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Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Aug; 13(8): 4736–4744.
PMCID: PMC360099

Regulation of the C/EBP-related gene gadd153 by glucose deprivation.


gadd153 encodes a CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-related protein that lacks a functional DNA-binding domain. Since the gadd153 protein is capable of heterodimerizing with other C/EBPs, gadd153 may function as a negative regulator of these transcription factors. Here we examined the role of glucose in regulating gadd153 expression. We found that glucose deprivation markedly induces gadd153 mRNA levels in both HeLa and 3T3-L1 cells and that addition of D-(+)-glucose resulted in a rapid decrease of gadd153 mRNA. Similar induction and reversal of gadd153 expression were observed at the protein level. Because C/EBP alpha appears to play an important role in regulating genes involved in adipogenesis and energy metabolism, we examined gadd153 expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and as a function of glucose utilization in differentiated adipocytes. Using a standard differentiation protocol that consisted of hormonal stimulation for 2 days followed by medium changes every 2 days thereafter, we observed that both C/EBP alpha and gadd153 mRNAs were elevated. However, C/EBP alpha induction occurred on day 3, while gadd153 expression was not seen until day 4, when the cells were fully differentiated. Frequent addition of fresh medium to the cells during the differentiation process, as well as supplementation of medium with glucose, reduced gadd153 expression without preventing C/EBP alpha expression or interfering with cellular differentiation. Thus, gadd153 expression is not essential for the process of adipocyte differentiation but is significantly influenced by the availability of glucose to the cell.

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