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Mol Cell Biol. Feb 1981; 1(2): 94–100.
PMCID: PMC369647

Cellular and extracellular siderophores of Aspergillus nidulans and Penicillium chrysogenum.


Aspergillus nidulans and Penicillium chrysogenum produce specific cellular siderophores in addition to the well-known siderophores of the culture medium. Since this was found previously in Neurospora crassa, it is probably generally true for filamentous ascomycetes. The cellular siderophore of A. nidulans is ferricrocin; that of P. chrysogenum is ferrichrome. A. nidulans also contains triacetylfusigen, a siderophore without apparent biological activity. Conidia of both species lose siderophores at high salt concentrations and become siderophore dependent. This has also been found in N. crassa, where lowering of the water activity has been shown to be the causal factor. We used an assay procedure based on this dependency to reexamine the extracellular siderophores of these species. During rapid mycelial growth, both A. nidulans and P. chrysogenum produced two highly active, unidentified siderophores which were later replaced by a less active or inactive product--coprogen in the case of P. chrysogenum and triacetylfusigen in the case of A. nidulans. N. crassa secreted coprogen only. Fungal siderophore metabolism is varied and complex.

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Selected References

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  • Charlang G, Williams NP. Germination-defective mutant of Neurospora crassa that responds to siderophores. J Bacteriol. 1977 Dec;132(3):1042–1044. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Charlang GW, Horowitz NH. Germination and growth of neurospora at low water activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Feb;68(2):260–262. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
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  • Kappner M, Hasenböhler A, Zähner H. Stoffwechselprodukte von Mikroorganismen. 166. Mitteilung. Optimierung der Desferri-Ferricrocinbildung bei Aspergillus viridi-nutans Ducker & Thrower. Arch Microbiol. 1977 Dec 15;115(3):323–331. [PubMed]
  • Moore RE, Emery T. Nalpha-acetylfusarinines: isolation, characterization, and properties. Biochemistry. 1976 Jun 29;15(13):2719–2723. [PubMed]

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