• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of molcellbPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMCB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Mol Cell Biol. Oct 1989; 9(10): 4495–4506.
PMCID: PMC362534

E2F from adenovirus-infected cells binds cooperatively to DNA containing two properly oriented and spaced recognition sites.


E2F is a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor which binds to sites that occur in pairs upstream of the adenovirus E1A and E2 early transcriptional start sites. Substantial quantities of E2F activity were found in uninfected-cell extracts, and there was a modest increase in E2F activity during an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection. In uninfected cells, E2F was found to exist in multiple forms that could be separated chromatographically. Extracts prepared at 24 h after Ad5 infection contained a new form of E2F. This infection-specific form may have been a modified version of one of the forms present in uninfected cells. The infection-specific E2F was shown to bind cooperatively to a pair of E2F sites found upstream of the Ad2 early region 2 mRNA cap site. This binding was sensitive to the spacing between the sites and their relative orientation. In contrast, E2F binding in uninfected-cell extracts was unaffected by changes in orientation and spacing, consistent with very low cooperativity or independent binding.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Carthew RW, Chodosh LA, Sharp PA. An RNA polymerase II transcription factor binds to an upstream element in the adenovirus major late promoter. Cell. 1985 Dec;43(2 Pt 1):439–448. [PubMed]
  • Chodosh LA, Carthew RW, Sharp PA. A single polypeptide possesses the binding and transcription activities of the adenovirus major late transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1986 Dec;6(12):4723–4733. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chow LT, Broker TR, Lewis JB. Complex splicing patterns of RNAs from the early regions of adenovirus-2. J Mol Biol. 1979 Oct 25;134(2):265–303. [PubMed]
  • Dignam JD, Lebovitz RM, Roeder RG. Accurate transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II in a soluble extract from isolated mammalian nuclei. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Mar 11;11(5):1475–1489. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fried M, Crothers DM. Equilibria and kinetics of lac repressor-operator interactions by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Dec 11;9(23):6505–6525. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Galas DJ, Schmitz A. DNAse footprinting: a simple method for the detection of protein-DNA binding specificity. Nucleic Acids Res. 1978 Sep;5(9):3157–3170. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hardy S, Engel DA, Shenk T. An adenovirus early region 4 gene product is required for induction of the infection-specific form of cellular E2F activity. Genes Dev. 1989 Jul;3(7):1062–1074. [PubMed]
  • Hardy S, Shenk T. Adenoviral control regions activated by E1A and the cAMP response element bind to the same factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jun;85(12):4171–4175. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hearing P, Shenk T. The adenovirus type 5 E1A transcriptional control region contains a duplicated enhancer element. Cell. 1983 Jul;33(3):695–703. [PubMed]
  • Hearing P, Shenk T. The adenovirus type 5 E1A enhancer contains two functionally distinct domains: one is specific for E1A and the other modulates all early units in cis. Cell. 1986 Apr 25;45(2):229–236. [PubMed]
  • Imperiale MJ, Nevins JR. Adenovirus 5 E2 transcription unit: an E1A-inducible promoter with an essential element that functions independently of position or orientation. Mol Cell Biol. 1984 May;4(5):875–882. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jones N, Shenk T. Isolation of deletion and substitution mutants of adenovirus type 5. Cell. 1978 Jan;13(1):181–188. [PubMed]
  • Kovesdi I, Reichel R, Nevins JR. Identification of a cellular transcription factor involved in E1A trans-activation. Cell. 1986 Apr 25;45(2):219–228. [PubMed]
  • Kovesdi I, Reichel R, Nevins JR. Role of an adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor in E1A-mediated coordinate gene control. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2180–2184. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lin SY, Riggs AD. Photochemical attachment of lac repressor to bromodeoxyuridine-substituted lac operator by ultraviolet radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Mar;71(3):947–951. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murthy SC, Bhat GP, Thimmappaya B. Adenovirus EIIA early promoter: transcriptional control elements and induction by the viral pre-early EIA gene, which appears to be sequence independent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Apr;82(8):2230–2234. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reichel R, Kovesdi I, Nevins JR. Activation of a preexisting cellular factor as a basis for adenovirus E1A-mediated transcription control. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jan;85(2):387–390. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reichel R, Neill SD, Kovesdi I, Simon MC, Raychaudhuri P, Nevins JR. The adenovirus E4 gene, in addition to the E1A gene, is important for trans-activation of E2 transcription and for E2F activation. J Virol. 1989 Sep;63(9):3643–3650. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Safer B, Cohen RB, Garfinkel S, Thompson JA. DNA affinity labeling of adenovirus type 2 upstream promoter sequence-binding factors identifies two distinct proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Jan;8(1):105–113. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yee AS, Raychaudhuri P, Jakoi L, Nevins JR. The adenovirus-inducible factor E2F stimulates transcription after specific DNA binding. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Feb;9(2):578–585. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yee AS, Reichel R, Kovesdi I, Nevins JR. Promoter interaction of the E1A-inducible factor E2F and its potential role in the formation of a multi-component complex. EMBO J. 1987 Jul;6(7):2061–2068. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zajchowski DA, Boeuf H, Kédinger C. The adenovirus-2 early EIIa transcription unit possesses two overlapping promoters with different sequence requirements for EIa-dependent stimulation. EMBO J. 1985 May;4(5):1293–1300. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular and Cellular Biology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...