• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of molcellbPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMCB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Mol Cell Biol. Aug 1984; 4(8): 1449–1453.
PMCID: PMC368933

Cardiac actin is the major actin gene product in skeletal muscle cell differentiation in vitro.

Abstract

We examined the expression of alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, and beta- and gamma-cytoskeletal actin genes in a mouse skeletal muscle cell line (C2C12) during differentiation in vitro. Using isotype-specific cDNA probes, we showed that the alpha-skeletal actin mRNA pool reached only 15% of the level reached in adult skeletal muscle and required several days to attain this peak, which was then stably maintained. However, these cells accumulated a pool of alpha-cardiac actin six times higher than the alpha-skeletal actin mRNA peak within 24 h of the initiation of differentiation. After cells had been cultured for an additional 3 days, this pool declined to 10% of its peak level. In contrast, over 95% of the actin mRNA in adult skeletal muscle coded for alpha-actin. This suggests that C2C12 cells express a pattern of sarcomeric actin genes typical of either muscle development or regeneration and distinct from that seen in mature, adult tissue. Concurrently in the course of differentiation the beta- and gamma-cytoskeletal actin mRNA pools decreased to less than 10% of their levels in proliferating cells. The decreases in beta- and gamma-cytoskeletal actin mRNAs are apparently not coordinately regulated.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bischoff R. Enzymatic liberation of myogenic cells from adult rat muscle. Anat Rec. 1974 Dec;180(4):645–661. [PubMed]
  • Blau HM, Chiu CP, Webster C. Cytoplasmic activation of human nuclear genes in stable heterocaryons. Cell. 1983 Apr;32(4):1171–1180. [PubMed]
  • Blau HM, Kaplan I, Tao TW, Kriss JP. Thyroglobulin-independent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity of human eye muscle cells in tissue culture by lymphocytes of a patient with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Life Sci. 1983 Jan 3;32(1-2):45–53. [PubMed]
  • Blau HM, Webster C. Isolation and characterization of human muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Sep;78(9):5623–5627. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blau HM, Webster C, Chiu CP, Guttman S, Chandler F. Differentiation properties of pure populations of human dystrophic muscle cells. Exp Cell Res. 1983 Apr 1;144(2):495–503. [PubMed]
  • Blau HM, Webster C, Pavlath GK. Defective myoblasts identified in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Aug;80(15):4856–4860. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brawerman G, Mendecki J, Lee SY. A procedure for the isolation of mammalian messenger ribonucleic acid. Biochemistry. 1972 Feb 15;11(4):637–641. [PubMed]
  • Cleveland DW, Lopata MA, MacDonald RJ, Cowan NJ, Rutter WJ, Kirschner MW. Number and evolutionary conservation of alpha- and beta-tubulin and cytoplasmic beta- and gamma-actin genes using specific cloned cDNA probes. Cell. 1980 May;20(1):95–105. [PubMed]
  • Denhardt DT. A membrane-filter technique for the detection of complementary DNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1966 Jun 13;23(5):641–646. [PubMed]
  • Devlin RB, Emerson CP., Jr Coordinate accumulation of contractile protein mRNAs during myoblast differentiation. Dev Biol. 1979 Mar;69(1):202–216. [PubMed]
  • Engel J, Gunning P, Kedes L. Human cytoplasmic actin proteins are encoded by a multigene family. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Jun;2(6):674–684. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gunning P, Ponte P, Blau H, Kedes L. alpha-skeletal and alpha-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Nov;3(11):1985–1995. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gunning P, Ponte P, Okayama H, Engel J, Blau H, Kedes L. Isolation and characterization of full-length cDNA clones for human alpha-, beta-, and gamma-actin mRNAs: skeletal but not cytoplasmic actins have an amino-terminal cysteine that is subsequently removed. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 May;3(5):787–795. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Konigsberg UR, Lipton BH, Konigsberg IR. The regenerative response of single mature muscle fibers isolated in vitro. Dev Biol. 1975 Aug;45(2):260–275. [PubMed]
  • Matsuda R, Spector DH, Strohman RC. Regenerating adult chicken skeletal muscle and satellite cell cultures express embryonic patterns of myosin and tropomyosin isoforms. Dev Biol. 1983 Dec;100(2):478–488. [PubMed]
  • MAURO A. Satellite cell of skeletal muscle fibers. J Biophys Biochem Cytol. 1961 Feb;9:493–495. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Minty AJ, Alonso S, Caravatti M, Buckingham ME. A fetal skeletal muscle actin mRNA in the mouse and its identity with cardiac actin mRNA. Cell. 1982 Aug;30(1):185–192. [PubMed]
  • Ordahl CP, Cooper TA. Strong homology in promoter and 3'-untranslated regions of chick and rat alpha-actin genes. Nature. 1983 May 26;303(5915):348–349. [PubMed]
  • Palmiter RD. Magnesium precipitation of ribonucleoprotein complexes. Expedient techniques for the isolation of undergraded polysomes and messenger ribonucleic acid. Biochemistry. 1974 Aug 13;13(17):3606–3615. [PubMed]
  • Ponte P, Gunning P, Blau H, Kedes L. Human actin genes are single copy for alpha-skeletal and alpha-cardiac actin but multicopy for beta- and gamma-cytoskeletal genes: 3' untranslated regions are isotype specific but are conserved in evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Oct;3(10):1783–1791. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ponte P, Ng SY, Engel J, Gunning P, Kedes L. Evolutionary conservation in the untranslated regions of actin mRNAs: DNA sequence of a human beta-actin cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Feb 10;12(3):1687–1696. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Prentki P, Krisch HM. A modified pBR322 vector with improved properties for the cloning, recovery, and sequencing of blunt-ended DNA fragments. Gene. 1982 Feb;17(2):189–196. [PubMed]
  • Richler C, Yaffe D. The in vitro cultivation and differentiation capacities of myogenic cell lines. Dev Biol. 1970 Sep;23(1):1–22. [PubMed]
  • Rigby PW, Dieckmann M, Rhodes C, Berg P. Labeling deoxyribonucleic acid to high specific activity in vitro by nick translation with DNA polymerase I. J Mol Biol. 1977 Jun 15;113(1):237–251. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz RJ, Rothblum KN. Gene switching in myogenesis: differential expression of the chicken actin multigene family. Biochemistry. 1981 Jul 7;20(14):4122–4129. [PubMed]
  • Shani M, Nudel U, Zevin-Sonkin D, Zakut R, Givol D, Katcoff D, Carmon Y, Reiter J, Frischauf AM, Yaffe D. Skeletal muscle actin mRNA. Characterization of the 3' untranslated region. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Feb 11;9(3):579–589. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strohman RC, Micou-Eastwood J, Glass CA, Matsuda R. Human fetal muscle and cultured myotubes derived from it contain a fetal-specific myosin light chain. Science. 1983 Sep 2;221(4614):955–957. [PubMed]
  • Toyota N, Shimada Y. Isoform variants of troponin in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells cultured with and without nerves. Cell. 1983 May;33(1):297–304. [PubMed]
  • Vandekerckhove J, Weber K. Mammalian cytoplasmic actins are the products of at least two genes and differ in primary structure in at least 25 identified positions from skeletal muscle actins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Mar;75(3):1106–1110. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vandekerckhove J, Weber K. The complete amino acid sequence of actins from bovine aorta, bovine heart, bovine fast skeletal muscle, and rabbit slow skeletal muscle. A protein-chemical analysis of muscle actin differentiation. Differentiation. 1979;14(3):123–133. [PubMed]
  • Whalen RG, Butler-Browne GS, Gros F. Identification of a novel form of myosin light chain present in embryonic muscle tissue and cultured muscle cells. J Mol Biol. 1978 Dec 15;126(3):415–431. [PubMed]
  • Whalen RG, Butler-Browne GS, Sell S, Gros F. Transitions in contractile protein isozymes during muscle cell differentiation. Biochimie. 1979;61(5-6):625–632. [PubMed]
  • Yaffe D, Saxel O. Serial passaging and differentiation of myogenic cells isolated from dystrophic mouse muscle. Nature. 1977 Dec 22;270(5639):725–727. [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular and Cellular Biology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...