• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of molcellbPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMCB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Mol Cell Biol. Feb 1990; 10(2): 634–642.
PMCID: PMC360861

The GLI gene encodes a nuclear protein which binds specific sequences in the human genome.

Abstract

The GLI gene is amplified in a subset of human tumors and encodes a protein product with five zinc finger DNA-binding motifs. In this study, we show that the GLI gene product has a predominantly nuclear localization and binds DNA in a sequence-specific fashion. Three GLI binding sites were identified by using a novel procedure in which total human DNA was bound to a GLI recombinant fusion protein, and the polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify and recover the bound sequences. The GLI protein protected a 23- to 24-base region within all three binding sites, and the protected region in each case included the 9-base-pair sequence 5'-GACCACCCA-3'. One of the binding sites was contained within a 63-base-pair repeat of the variable number of tandem repeat type, whereas the other two sites were represented once in the genome. The approach used here to identify GLI binding sites should be applicable to the characterization of other zinc finger proteins.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Arheden K, Rønne M, Mandahl N, Heim S, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Mitelman F. In situ hybridization localizes the human putative oncogene GLI to chromosome subbands 12q13.3-14.1. Hum Genet. 1989 Apr;82(1):1–2. [PubMed]
  • Bigner SH, Mark J, Bigner DD. Chromosomal progression of malignant human gliomas from biopsy to establishment as permanent lines in vitro. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1987 Jan;24(1):163–176. [PubMed]
  • Brown RS, Sander C, Argos P. The primary structure of transcription factor TFIIIA has 12 consecutive repeats. FEBS Lett. 1985 Jul 8;186(2):271–274. [PubMed]
  • Chowdhury K, Deutsch U, Gruss P. A multigene family encoding several "finger" structures is present and differentially active in mammalian genomes. Cell. 1987 Mar 13;48(5):771–778. [PubMed]
  • Feinberg AP, Vogelstein B. "A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity". Addendum. Anal Biochem. 1984 Feb;137(1):266–267. [PubMed]
  • Fogh J. Cultivation, characterization, and identification of human tumor cells with emphasis on kidney, testis, and bladder tumors. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1978 Dec;(49):5–9. [PubMed]
  • Hoffman EP, Brown RH, Jr, Kunkel LM. Dystrophin: the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus. Cell. 1987 Dec 24;51(6):919–928. [PubMed]
  • Kinzler KW, Bigner SH, Bigner DD, Trent JM, Law ML, O'Brien SJ, Wong AJ, Vogelstein B. Identification of an amplified, highly expressed gene in a human glioma. Science. 1987 Apr 3;236(4797):70–73. [PubMed]
  • Kinzler KW, Ruppert JM, Bigner SH, Vogelstein B. The GLI gene is a member of the Kruppel family of zinc finger proteins. Nature. 1988 Mar 24;332(6162):371–374. [PubMed]
  • Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B. Whole genome PCR: application to the identification of sequences bound by gene regulatory proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 May 25;17(10):3645–3653. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kraft R, Tardiff J, Krauter KS, Leinwand LA. Using mini-prep plasmid DNA for sequencing double stranded templates with Sequenase. Biotechniques. 1988 Jun;6(6):544–549. [PubMed]
  • Ledbetter DH, Ledbetter SA, vanTuinen P, Summers KM, Robinson TJ, Nakamura Y, Wolff R, White R, Barker DF, Wallace MR, et al. Molecular dissection of a contiguous gene syndrome: frequent submicroscopic deletions, evolutionarily conserved sequences, and a hypomethylated "island" in the Miller-Dieker chromosome region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jul;86(13):5136–5140. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. A new method for sequencing DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Feb;74(2):560–564. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):499–560. [PubMed]
  • Miller J, McLachlan AD, Klug A. Repetitive zinc-binding domains in the protein transcription factor IIIA from Xenopus oocytes. EMBO J. 1985 Jun;4(6):1609–1614. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morishita K, Parker DS, Mucenski ML, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG, Ihle JN. Retroviral activation of a novel gene encoding a zinc finger protein in IL-3-dependent myeloid leukemia cell lines. Cell. 1988 Sep 9;54(6):831–840. [PubMed]
  • Nielsen DA, Shapiro DJ. Preparation of capped RNA transcripts using T7 RNA polymerase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Jul 25;14(14):5936–5936. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Page DC, Mosher R, Simpson EM, Fisher EM, Mardon G, Pollack J, McGillivray B, de la Chapelle A, Brown LG. The sex-determining region of the human Y chromosome encodes a finger protein. Cell. 1987 Dec 24;51(6):1091–1104. [PubMed]
  • Preiss A, Rosenberg UB, Kienlin A, Seifert E, Jäckle H. Molecular genetics of Krüppel, a gene required for segmentation of the Drosophila embryo. Nature. 1985 Jan 3;313(5997):27–32. [PubMed]
  • Roberts WM, Douglass EC, Peiper SC, Houghton PJ, Look AT. Amplification of the gli gene in childhood sarcomas. Cancer Res. 1989 Oct 1;49(19):5407–5413. [PubMed]
  • Ruppert JM, Kinzler KW, Wong AJ, Bigner SH, Kao FT, Law ML, Seuanez HN, O'Brien SJ, Vogelstein B. The GLI-Kruppel family of human genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Aug;8(8):3104–3113. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schuh R, Aicher W, Gaul U, Côté S, Preiss A, Maier D, Seifert E, Nauber U, Schröder C, Kemler R, et al. A conserved family of nuclear proteins containing structural elements of the finger protein encoded by Krüppel, a Drosophila segmentation gene. Cell. 1986 Dec 26;47(6):1025–1032. [PubMed]
  • Sealey PG, Whittaker PA, Southern EM. Removal of repeated sequences from hybridisation probes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Mar 25;13(6):1905–1922. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Singh H, Clerc RG, LeBowitz JH. Molecular cloning of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins using recognition site probes. Biotechniques. 1989 Mar;7(3):252–261. [PubMed]
  • Smith DR, Jackson IJ, Brown DD. Domains of the positive transcription factor specific for the Xenopus 5S RNA gene. Cell. 1984 Jun;37(2):645–652. [PubMed]
  • Stanley KK, Luzio JP. Construction of a new family of high efficiency bacterial expression vectors: identification of cDNA clones coding for human liver proteins. EMBO J. 1984 Jun;3(6):1429–1434. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sukhatme VP, Cao XM, Chang LC, Tsai-Morris CH, Stamenkovich D, Ferreira PC, Cohen DR, Edwards SA, Shows TB, Curran T, et al. A zinc finger-encoding gene coregulated with c-fos during growth and differentiation, and after cellular depolarization. Cell. 1988 Apr 8;53(1):37–43. [PubMed]
  • Vogelstein B, Gillespie D. Preparative and analytical purification of DNA from agarose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Feb;76(2):615–619. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wingender E. Compilation of transcription regulating proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Mar 25;16(5):1879–1902. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wong AJ, Bigner SH, Bigner DD, Kinzler KW, Hamilton SR, Vogelstein B. Increased expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in malignant gliomas is invariably associated with gene amplification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct;84(19):6899–6903. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular and Cellular Biology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...