle. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 May;27(5):812–817. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dabiri GA, Sanger JM, Portnoy DA, Southwick FS. Listeria monocytogenes moves rapidly through the host-cell cytoplasm by inducing directional actin assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Aug;87(16):6068–6072. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dallmier AW, Martin SE. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities after heat injury of Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Feb;54(2):581–582. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Datta AR, Wentz BA. Identification and enumeration of virulent Listeria strains. Int J Food Microbiol. 1989 Jun;8(3):259–264. [PubMed]
  • Datta AR, Wentz BA, Hill WE. Detection of hemolytic Listeria monocytogenes by using DNA colony hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987 Sep;53(9):2256–2259. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Datta AR, Wentz BA, Hill WE. Identification and enumeration of beta-hemolytic Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated dairy products. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988 May-Jun;71(3):673–675. [PubMed]
  • Datta AR, Wentz BA, Russell J. Cloning of the listeriolysin O gene and development of specific gene probes for Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Dec;56(12):3874–3877. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Datta AR, Wentz BA, Shook D, Trucksess MW. Synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes for detection of Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Dec;54(12):2933–2937. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dee RR, Lorber B. Brain abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes: case report and literature review. Rev Infect Dis. 1986 Nov-Dec;8(6):968–977. [PubMed]
  • Degen R. Proceedings: Involvement of the central nervous system in neonatal listeriosis. Acta Microbiol Acad Sci Hung. 1972;19(4):411–417. [PubMed]
  • de la Lande P, Barthélémy P, Golstein F, Terris G. Un cas de listeria anale au cours d'un SIDA. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1988 Dec;12(12):972–973. [PubMed]
  • Despierres M. Isolement de Listeria monocytogenes dans un milieu défavorable à Streptococcus faecalis. Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris) 1971 Oct;121(4):493–501. [PubMed]
  • Dhar R. Neonatal listeriosis--report of nine cases from Kuwait. J Trop Pediatr. 1988 Jun;34(3):118–124. [PubMed]
  • Dick JP, Palframann A, Hamilton DV. Listeriosis and recurrent abortion in a renal transplant recipient. J Infect. 1988 May;16(3):273–277. [PubMed]
  • Domann E, Leimeister-Wächter M, Goebel W, Chakraborty T. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and identification of a metalloprotease gene from Listeria monocytogenes that is species specific and physically linked to the listeriolysin gene. Infect Immun. 1991 Jan;59(1):65–72. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dominguez L, Fernández JF, Briones V, Blanco JL, Suárez G. Assessment of different selective agar media for enumeration and isolation of Listeria from dairy products. J Dairy Res. 1988 Nov;55(4):579–583. [PubMed]
  • Domínguez Rodriguez L, Fernández Garayzabal JF, Vazquez Boland JA, Rodriguez Ferri E, Suarez Fernández G. Isolation de micro-organismes du genre Listeria à partir de lait cru destiné à la consommation humaine. Can J Microbiol. 1985 Oct;31(10):938–941. [PubMed]
  • Donker-Voet J. Proceedings: Listeria monocytogenes: some biochemical and serological aspects. Acta Microbiol Acad Sci Hung. 1972;19(4):287–291. [PubMed]
  • Donnelly CW. Historical perspectives on methodology to detect Listeria monocytogenes. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988 May-Jun;71(3):644–646. [PubMed]
  • Donnelly CW, Baigent GJ. Method for flow cytometric detection of Listeria monocytogenes in milk. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Oct;52(4):689–695. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Donnelly CW, Baigent GJ, Briggs EH. Flow cytometry for automated analysis of milk containing Listeria monocytogenes. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988 May-Jun;71(3):655–658. [PubMed]
  • Doummar D, Beauvais P, Richardet JM. Méningite à Listeria chez un nourrisson de seize mois sans déficit immunitaire reconnu. Ann Pediatr (Paris) 1988 Oct;35(8):577–579. [PubMed]
  • Doyle MP, Glass KA, Beery JT, Garcia GA, Pollard DJ, Schultz RD. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in milk during high-temperature, short-time pasteurization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987 Jul;53(7):1433–1438. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Doyle MP, Schoeni JL. Selective-enrichment procedure for isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from fecal and biologic specimens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 May;51(5):1127–1129. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eiferman RA, Flaherty KT, Rivard AK. Persistent corneal defect caused by Listeria monocytogenes. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990 Jan 15;109(1):97–98. [PubMed]
  • Evans JR, Allen AC, Stinson DA, Bortolussi R, Peddle LJ. Perinatal listeriosis: report of an outbreak. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1985 May-Jun;4(3):237–241. [PubMed]
  • Fan YD, Pastorek JG, 2nd, Janney FA, Sanders CV. Listeriosis as an obstetric complication in an immunocompromised patient. South Med J. 1989 Aug;82(8):1044–1045. [PubMed]
  • Faoagali JL, Schousboe M. Listeriosis in Christchurch 1967-1984. N Z Med J. 1985 Feb 13;98(772):64–66. [PubMed]
  • Farber JM. Thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in foods. Int J Food Microbiol. 1989 Jun;8(3):285–291. [PubMed]
  • Farber JM, Brown BE. Effect of prior heat shock on heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in meat. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jun;56(6):1584–1587. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Farber JM, Carter AO, Varughese PV, Ashton FE, Ewan EP. Listeriosis traced to the consumption of alfalfa tablets and soft cheese. N Engl J Med. 1990 Feb 1;322(5):338–338. [PubMed]
  • Farber JM, Hughes A, Holley R, Brown B. Thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1989;36(2-3):273–275. [PubMed]
  • Farber JM, Peterkin PI, Carter AO, Varughese PV, Ashton FE, Ewan EP. Neonatal listeriosis due to cross-infection confirmed by isoenzyme typing and DNA fingerprinting. J Infect Dis. 1991 Apr;163(4):927–928. [PubMed]
  • Farber JM, Sanders GW, Malcolm SA. The presence of Listeria spp. in raw milk in Ontario. Can J Microbiol. 1988 Feb;34(2):95–100. [PubMed]
  • Farber JM, Sanders GW, Speirs JI. Methodology for isolation of Listeria from foods--a Canadian perspective. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988 May-Jun;71(3):675–678. [PubMed]
  • Farber JM, Sanders GW, Speirs JI, D'Aoust JY, Emmons DB, McKellar R. Thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in inoculated and naturally contaminated raw milk. Int J Food Microbiol. 1988 Dec 31;7(4):277–286. [PubMed]
  • Farber JM, Speirs JI. Potential use of continuous cell lines to distinguish between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria spp. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Aug;25(8):1463–1466. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fenlon DR, Wilson J. The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk from farm bulk tanks in north-east Scotland. J Appl Bacteriol. 1989 Mar;66(3):191–196. [PubMed]
  • Fiedler F. Biochemistry of the cell surface of Listeria strains: a locating general view. Infection. 1988;16 (Suppl 2):S92–S97. [PubMed]
  • Filice GA, Cantrell HF, Smith AB, Hayes PS, Feeley JC, Fraser DW. Listeria monocytogenes infection in neonates: Investigation of an epidemic. J Infect Dis. 1978 Jul;138(1):17–23. [PubMed]
  • Fistrovici E, Collins-Thompson DL. Use of plasmid profiles and restriction endonuclease digest in environmental studies of Listeria spp. from raw milk. Int J Food Microbiol. 1990 Jan;10(1):43–50. [PubMed]
  • Fleming DW, Cochi SL, MacDonald KL, Brondum J, Hayes PS, Plikaytis BD, Holmes MB, Audurier A, Broome CV, Reingold AL. Pasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection in an outbreak of listeriosis. N Engl J Med. 1985 Feb 14;312(7):404–407. [PubMed]
  • Flight RJ. Listeriosis in Auckland. N Z Med J. 1971 Jun;73(469):349–351. [PubMed]
  • Gaillard JL, Berche P, Mounier J, Richard S, Sansonetti P. In vitro model of penetration and intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes in the human enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2. Infect Immun. 1987 Nov;55(11):2822–2829. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gaillard JL, Berche P, Sansonetti P. Transposon mutagenesis as a tool to study the role of hemolysin in the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1986 Apr;52(1):50–55. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gallagher PG, Watanakunakorn C. Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis: a review of the literature 1950-1986. Scand J Infect Dis. 1988;20(4):359–368. [PubMed]
  • Fernandez Garayzabal JF, Dominguez Rodriguez L, Vazquez Boland JA, Rodriguez Ferri EF, Briones Dieste V, Blanco Cancelo JL, Suarez Fernandez G. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk treated in a pilot plant size pasteurizer. J Appl Bacteriol. 1987 Dec;63(6):533–537. [PubMed]
  • García H, Pinto ME, Ross L, Saavedra G. Brote epidémico de listeriosis neonatal. Rev Chil Pediatr. 1983 Sep-Oct;54(5):330–335. [PubMed]
  • García JA, Dominguez L, Briones V, Blanco M, Fernandez-Garayzabal JF, Suarez G. Revision of the antigenic structure of genus Listeria. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1990 Jan 15;55(1-2):113–119. [PubMed]
  • Gellin BG, Broome CV. Listeriosis. JAMA. 1989 Mar 3;261(9):1313–1320. [PubMed]
  • Gellin BG, Broome CV, Bibb WF, Weaver RE, Gaventa S, Mascola L. The epidemiology of listeriosis in the United States--1986. Listeriosis Study Group. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Feb 15;133(4):392–401. [PubMed]
  • Geoffroy C, Gaillard JL, Alouf JE, Berche P. Purification, characterization, and toxicity of the sulfhydryl-activated hemolysin listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1987 Jul;55(7):1641–1646. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Geoffroy C, Gaillard JL, Alouf JE, Berche P. Production of thiol-dependent haemolysins by Listeria monocytogenes and related species. J Gen Microbiol. 1989 Mar;135(3):481–487. [PubMed]
  • Gilbert RJ, Miller KL, Roberts D. Listeria monocytogenes and chilled foods. Lancet. 1989 Feb 18;1(8634):383–384. [PubMed]
  • GIRARD KF, SBARRA AJ, BARDAWIL WA. Serology of Listeria monocytogenes. I. Characteristics of the soluble hemolysin. J Bacteriol. 1963 Feb;85:349–355. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gitter M. Listeria monocytogenes in "oven-ready" poultry. Vet Rec. 1976 Oct 23;99(17):336–336. [PubMed]
  • Glass KA, Doyle MP. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in processed meat products during refrigerated storage. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Jun;55(6):1565–1569. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goebel W, Kathariou S, Kuhn M, Sokolovic Z, Kreft J, Köhler S, Funke D, Chakraborty T, Leimeister-Wächter M. Hemolysin from Listeria--biochemistry, genetics and function in pathogenesis. Infection. 1988;16 (Suppl 2):S149–S156. [PubMed]
  • Golden DA, Beuchat LR, Brackett RE. Direct plating technique for enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988 May-Jun;71(3):647–650. [PubMed]
  • Golden DA, Beuchat LR, Brackett RE. Evaluation of selective direct plating media for their suitability to recover uninjured, heat-injured, and freeze-injured Listeria monocytogenes from foods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Jun;54(6):1451–1456. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gordon S, Singer C. Listeria monocytogenes cholecystitis. J Infect Dis. 1986 Nov;154(5):918–919. [PubMed]
  • Gormley E, Mengaud J, Cossart P. Sequences homologous to the listeriolysin O gene region of Listeria monocytogenes are present in virulent and avirulent haemolytic species of the genus Listeria. Res Microbiol. 1989 Nov-Dec;140(9):631–643. [PubMed]
  • Goulet V, Brohier S. La listériose en France en 1986: recensement auprès de laboratoires hospitaliers. Pathol Biol (Paris) 1989 Mar;37(3):206–211. [PubMed]
  • Goulet V, Leonard JL, Celers J. Etude épidémiologique de la listériose humaine en France en 1984. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 1986;34(3):191–195. [PubMed]
  • Graves LM, Swaminathan B, Reeves MW, Wenger J. Ribosomal DNA fingerprinting of Listeria monocytogenes using a digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe. Eur J Epidemiol. 1991 Jan;7(1):77–82. [PubMed]
  • Gray ML, Killinger AH. Listeria monocytogenes and listeric infections. Bacteriol Rev. 1966 Jun;30(2):309–382. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Greenwood MH, Roberts D, Burden P. The occurrence of Listeria species in milk and dairy products: a national survey in England and Wales. Int J Food Microbiol. 1991 Feb;12(2-3):197–206. [PubMed]
  • Groves RD, Welshimer HJ. Separation of pathogenic from apathogenic Listeria monocytogenes by three in vitro reactions. J Clin Microbiol. 1977 Jun;5(6):559–563. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Halliday HL, Hirata T. Perinatal listeriosis--a review of twelve patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979 Feb 15;133(4):405–410. [PubMed]
  • Hansen PB, Jensen TH, Lykkegaard S, Kristensen HS. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in adults. Sixteen consecutive cases 1973-1982. Scand J Infect Dis. 1987;19(1):55–60. [PubMed]
  • Hayes PS, Feeley JC, Graves LM, Ajello GW, Fleming DW. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from raw milk. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Feb;51(2):438–440. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heisick JE, Wagner DE, Nierman ML, Peeler JT. Listeria spp. found on fresh market produce. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Aug;55(8):1925–1927. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ho JL, Shands KN, Friedland G, Eckind P, Fraser DW. An outbreak of type 4b Listeria monocytogenes infection involving patients from eight Boston hospitals. Arch Intern Med. 1986 Mar;146(3):520–524. [PubMed]
  • Hof H, Hefner P. Pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes in comparison to other Listeria species. Infection. 1988;16 (Suppl 2):S141–S144. [PubMed]
  • Holbach LM, Bialasiewicz AA, Boltze HJ. Necrotizing ring ulcer of the cornea caused by exogenous Listeria monocytogenes serotype IV b infection. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988 Jul 15;106(1):105–106. [PubMed]
  • Jacobs MR, Stein H, Buqwane A, Dubb A, Segal F, Rabinowitz L, Ellis U, Freiman I, Witcomb M, Vallabh V. Epidemic listeriosis. Report of 14 cases detected in 9 months. S Afr Med J. 1978 Sep 2;54(10):389–392. [PubMed]
  • Jensen TH, Hansen PB, Brodersen P. Ondine's curse in listeria monocytogenes brain stem encephalitis. Acta Neurol Scand. 1988 Jun;77(6):505–506. [PubMed]
  • Johnson JL, Doyle MP, Cassens RG. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. Int J Food Microbiol. 1988 May;6(3):243–247. [PubMed]
  • Jones D. The place of Listeria among gram-positive bacteria. Infection. 1988;16 (Suppl 2):S85–S88. [PubMed]
  • Junttila J, Brander M. Listeria monocytogenes septicemia associated with consumption of salted mushrooms. Scand J Infect Dis. 1989;21(3):339–342. [PubMed]
  • Junttila JR, Niemelä SI, Hirn J. Minimum growth temperatures of Listeria monocytogenes and non-haemolytic Listeria. J Appl Bacteriol. 1988 Oct;65(4):321–327. [PubMed]
  • Kaczmarski EB, Jones DM. Listeriosis and ready-cooked chicken. Lancet. 1989 Mar 11;1(8637):549–549. [PubMed]
  • Kampelmacher EH, van Noorle Jansen LM. Listeriosis in humans and animals in the Netherlands (1958-1977). Zentralbl Bakteriol A. 1980 Mar;246(2):211–227. [PubMed]
  • Kathariou S, Metz P, Hof H, Goebel W. Tn916-induced mutations in the hemolysin determinant affecting virulence of Listeria monocytogenes. J Bacteriol. 1987 Mar;169(3):1291–1297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kathariou S, Rocourt J, Hof H, Goebel W. Levels of Listeria monocytogenes hemolysin are not directly proportional to virulence in experimental infections of mice. Infect Immun. 1988 Feb;56(2):534–536. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Katner HP, Joiner TA. Listeria monocytogenes sepsis from an infected indwelling i.v. catheter in a patient with AIDS. South Med J. 1989 Jan;82(1):94–95. [PubMed]
  • Kaufmann SH. Listeriosis: new findings--current concern. Microb Pathog. 1988 Oct;5(4):225–231. [PubMed]
  • Kerr K, Dealler SF, Lacey RW. Listeria in cook-chill food. Lancet. 1988 Jul 2;2(8601):37–38. [PubMed]
  • Kerr KG, Rotowa NA, Hawkey PM, Lacey RW. Evaluation of the Mast ID and API 50CH systems for identification of Listeria spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Mar;56(3):657–660. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kessler SL, Dajani AS. Listeria meningitis in infants and children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1990 Jan;9(1):61–63. [PubMed]
  • Khardori N, Berkey P, Hayat S, Rosenbaum B, Bodey GP. Spectrum and outcome of microbiologically documented listeria monocytogenes infections in cancer patients. Cancer. 1989 Nov 1;64(9):1968–1970. [PubMed]
  • Kim CM, Graves LM, Swaminathan B, Mayer LW, Weaver RE. Evaluation of hybridization characteristics of a cloned pRF106 probe for Listeria monocytogenes detection and development of a nonisotopic colony hybridization assay. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Jan;57(1):289–294. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • King W, Raposa S, Warshaw J, Johnson A, Halbert D, Klinger JD. A new colorimetric nucleic acid hybridization assay for Listeria in foods. Int J Food Microbiol. 1989 Jun;8(3):225–232. [PubMed]
  • Klatt EC, Pavlova Z, Teberg AJ, Yonekura ML. Epidemic perinatal listeriosis at autopsy. Hum Pathol. 1986 Dec;17(12):1278–1281. [PubMed]
  • Klinger JD. Isolation of Listeria: a review of procedures and future prospects. Infection. 1988;16 (Suppl 2):S98–105. [PubMed]
  • Klinger JD, Johnson A, Croan D, Flynn P, Whippie K, Kimball M, Lawrie J, Curiale M. Comparative studies of nucleic acid hybridization assay for Listeria in foods. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988 May-Jun;71(3):669–673. [PubMed]
  • Knabel SJ, Walker HW, Hartman PA, Mendonca AF. Effects of growth temperature and strictly anaerobic recovery on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during pasteurization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Feb;56(2):370–376. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Köhler S, Leimeister-Wächter M, Chakraborty T, Lottspeich F, Goebel W. The gene coding for protein p60 of Listeria monocytogenes and its use as a specific probe for Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1990 Jun;58(6):1943–1950. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Korzets A, Andrews M, Campbell A, Feehally J, Walls J, Prentice M. Listeria monocytogenes peritonitis complicating CAPD. Perit Dial Int. 1989;9(4):351–352. [PubMed]
  • Kreft J, Funke D, Haas A, Lottspeich F, Goebel W. Production, purification and characterization of hemolysins from Listeria ivanovii and Listeria monocytogenes Sv4b. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1989 Jan 15;48(2):197–202. [PubMed]
  • Kuhn M, Goebel W. Identification of an extracellular protein of Listeria monocytogenes possibly involved in intracellular uptake by mammalian cells. Infect Immun. 1989 Jan;57(1):55–61. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuhn M, Kathariou S, Goebel W. Hemolysin supports survival but not entry of the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1988 Jan;56(1):79–82. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuhn M, Prévost MC, Mounier J, Sansonetti PJ. A nonvirulent mutant of Listeria monocytogenes does not move intracellularly but still induces polymerization of actin. Infect Immun. 1990 Nov;58(11):3477–3486. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kwantes W, Isaac M. Listeriosis. Br Med J. 1971 Oct 30;4(5782):296–297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lamont RJ, Postlethwaite R. Carriage of Listeria monocytogenes and related species in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Aberdeen, Scotland. J Infect. 1986 Sep;13(2):187–193. [PubMed]
  • Lamont RJ, Postlethwaite R, MacGowan AP. Listeria monocytogenes and its role in human infection. J Infect. 1988 Jul;17(1):7–28. [PubMed]
  • Larner AJ, Conway MA, Mitchell RG, Forfar JC. Recurrent Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in a heart transplant recipient. J Infect. 1989 Nov;19(3):263–266. [PubMed]
  • Lee WH, McClain D. Improved Listeria monocytogenes selective agar. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Nov;52(5):1215–1217. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leimeister-Wächter M, Goebel W, Chakraborty T. Mutations affecting hemolysin production in Listeria monocytogenes located outside the listeriolysin gene. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1989 Nov;53(1-2):23–29. [PubMed]
  • Leimeister-Wächter M, Haffner C, Domann E, Goebel W, Chakraborty T. Identification of a gene that positively regulates expression of listeriolysin, the major virulence factor of listeria monocytogenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(21):8336–8340. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lemaire V, Cerf O, Audurier A. Heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1989;36(2-3):281–284. [PubMed]
  • Lennon D, Lewis B, Mantell C, Becroft D, Dove B, Farmer K, Tonkin S, Yeates N, Stamp R, Mickleson K. Epidemic perinatal listeriosis. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1984 Jan-Feb;3(1):30–34. [PubMed]
  • Niels le Souëf P, Walters BN. Neonatal listeriosis: a summer outbreak. Med J Aust. 1981 Aug 22;2(4):188–191. [PubMed]
  • Linnan MJ, Mascola L, Lou XD, Goulet V, May S, Salminen C, Hird DW, Yonekura ML, Hayes P, Weaver R, et al. Epidemic listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese. N Engl J Med. 1988 Sep 29;319(13):823–828. [PubMed]
  • Loessner MJ, Bell RH, Jay JM, Shelef LA. Comparison of seven plating media for enumeration of Listeria spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Dec;54(12):3003–3007. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Loessner MJ, Busse M. Bacteriophage typing of Listeria species. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jun;56(6):1912–1918. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Louthrenoo W, Schumacher HR., Jr Listeria monocytogenes osteomyelitis complicating leukemia: report and literature review of Listeria osteoarticular infections. J Rheumatol. 1990 Jan;17(1):107–110. [PubMed]
  • Lovett J. Isolation and identification of Listeria monocytogenes in dairy products. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988 May-Jun;71(3):658–660. [PubMed]
  • MacDonald TT, Carter PB. Cell-mediated immunity to intestinal infection. Infect Immun. 1980 May;28(2):516–523. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • MACKANESS GB. Cellular resistance to infection. J Exp Med. 1962 Sep 1;116:381–406. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Malinverni R, Bille J, Perret C, Regli F, Tanner F, Glauser MP. Listériose épidémique. Observation de 25 cas en 15 mois au Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1985 Jan 5;115(1):2–10. [PubMed]
  • Martin RS, Sumarah RK, MacDonald MA. A synthetic based medium for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes. Clin Invest Med. 1984;7(4):233–237. [PubMed]
  • Massa S, Cesaroni D, Poda G, Trovatelli LD. The incidence of Listeria spp. in soft cheeses, butter and raw milk in the province of Bologna. J Appl Bacteriol. 1990 Feb;68(2):153–156. [PubMed]
  • Mattingly JA, Butman BT, Plank MC, Durham RJ, Robison BJ. Rapid monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Listeria in food products. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988 May-Jun;71(3):679–681. [PubMed]
  • McClain D, Lee WH. Development of USDA-FSIS method for isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from raw meat and poultry. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988 May-Jun;71(3):660–664. [PubMed]
  • McGee ZA, Gorby GL, Wyrick PB, Hodinka R, Hoffman LH. Parasite-directed endocytosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1988 Jul-Aug;10 (Suppl 2):S311–S316. [PubMed]
  • McLauchlin J. Listeria monocytogenes, recent advances in the taxonomy and epidemiology of listeriosis in humans. J Appl Bacteriol. 1987 Jul;63(1):1–11. [PubMed]
  • McLauchlin J. Human listeriosis in Britain, 1967-85, a summary of 722 cases. 1. Listeriosis during pregnancy and in the newborn. Epidemiol Infect. 1990 Apr;104(2):181–189. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McLauchlin J. Human listeriosis in Britain, 1967-85, a summary of 722 cases. 2. Listeriosis in non-pregnant individuals, a changing pattern of infection and seasonal incidence. Epidemiol Infect. 1990 Apr;104(2):191–201. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McLauchlin J. Distribution of serovars of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from different categories of patients with listeriosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990 Mar;9(3):210–213. [PubMed]
  • McLauchlin J, Audurier A, Taylor AG. The evaluation of a phage-typing system for Listeria monocytogenes for use in epidemiological studies. J Med Microbiol. 1986 Dec;22(4):357–365. [PubMed]
  • McLauchlin J, Audurier A, Taylor AG. Aspects of the epidemiology of human Listeria monocytogenes infections in Britain 1967-1984; the use of serotyping and phage typing. J Med Microbiol. 1986 Dec;22(4):367–377. [PubMed]
  • McLauchlin J, Crofts N, Campbell DM. A possible outbreak of listeriosis caused by an unusual strain of Listeria monocytogenes. J Infect. 1989 Mar;18(2):179–187. [PubMed]
  • McLauchlin J, Greenwood MH, Pini PN. The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese from a manufacturer associated with a case of listeriosis. Int J Food Microbiol. 1990 May;10(3-4):255–262. [PubMed]
  • MENCIKOVA E. Adnátní listeriosy. Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 1956 Sep;5(5):225–228. [PubMed]
  • Mengaud J, Geoffroy C, Cossart P. Identification of a new operon involved in Listeria monocytogenes virulence: its first gene encodes a protein homologous to bacterial metalloproteases. Infect Immun. 1991 Mar;59(3):1043–1049. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mengaud J, Vicente MF, Chenevert J, Pereira JM, Geoffroy C, Gicquel-Sanzey B, Baquero F, Perez-Diaz JC, Cossart P. Expression in Escherichia coli and sequence analysis of the listeriolysin O determinant of Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1988 Apr;56(4):766–772. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mengaud J, Vicente MF, Cossart P. Transcriptional mapping and nucleotide sequence of the Listeria monocytogenes hlyA region reveal structural features that may be involved in regulation. Infect Immun. 1989 Dec;57(12):3695–3701. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miller JK, Burns J. Histopathology of Listeria monocytogenes after oral feeding to mice. Appl Microbiol. 1970 May;19(5):772–775. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morris IJ, Ribeiro CD. Listeria monocytogenes and pate. Lancet. 1989 Nov 25;2(8674):1285–1286. [PubMed]
  • Mulder CJ, Zanen HC. Listeria monocytogenes neonatal meningitis in The Netherlands. Eur J Pediatr. 1986 Apr;145(1-2):60–62. [PubMed]
  • Munk ME, Kaufmann SH. Listeria monocytogenes reactive T lymphocytes in healthy individuals. Microb Pathog. 1988 Jul;5(1):49–54. [PubMed]
  • Nicolai-Scholten ME, Potel J, Natzschka J, Pekker S. Vermehrtes Auftreten von Listeriose-Erkrankungen in Niedersachsen, 1983. Immun Infekt. 1985 Apr;13(2):76–77. [PubMed]
  • Nieman RE, Lorber B. Listeriosis in adults: a changing pattern. Report of eight cases and review of the literature, 1968-1978. Rev Infect Dis. 1980 Mar-Apr;2(2):207–227. [PubMed]
  • NJOKU-OBI AN, JENKINS EM, NJOKU-OBI JC, ADAMS J, COVINGTON V. PRODUCTION AND NATURE OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES HEMOLYSINS. J Bacteriol. 1963 Jul;86:1–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nocera D, Bannerman E, Rocourt J, Jaton-Ogay K, Bille J. Characterization by DNA restriction endonuclease analysis of Listeria monocytogenes strains related to the Swiss epidemic of listeriosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Oct;28(10):2259–2263. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Notermans S, Chakraborty T, Leimeister-Wächter M, Dufrenne J, Heuvelman KJ, Maas H, Jansen W, Wernars K, Guinee P. Specific gene probe for detection of biotyped and serotyped Listeria strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Apr;55(4):902–906. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ortel S. Bakteriologische, serologische und epidemiologische Untersuchungen wärhrend einer Listerios-Epidemie. Dtsch Gesundheitsw. 1968 Apr 18;23(16):753–759. [PubMed]
  • Ortel S. Schwangerschaftslisteriose und Listerienausscheider bei Laboratoriumspersonal. Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A. 1975 May;231(4):491–502. [PubMed]
  • Ortel S. Listeria-meningitis and -septicaemia in immunocompromised patients. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1989;36(2-3):153–157. [PubMed]
  • Parrisius J, Bhakdi S, Roth M, Tranum-Jensen J, Goebel W, Seeliger HP. Production of listeriolysin by beta-hemolytic strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1986 Jan;51(1):314–319. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peel M, Donachie W, Shaw A. Temperature-dependent expression of flagella of Listeria monocytogenes studied by electron microscopy, SDS-PAGE and western blotting. J Gen Microbiol. 1988 Aug;134(8):2171–2178. [PubMed]
  • Peeters A, Waer M, Michielsen P, Verbist L, Carton H. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1989;91(1):29–36. [PubMed]
  • Pérez-Díaz JC, Vicente MF, Baquero F. Plasmids in Listeria. Plasmid. 1982 Sep;8(2):112–118. [PubMed]
  • Peterkin PI, Idziak ES, Sharpe AN. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes by direct colony hybridization on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters by using a chromogen-labeled DNA probe. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Feb;57(2):586–591. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Piffaretti JC, Kressebuch H, Aeschbacher M, Bille J, Bannerman E, Musser JM, Selander RK, Rocourt J. Genetic characterization of clones of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes causing epidemic disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 May;86(10):3818–3822. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pine L, Malcolm GB, Brooks JB, Daneshvar MI. Physiological studies on the growth and utilization of sugars by Listeria species. Can J Microbiol. 1989 Feb;35(2):245–254. [PubMed]
  • Pine L, Malcolm GB, Plikaytis BD. Listeria monocytogenes intragastric and intraperitoneal approximate 50% lethal doses for mice are comparable, but death occurs earlier by intragastric feeding. Infect Immun. 1990 Sep;58(9):2940–2945. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pini PN, Gilbert RJ. The occurrence in the U.K. of Listeria species in raw chickens and soft cheeses. Int J Food Microbiol. 1988 Jun;6(4):317–326. [PubMed]
  • Pini PN, Gilbert RJ. A comparison of two procedures for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from raw chickens and soft cheese. Int J Food Microbiol. 1988 Dec 31;7(4):331–337. [PubMed]
  • Pollock SS, Pollock TM, Harrison MJ. Infection of the central nervous system by Listeria monocytogenes: a review of 54 adult and juvenile cases. Q J Med. 1984 Summer;53(211):331–340. [PubMed]
  • Portnoy DA, Jacks PS, Hinrichs DJ. Role of hemolysin for the intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes. J Exp Med. 1988 Apr 1;167(4):1459–1471. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Poyart-Salmeron C, Carlier C, Trieu-Cuot P, Courtieu AL, Courvalin P. Transferable plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance in Listeria monocytogenes. Lancet. 1990 Jun 16;335(8703):1422–1426. [PubMed]
  • Rácz P, Tenner K, Mérö E. Experimental Listeria enteritis. I. An electron microscopic study of the epithelial phase in experimental listeria infection. Lab Invest. 1972 Jun;26(6):694–700. [PubMed]
  • Ramsden GH, Johnson PM, Hart CA, Farquharson RG. Listeriosis in immunocompromised pregnancy. Lancet. 1989 Apr 8;1(8641):794–794. [PubMed]
  • Rao N. Listeria prosthetic valve endocarditis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1989 Aug;98(2):303–304. [PubMed]
  • Rocourt J. Taxonomy of the genus Listeria. Infection. 1988;16 (Suppl 2):S89–S91. [PubMed]
  • Rocourt J, Audurier A, Courtieu AL, Durst J, Ortel S, Schrettenbrunner A, Taylor AG. A multi-centre study on the phage typing of Listeria monocytogenes. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1985 Jul;259(4):489–497. [PubMed]
  • Rocourt J, Catimel B. International Phage Typing Center for Listeria: report for 1987. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1989;36(2-3):225–229. [PubMed]
  • Rocourt J, Espaze EP, Minck R, Catimel B, Hubert B, Courtieu AL. Cluster of listeriosis isolates with different serovar and phagovar characteristics. Lancet. 1989 Nov 18;2(8673):1217–1218. [PubMed]
  • Rodler M, Körbler W. Examination of Listeria monocytogenes in milk products. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1989;36(2-3):259–261. [PubMed]
  • Dominguez Rodriguez L, Vazquez Boland JA, Fernandez Garayzabal JF, Echalecu Tranchant P, Gomez-Lucia E, Rodriguez Ferri EF, Suarez Fernandez G. Microplate technique to determine hemolytic activity for routine typing of Listeria strains. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Jul;24(1):99–103. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roncoroni AJ, Michans M, Bianchini HM, Smayevsky J, Leardini N. Infecciones por Listeria monocytogenes. Experiencia de 15 años. Medicina (B Aires) 1987;47(3):239–242. [PubMed]
  • Ryser ET, Marth EH. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes at different pH values in uncultured whey or whey cultured with Penicillium camemberti. Can J Microbiol. 1988 Jun;34(6):730–734. [PubMed]
  • Ryser ET, Marth EH. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes during manufacture and ripening of brick cheese. J Dairy Sci. 1989 Apr;72(4):838–853. [PubMed]
  • Samuelsson S, Rothgardt NP, Carvajal A, Frederiksen W. Human listeriosis in Denmark 1981-1987 including an outbreak November 1985-March 1987. J Infect. 1990 May;20(3):251–259. [PubMed]
  • Schlech WF., 3rd New perspectives on the gastrointestinal mode of transmission in invasive Listeria monocytogenes infection. Clin Invest Med. 1984;7(4):321–324. [PubMed]
  • Schlech WF, 3rd, Lavigne PM, Bortolussi RA, Allen AC, Haldane EV, Wort AJ, Hightower AW, Johnson SE, King SH, Nicholls ES, et al. Epidemic listeriosis--evidence for transmission by food. N Engl J Med. 1983 Jan 27;308(4):203–206. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt-Wolf G, Seeliger HP, Schretten-Brunner A. Menschliche Listeriose-Erkrankungen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1969-1985. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987 Jul;265(3-4):472–486. [PubMed]
  • Schönberg A, Teufel P, Weise E. Serovars of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua from food. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1989;36(2-3):249–253. [PubMed]
  • Schuchat A, Lizano C, Broome CV, Swaminathan B, Kim C, Winn K. Outbreak of neonatal listeriosis associated with mineral oil. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 Mar;10(3):183–189. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz B, Ciesielski CA, Broome CV, Gaventa S, Brown GR, Gellin BG, Hightower AW, Mascola L. Association of sporadic listeriosis with consumption of uncooked hot dogs and undercooked chicken. Lancet. 1988 Oct 1;2(8614):779–782. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz B, Hexter D, Broome CV, Hightower AW, Hirschhorn RB, Porter JD, Hayes PS, Bibb WF, Lorber B, Faris DG. Investigation of an outbreak of listeriosis: new hypotheses for the etiology of epidemic Listeria monocytogenes infections. J Infect Dis. 1989 Apr;159(4):680–685. [PubMed]
  • Schwarze R, Bauermeister CD, Ortel S, Wichmann G. Perinatal listeriosis in Dresden 1981-1986: clinical and microbiological findings in 18 cases. Infection. 1989 May-Jun;17(3):131–138. [PubMed]
  • Seeliger HP. Modern taxonomy of the Listeria group relationship to its pathogenicity. Clin Invest Med. 1984;7(4):217–221. [PubMed]
  • Sethi SK, Ghafoor MA, Vandepitte J. Outbreak of neonatal listeriosis in a regional hospital in Kuwait. Eur J Pediatr. 1989 Jan;148(4):368–370. [PubMed]
  • Siragusa GR, Johnson MG. Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt as determined by direct plating and enrichment methods. Int J Food Microbiol. 1988 Oct;7(2):147–160. [PubMed]
  • Sizmur K, Walker CW. Listeria in prepacked salads. Lancet. 1988 May 21;1(8595):1167–1167. [PubMed]
  • Skalka B, Smola J, Elischerová K. Different haemolytic activities of Listeria monocytogenes strains determined on erythrocytes of various sources and exploiting the synergism of equi-factor. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1982 Sep;29(8):642–649. [PubMed]
  • Skovgaard N, Morgen CA. Detection of Listeria spp. in faeces from animals, in feeds, and in raw foods of animal origin. Int J Food Microbiol. 1988 May;6(3):229–242. [PubMed]
  • Skovgaard N, Nørrung B. The incidence of Listeria spp. in faeces of Danish pigs and in minced pork meat. Int J Food Microbiol. 1989 Feb;8(1):59–63. [PubMed]
  • Smith AR, Lieberman BA, Allen L, Barson AJ. Listeriosis and pregnancy. Lancet. 1983 Dec 10;2(8363):1364–1364. [PubMed]
  • Smola J. Possibilities of differentiation of listerial hemolysins by synergistic hemolytic reactions (CAMP reactions). Int J Food Microbiol. 1989 Jun;8(3):265–267. [PubMed]
  • Sokolovic Z, Fuchs A, Goebel W. Synthesis of species-specific stress proteins by virulent strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1990 Nov;58(11):3582–3587. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sokolovic Z, Goebel W. Synthesis of listeriolysin in Listeria monocytogenes under heat shock conditions. Infect Immun. 1989 Jan;57(1):295–298. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stecha PF, Heynen CA, Roll JT, Brown JF, Czuprynski CJ. Effects of growth temperature on the ingestion and killing of clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes by human neutrophils. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Jul;27(7):1572–1576. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stuart MR, Pease PE. A numerical study on the relationships of Listeria and Erysipelothrix. J Gen Microbiol. 1972 Dec;73(3):551–565. [PubMed]
  • Svabić-Vlahović M, Pantić D, Pavićić M, Bryner JH. Transmission of Listeria monocytogenes from mother's milk to her baby and to puppies. Lancet. 1988 Nov 19;2(8621):1201–1201. [PubMed]
  • Sword CP. Mechanisms of pathogenesis in Listeria monocytogenes infection. I. Influence of iron. J Bacteriol. 1966 Sep;92(3):536–542. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thomas F, Ravaud Y. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure associated with Listeria meningitis. J Infect Dis. 1988 Aug;158(2):492–493. [PubMed]
  • Tilney LG, Connelly PS, Portnoy DA. Actin filament nucleation by the bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. J Cell Biol. 1990 Dec;111(6 Pt 2):2979–2988. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tilney LG, Portnoy DA. Actin filaments and the growth, movement, and spread of the intracellular bacterial parasite, Listeria monocytogenes. J Cell Biol. 1989 Oct;109(4 Pt 1):1597–1608. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Trang TT, Joly JB, Odièvre M. Infection à Listeria monocytogenes chez le grand enfant. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1987 Jun-Jul;44(6):449–451. [PubMed]
  • Trüssel M. Zum Vorkommen von Listerien bei der Produktion von Bündnerfleisch, Salami und Mettwurst. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 1989;131(7):409–12,417-21. [PubMed]
  • Valkenburg MH, Essed GG, Potters HV. Perinatal listeriosis underdiagnosed as a cause of pre-term labour? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1988 Apr;27(4):283–288. [PubMed]
  • van Netten P, van de Ven A, Perales I, Mossel DA. A selective and diagnostic medium for use in the enumeration of Listeria spp. in foods. Int J Food Microbiol. 1988 May;6(3):187–198. [PubMed]
  • Varughese PV, Carter AO. Human listeriosis in Canada-1988. Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1989 Oct 28;15(43):213–217. [PubMed]
  • Vazquez-Boland JA, Dominguez L, Rodriguez-Ferri EF, Fernandez-Garayzabal JF, Suarez G. Preliminary evidence that different domains are involved in cytolytic activity and receptor (cholesterol) binding in listeriolysin O, the Listeria monocytogenes thiol-activated toxin. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1989 Nov;53(1-2):95–99. [PubMed]
  • Vazquez-Boland JA, Dominguez L, Rodriguez-Ferri EF, Suarez G. Purification and characterization of two Listeria ivanovii cytolysins, a sphingomyelinase C and a thiol-activated toxin (ivanolysin O). Infect Immun. 1989 Dec;57(12):3928–3935. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vicente MF, Baquero F, Cossart P, Pérez-Díaz JC. Cloning of two possible haemolysin determinants from Listeria monocytogenes. Ann Inst Pasteur Microbiol. 1987 May-Jun;138(3):385–387. [PubMed]
  • Visintine AM, Oleske JM, Nahmias AJ. Infection in infants and children. Am J Dis Child. 1977 Apr;131(4):393–397. [PubMed]
  • Vogt RL, Donnelly C, Gellin B, Bibb W, Swaminathan B. Linking environmental and human strains of Listeria monocytogenes with isoenzyme and ribosomal RNA typing. Eur J Epidemiol. 1990 Jun;6(2):229–230. [PubMed]
  • Warburton DW, Farber JM, Armstrong A, Caldeira R, Hunt T, Messier S, Plante R, Tiwari NP, Vinet J. A comparative study of the 'FDA' and 'USDA' methods for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods. Int J Food Microbiol. 1991 Jun;13(2):105–117. [PubMed]
  • Weber A, Baumann C, Potel J, Friess H. Nachweis von Listeria monocytogenes und Listeria innocua in Käse. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1988 Nov 1;101(11):373–375. [PubMed]
  • Wehr HM. Listeria monocytogenes--a current dilemma. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1987 Sep-Oct;70(5):769–772. [PubMed]
  • Weis J, Seeliger HP. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in nature. Appl Microbiol. 1975 Jul;30(1):29–32. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Welch DF, Sword CP, Brehm S, Dusanic D. Relationship between superoxide dismutase and pathogenic mechanisms of Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 1979 Mar;23(3):863–872. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wesley IV, Ashton F. Restriction enzyme analysis of Listeria monocytogenes strains associated with food-borne epidemics. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Apr;57(4):969–975. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wetli CV, Roldan EO, Fojaco RM. Listeriosis as a cause of maternal death: an obstetric complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Sep 1;147(1):7–9. [PubMed]
  • Whitelock-Jones L, Carswell J, Rasmussen KC. Listeria pneumonia. A case report. S Afr Med J. 1989 Feb 18;75(4):188–189. [PubMed]
  • Wilhelms D, Sandow D. Preliminary studies on monocine typing of Listeria monocytogenes strains. Acta Microbiol Hung. 1989;36(2-3):235–238. [PubMed]
  • Wilkinson BJ, Jones D. A numerical taxonomic survey of Listeria and related bacteria. J Gen Microbiol. 1977 Feb;98(2):399–421. [PubMed]
  • Wimpfheimer L, Altman NS, Hotchkiss JH. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, serotype 4 and competitive spoilage organisms in raw chicken packaged under modified atmospheres and in air. Int J Food Microbiol. 1990 Dec;11(3-4):205–214. [PubMed]
  • Yousef AE, Ryser ET, Marth EH. Methods for improved recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from cheese. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Nov;54(11):2643–2649. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Microbiological Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...