• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of molcellbPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMCB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Mol Cell Biol. Mar 1988; 8(3): 1103–1112.
PMCID: PMC363253

Cap-independent translation of poliovirus mRNA is conferred by sequence elements within the 5' noncoding region.

Abstract

Poliovirus polysomal RNA is naturally uncapped, and as such, its translation must bypass any 5' cap-dependent ribosome recognition event. To elucidate the manner by which poliovirus mRNA is translated, we have determined the translational efficiencies of a series of deletion mutants within the 5' noncoding region of the mRNA. We found striking differences in translatability among the altered mRNAs when assayed in mock-infected and poliovirus-infected HeLa cell extracts. The results identify a functional cis-acting element within the 5' noncoding region of the poliovirus mRNA which enables it to translate in a cap-independent fashion. The major determinant of this element maps between nucleotides 320 and 631 of the 5' end of the poliovirus mRNA. We also show that this region (320 to 631), when fused to a heterologous mRNA, can function in cis to render the mRNA cap independent in translation.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abramson RD, Dever TE, Lawson TG, Ray BK, Thach RE, Merrick WC. The ATP-dependent interaction of eukaryotic initiation factors with mRNA. J Biol Chem. 1987 Mar 15;262(8):3826–3832. [PubMed]
  • Bonneau AM, Sonenberg N. Proteolysis of the p220 component of the cap-binding protein complex is not sufficient for complete inhibition of host cell protein synthesis after poliovirus infection. J Virol. 1987 Apr;61(4):986–991. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Both GW, Banerjee AK, Shatkin AJ. Methylation-dependent translation of viral messenger RNAs in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Mar;72(3):1189–1193. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dorner AJ, Dorner LF, Larsen GR, Wimmer E, Anderson CW. Identification of the initiation site of poliovirus polyprotein synthesis. J Virol. 1982 Jun;42(3):1017–1028. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dorner AJ, Semler BL, Jackson RJ, Hanecak R, Duprey E, Wimmer E. In vitro translation of poliovirus RNA: utilization of internal initiation sites in reticulocyte lysate. J Virol. 1984 May;50(2):507–514. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Etchison D, Milburn SC, Edery I, Sonenberg N, Hershey JW. Inhibition of HeLa cell protein synthesis following poliovirus infection correlates with the proteolysis of a 220,000-dalton polypeptide associated with eucaryotic initiation factor 3 and a cap binding protein complex. J Biol Chem. 1982 Dec 25;257(24):14806–14810. [PubMed]
  • Evans DM, Dunn G, Minor PD, Schild GC, Cann AJ, Stanway G, Almond JW, Currey K, Maizel JV., Jr Increased neurovirulence associated with a single nucleotide change in a noncoding region of the Sabin type 3 poliovaccine genome. Nature. 1985 Apr 11;314(6011):548–550. [PubMed]
  • Furuichi Y, LaFiandra A, Shatkin AJ. 5'-Terminal structure and mRNA stability. Nature. 1977 Mar 17;266(5599):235–239. [PubMed]
  • Gehrke L, Auron PE, Quigley GJ, Rich A, Sonenberg N. 5'-Conformation of capped alfalfa mosaic virus ribonucleic acid 4 may reflect its independence of the cap structure or of cap-binding protein for efficient translation. Biochemistry. 1983 Oct 25;22(22):5157–5164. [PubMed]
  • Hassin D, Korn R, Horwitz MS. A major internal initiation site for the in vitro translation of the adenovirus DNA polymerase. Virology. 1986 Nov;155(1):214–224. [PubMed]
  • Herman RC. Internal initiation of translation on the vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein mRNA yields a second protein. J Virol. 1986 Jun;58(3):797–804. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hewlett MJ, Rose JK, Baltimore D. 5'-terminal structure of poliovirus polyribosomal RNA is pUp. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Feb;73(2):327–330. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hickey ED, Weber LA, Baglioni C. Inhibition of initiation of protein synthesis by 7-methylguanosine-5'-monophosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Jan;73(1):19–23. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kitamura N, Semler BL, Rothberg PG, Larsen GR, Adler CJ, Dorner AJ, Emini EA, Hanecak R, Lee JJ, van der Werf S, et al. Primary structure, gene organization and polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA. Nature. 1981 Jun 18;291(5816):547–553. [PubMed]
  • Kozak M. Comparison of initiation of protein synthesis in procaryotes, eucaryotes, and organelles. Microbiol Rev. 1983 Mar;47(1):1–45. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuge S, Nomoto A. Construction of viable deletion and insertion mutants of the Sabin strain of type 1 poliovirus: function of the 5' noncoding sequence in viral replication. J Virol. 1987 May;61(5):1478–1487. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970 Aug 15;227(5259):680–685. [PubMed]
  • La Monica N, Meriam C, Racaniello VR. Mapping of sequences required for mouse neurovirulence of poliovirus type 2 Lansing. J Virol. 1986 Feb;57(2):515–525. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Langridge J, Langridge P, Bergquist PL. Extraction of nucleic acids from agarose gels. Anal Biochem. 1980 Apr;103(2):264–271. [PubMed]
  • Lee KA, Sonenberg N. Inactivation of cap-binding proteins accompanies the shut-off of host protein synthesis by poliovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Jun;79(11):3447–3451. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McClain K, Stewart M, Sullivan M, Maizel JV., Jr Ribosomal binding sites on poliovirus RNA. Virology. 1981 Aug;113(1):150–167. [PubMed]
  • Nomoto A, Lee YF, Wimmer E. The 5' end of poliovirus mRNA is not capped with m7G(5')ppp(5')Np. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Feb;73(2):375–380. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Omata T, Kohara M, Kuge S, Komatsu T, Abe S, Semler BL, Kameda A, Itoh H, Arita M, Wimmer E, et al. Genetic analysis of the attenuation phenotype of poliovirus type 1. J Virol. 1986 May;58(2):348–358. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pelletier J, Sonenberg N. Insertion mutagenesis to increase secondary structure within the 5' noncoding region of a eukaryotic mRNA reduces translational efficiency. Cell. 1985 Mar;40(3):515–526. [PubMed]
  • Racaniello VR, Baltimore D. Molecular cloning of poliovirus cDNA and determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the viral genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Aug;78(8):4887–4891. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Racaniello VR, Meriam C. Poliovirus temperature-sensitive mutant containing a single nucleotide deletion in the 5'-noncoding region of the viral RNA. Virology. 1986 Dec;155(2):498–507. [PubMed]
  • Rose JK, Trachsel H, Leong K, Baltimore D. Inhibition of translation by poliovirus: inactivation of a specific initiation factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Jun;75(6):2732–2736. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shih DS, Park IW, Evans CL, Jaynes JM, Palmenberg AC. Effects of cDNA hybridization on translation of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA. J Virol. 1987 Jun;61(6):2033–2037. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sonenberg N. Regulation of translation by poliovirus. Adv Virus Res. 1987;33:175–204. [PubMed]
  • Svitkin YV, Maslova SV, Agol VI. The genomes of attenuated and virulent poliovirus strains differ in their in vitro translation efficiencies. Virology. 1985 Dec;147(2):243–252. [PubMed]
  • Toyoda H, Kohara M, Kataoka Y, Suganuma T, Omata T, Imura N, Nomoto A. Complete nucleotide sequences of all three poliovirus serotype genomes. Implication for genetic relationship, gene function and antigenic determinants. J Mol Biol. 1984 Apr 25;174(4):561–585. [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular and Cellular Biology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...