• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of molcellbPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMCB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Mol Cell Biol. Jan 1988; 8(1): 480–485.
PMCID: PMC363155

Evidence that the functional beta-actin gene is single copy in most mice and is associated with 5' sequences capable of conferring serum- and cycloheximide-dependent regulation.

Abstract

Hybridization to synthetic oligonucleotides representing conserved regions in the promoter and first intron of several vertebrate beta-actin genes was used to discriminate between what appears to be a single functional beta-actin gene and numerous pseudogenes in the mouse genome. Sequences derived from the 5' end of this gene were shown to confer serum-inducible expression upon a heterologous reporter gene when transfected into mouse fibroblasts. Moreover, these sequences rendered reporter gene expression superinducible by a combination of serum and cycloheximide. These experiments indicate that the 5' end of the mouse beta-actin gene contains sequence elements which mediate the stimulatory effects of serum growth factors and which are responsive to both positive and negative regulators of gene expression.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Benton WD, Davis RW. Screening lambdagt recombinant clones by hybridization to single plaques in situ. Science. 1977 Apr 8;196(4286):180–182. [PubMed]
  • Courtney MG, Elder PK, Steffen DL, Getz MJ. Evidence for an early evolutionary origin and locus polymorphism of mouse VL30 DNA sequences. J Virol. 1982 Aug;43(2):511–518. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elder PK, Schmidt LJ, Ono T, Getz MJ. Specific stimulation of actin gene transcription by epidermal growth factor and cycloheximide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Dec;81(23):7476–7480. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elsholtz HP, Mangalam HJ, Potter E, Albert VR, Supowit S, Evans RM, Rosenfeld MG. Two different cis-active elements transfer the transcriptional effects of both EGF and phorbol esters. Science. 1986 Dec 19;234(4783):1552–1557. [PubMed]
  • Foster DN, Schmidt LJ, Hodgson CP, Moses HL, Getz MJ. Polyadenylylated RNA complementary to a mouse retrovirus-like multigene family is rapidly and specifically induced by epidermal growth factor stimulation of quiescent cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Dec;79(23):7317–7321. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gorman CM, Moffat LF, Howard BH. Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Sep;2(9):1044–1051. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Greenberg ME, Hermanowski AL, Ziff EB. Effect of protein synthesis inhibitors on growth factor activation of c-fos, c-myc, and actin gene transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Apr;6(4):1050–1057. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Greenberg ME, Ziff EB. Stimulation of 3T3 cells induces transcription of the c-fos proto-oncogene. Nature. 1984 Oct 4;311(5985):433–438. [PubMed]
  • Hamilton RT, Nilsen-Hamilton M, Adams G. Superinduction by cycloheximide of mitogen-induced secreted proteins produced by Balb/c 3T3 cells. J Cell Physiol. 1985 May;123(2):201–208. [PubMed]
  • Leof EB, Proper JA, Getz MJ, Moses HL. Transforming growth factor type beta regulation of actin mRNA. J Cell Physiol. 1986 Apr;127(1):83–88. [PubMed]
  • Lopata MA, Cleveland DW, Sollner-Webb B. High level transient expression of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene by DEAE-dextran mediated DNA transfection coupled with a dimethyl sulfoxide or glycerol shock treatment. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jul 25;12(14):5707–5717. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Meister RK, Hulman SE, Johnson LF. Rapid changes in poly (A)(+) mRNA content in growth stimulated fibroblasts following perturbations in protein synthesis. J Cell Physiol. 1979 Sep;100(3):531–538. [PubMed]
  • Minty AJ, Alonso S, Guénet JL, Buckingham ME. Number and organization of actin-related sequences in the mouse genome. J Mol Biol. 1983 Jun 15;167(1):77–101. [PubMed]
  • Mohun T, Garrett N, Treisman R. Xenopus cytoskeletal actin and human c-fos gene promoters share a conserved protein-binding site. EMBO J. 1987 Mar;6(3):667–673. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakajima-Iijima S, Hamada H, Reddy P, Kakunaga T. Molecular structure of the human cytoplasmic beta-actin gene: interspecies homology of sequences in the introns. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Sep;82(18):6133–6137. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ng SY, Gunning P, Eddy R, Ponte P, Leavitt J, Shows T, Kedes L. Evolution of the functional human beta-actin gene and its multi-pseudogene family: conservation of noncoding regions and chromosomal dispersion of pseudogenes. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Oct;5(10):2720–2732. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nudel U, Zakut R, Shani M, Neuman S, Levy Z, Yaffe D. The nucleotide sequence of the rat cytoplasmic beta-actin gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Mar 25;11(6):1759–1771. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ponte P, Gunning P, Blau H, Kedes L. Human actin genes are single copy for alpha-skeletal and alpha-cardiac actin but multicopy for beta- and gamma-cytoskeletal genes: 3' untranslated regions are isotype specific but are conserved in evolution. Mol Cell Biol. 1983 Oct;3(10):1783–1791. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Riddle VG, Dubrow R, Pardee AB. Changes in the synthesis of actin and other cell proteins after stimulation of serum-arrested cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Mar;76(3):1298–1302. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Steffen DL, Bird S, Weinberg RA. Evidence for the Asiatic origin of endogenous AKR-type murine leukemia proviruses. J Virol. 1980 Sep;35(3):824–835. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stiles CD, Lee KL, Kenney FT. Differential degradation of messenger RNAs in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Aug;73(8):2634–2638. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Subramaniam M, Shanmugam G. Effect of cycloheximide and growth factors on gene expression in quiescent mouse embryo fibroblasts. J Cell Physiol. 1986 Jan;126(1):47–52. [PubMed]
  • Tokunaga K, Taniguchi H, Yoda K, Shimizu M, Sakiyama S. Nucleotide sequence of a full-length cDNA for mouse cytoskeletal beta-actin mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Mar 25;14(6):2829–2829. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Treisman R. Transient accumulation of c-fos RNA following serum stimulation requires a conserved 5' element and c-fos 3' sequences. Cell. 1985 Oct;42(3):889–902. [PubMed]
  • Vandekerckhove J, Weber K. At least six different actins are expressed in a higher mammal: an analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal tryptic peptide. J Mol Biol. 1978 Dec 25;126(4):783–802. [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular and Cellular Biology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...