• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of cmrPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalCMR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Clin Microbiol Rev. Oct 1993; 6(4): 324–338.
PMCID: PMC358292

Bacillus cereus and related species.

Abstract

Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Akesson A, Hedström SA, Ripa T. Bacillus cereus: a significant pathogen in postoperative and post-traumatic wounds on orthopaedic wards. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991;23(1):71–77. [PubMed]
  • al-Hemidan A, Byrne-Rhodes KA, Tabbara KF. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis associated with intraocular gas bubble. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989 Jan;73(1):25–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Alouf JE. Streptococcal toxins (streptolysin O, streptolysin S, erythrogenic toxin). Pharmacol Ther. 1980;11(3):661–717. [PubMed]
  • Ansell SE, Lawton EB, McRae S, Mortimer G, Cursons RT. Endophthalmitis due to Bacillus cereus: case report. N Z Med J. 1980 Jul 9;92(663):12–13. [PubMed]
  • Ash C, Collins MD. Comparative analysis of 23S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Bacillus anthracis and emetic Bacillus cereus determined by PCR-direct sequencing. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Jul 1;73(1-2):75–80. [PubMed]
  • Ash C, Farrow JA, Dorsch M, Stackebrandt E, Collins MD. Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1991 Jul;41(3):343–346. [PubMed]
  • Attwood AI, Evans DM. Bacillus cereus infection in burns. Burns Incl Therm Inj. 1983 May;9(5):355–357. [PubMed]
  • Banerjee C, Bustamante CI, Wharton R, Talley E, Wade JC. Bacillus infections in patients with cancer. Arch Intern Med. 1988 Aug;148(8):1769–1774. [PubMed]
  • Barrie D, Wilson JA, Hoffman PN, Kramer JM. Bacillus cereus meningitis in two neurosurgical patients: an investigation into the source of the organism. J Infect. 1992 Nov;25(3):291–297. [PubMed]
  • Beecher DJ, MacMillan JD. A novel bicomponent hemolysin from Bacillus cereus. Infect Immun. 1990 Jul;58(7):2220–2227. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beecher DJ, Macmillan JD. Characterization of the components of hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus. Infect Immun. 1991 May;59(5):1778–1784. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beer PM, Ludwig IH, Packer AJ. Complete visual recovery after Bacillus cereus endophthalmitis in a child. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990 Aug 15;110(2):212–213. [PubMed]
  • Bekemeyer WB, Zimmerman GA. Life-threatening complications associated with Bacillus cereus pneumonia. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985 Mar;131(3):466–469. [PubMed]
  • Bhakdi S, Tranum-Jensen J. Membrane damage by pore-forming bacterial cytolysins. Microb Pathog. 1986 Feb;1(1):5–14. [PubMed]
  • Block CS, Levy ML, Fritz VU. Bacillus cereus endocarditis. A case report. S Afr Med J. 1978 Apr 8;53(14):556–557. [PubMed]
  • Bouza E, Grant S, Jordan C, Yook RH, Sulit HL. Bacillus cereus endogenous panophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979 Mar;97(3):498–499. [PubMed]
  • Brinton GS, Topping TM, Hyndiuk RA, Aaberg TM, Reeser FH, Abrams GW. Posttraumatic endophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984 Apr;102(4):547–550. [PubMed]
  • Carbone JE, Stauffer JL. Bacillus cereus pleuropulmonary infection in a normal host. West J Med. 1985 Nov;143(5):676–677. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Colpin GG, Guiot HF, Simonis RF, Zwaan FE. Bacillus cereus meningitis in a patient under gnotobiotic care. Lancet. 1981 Sep 26;2(8248):694–695. [PubMed]
  • Coonrod JD, Leadley PJ, Eickhoff TC. Bacillus cereus pneumonia and bacteremia. A case report. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1971 May;103(5):711–714. [PubMed]
  • Coonrod JD, Leadley PJ, Eickhoff TC. Antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus species. J Infect Dis. 1971 Jan;123(1):102–105. [PubMed]
  • Cotton DJ, Gill VJ, Marshall DJ, Gress J, Thaler M, Pizzo PA. Clinical features and therapeutic interventions in 17 cases of Bacillus bacteremia in an immunosuppressed patient population. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Apr;25(4):672–674. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cowan CL, Jr, Madden WM, Hatem GF, Merritt JC. Endogenous Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis. Ann Ophthalmol. 1987 Feb;19(2):65–68. [PubMed]
  • Craig CP, Lee WS, Ho M. Letter: Bacillus cereus endocarditis in an addict. Ann Intern Med. 1974 Mar;80(3):418–419. [PubMed]
  • Curtis JR, Wing AJ, Coleman JC. Bacillus cereus bacteraemia. A complication of intermittent haemodialysis. Lancet. 1967 Jan 21;1(7482):136–138. [PubMed]
  • DAVENPORT R, SMITH C. Panophthalmitis due to an organism of the Bacillus subtilis group. Br J Ophthalmol. 1952 Jul;36(7):389–392. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Davey RT, Jr, Tauber WB. Posttraumatic endophthalmitis: the emerging role of Bacillus cereus infection. Rev Infect Dis. 1987 Jan-Feb;9(1):110–123. [PubMed]
  • DeBuono BA, Brondum J, Kramer JM, Gilbert RJ, Opal SM. Plasmid, serotypic, and enterotoxin analysis of Bacillus cereus in an outbreak setting. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Aug;26(8):1571–1574. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drobniewski F. Endogenous Candida endophthalmitis. J R Soc Med. 1993 Jun;86(6):370–371. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drobniewski FA. Immunotoxins up to the present day. Biosci Rep. 1989 Apr;9(2):139–156. [PubMed]
  • Drobniewski FA, Ellar DJ. Purification and properties of a 28-kilodalton hemolytic and mosquitocidal protein toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis 73-E10-2. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jun;171(6):3060–3067. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dryden MS. Pathogenic role of Bacillus cereus in wound infections in the tropics. J R Soc Med. 1987 Aug;80(8):480–481. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dryden MS, Kramer JM. Toxigenic Bacillus cereus as a cause of wound infections in the tropics. J Infect. 1987 Nov;15(3):207–212. [PubMed]
  • Ezepchuk Yu V, Bondarenko VM, Yakovleva EA, Koryagina IP. The bacillus cereus toxin: isolation of permeability factor. Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A. 1979 Jul;244(2-3):275–284. [PubMed]
  • FARRAR WE., Jr Serious infections due to "non-pathogenic" organisms of the genus Bacillus. Review of their status as pathogens. Am J Med. 1963 Jan;34:134–141. [PubMed]
  • Feldman S, Pearson TA. Fatal Bacillus cereus pneumonia and sepsis in a child with cancer. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1974 Aug;13(8):649–655. [PubMed]
  • Fitzpatrick DJ, Turnbull PC, Keane CT, English LF. Two gas-gangrene-like infections due to Bacillus cereus. Br J Surg. 1979 Aug;66(8):577–579. [PubMed]
  • Flindt ML. Pulmonary disease due to inhalation of derivatives of Bacillus subtilis containing proteolytic enzyme. Lancet. 1969 Jun 14;1(7607):1177–1181. [PubMed]
  • Fricchione LF, Sepkowitz DV, Gradon JD, Berkowitz LB. Pericarditis due to Bacillus cereus in an intravenous drug user. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Jul-Aug;13(4):774–774. [PubMed]
  • Funada H, Machi T, Matsuda T. Bacillus cereus pneumonia with empyema complicating aplastic anemia--a case report. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1991 Apr;65(4):477–480. [PubMed]
  • Garcia I, Fainstein V, McLaughlin P. Bacillus cereus meningitis and bacteremia associated with an Ommaya reservoir in a patient with lymphoma. South Med J. 1984 Jul;77(7):928–929. [PubMed]
  • Garcia-Arribas ML, Kramer JM. The effect of glucose, starch, and pH on growth, enterotoxin and haemolysin production by strains of Bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning and non-gastrointestinal infection. Int J Food Microbiol. 1990 Aug;11(1):21–33. [PubMed]
  • García Arribas ML, Plaza CJ, de la Rosa MC, Mosso MA. Characterization of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from drugs and evaluation of their toxins. J Appl Bacteriol. 1988 Mar;64(3):257–264. [PubMed]
  • Gascoigne AD, Richards J, Gould K, Gibson GJ. Successful treatment of Bacillus cereus infection with ciprofloxacin. Thorax. 1991 Mar;46(3):220–221. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ghosh AC. Prevalence of Bacillus cereus in the faeces of healthy adults. J Hyg (Lond) 1978 Apr;80(2):233–236. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Giannella RA, Brasile L. A hospital food-borne outbreak of diarrhea caused by Bacillus cereus: clinical, epidemiologic, and microbiologic studies. J Infect Dis. 1979 Mar;139(3):366–370. [PubMed]
  • Gigantelli JW, Torres Gomez J, Osato MS. In vitro susceptibilities of ocular Bacillus cereus isolates to clindamycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin alone or in combination. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Jan;35(1):201–202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gilbert RJ, Kramer JM. Bacillus cereus enterotoxins: present status. Biochem Soc Trans. 1984 Apr;12(2):198–200. [PubMed]
  • Gilbert RJ, Parry JM. Serotypes of Bacillus cereus from outbreaks of food poisoning and from routine foods. J Hyg (Lond) 1977 Feb;78(1):69–74. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gilbert RJ, Stringer MF, Peace TC. The survival and growth of Bacillus cereus in boiled and fried rice in relation to outbreaks of food poisoning. J Hyg (Lond) 1974 Dec;73(3):433–444. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gilmore MS, Cruz-Rodz AL, Leimeister-Wächter M, Kreft J, Goebel W. A Bacillus cereus cytolytic determinant, cereolysin AB, which comprises the phospholipase C and sphingomyelinase genes: nucleotide sequence and genetic linkage. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):744–753. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Glatz BA, Spira WM, Goepfert JM. Alteration of vascular permeability in rabbits by culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and related species. Infect Immun. 1974 Aug;10(2):299–303. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gorina LG, Fluer FS, Olovnikov AM, Ezepchuk YV. Highly sensitive determination of Bacillus cereus exo - enterotoxin using the method of aggregate haemagglutination. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1976;21(3):361–367. [PubMed]
  • Granum PE, Brynestad S, Kramer JM. Analysis of enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus from dairy products, food poisoning incidents and non-gastrointestinal infections. Int J Food Microbiol. 1993 Feb;17(4):269–279. [PubMed]
  • Greenwald MJ, Wohl LG, Sell CH. Metastatic bacterial endophthalmitis: a contemporary reappraisal. Surv Ophthalmol. 1986 Sep-Oct;31(2):81–101. [PubMed]
  • Hatem G, Merritt JC, Cowan CL., Jr Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin. Ann Ophthalmol. 1979 Mar;11(3):431–440. [PubMed]
  • Hendrickx B, Azou M, Vandepitte J, Jaeken J, Eggermont E. Bacillus cereus meningo-encephalitis in a pre-term baby. Acta Paediatr Belg. 1981 Apr-Jun;34(2):107–112. [PubMed]
  • Henrickson KJ. A second species of Bacillus causing primary cutaneous disease. Int J Dermatol. 1990 Jan-Feb;29(1):19–20. [PubMed]
  • Höfte H, Whiteley HR. Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Microbiol Rev. 1989 Jun;53(2):242–255. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holmes JR, Plunkett T, Pate P, Roper WL, Alexander WJ. Emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus. Arch Intern Med. 1981 May;141(6):766–767. [PubMed]
  • Honda T, Shiba A, Seo S, Yamamoto J, Matsuyama J, Miwatani T. Identity of hemolysins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1991 Apr 15;63(2-3):205–209. [PubMed]
  • Hostacká A, Kosiarová A, Majtán V, Kohútová S. Toxic properties of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from different foodstuffs. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1992 Feb;276(3):303–312. [PubMed]
  • Huber-Spitzy V, Grabner G, Haddad R, Haselberger C. Posttraumatische Endophthalmitis durch Bacillus cereus. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1986 Jan;188(1):52–54. [PubMed]
  • Ihde DC, Armstrong D. Clinical spectrum of infection due to Bacillus species. Am J Med. 1973 Dec;55(6):839–845. [PubMed]
  • Jackson SG. Development of a fluorescent immunodot assay for Bacillus cereus enterotoxin. J Immunol Methods. 1989 Jun 21;120(2):215–220. [PubMed]
  • Jaruratanasirikul S, Kalnauwakul S, Lekhakula A. Traumatic wound infection due to Bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient: a case report. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1987 Mar;18(1):112–114. [PubMed]
  • Jenson HB, Levy SR, Duncan C, Mcintosh S. Treatment of multiple brain abscesses caused by Bacillus cereus. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989 Nov;8(11):795–798. [PubMed]
  • Johansen T, Haugli FB, Ikezawa H, Little C. Bacillus cereus strain SE-1: nucleotide sequence of the sphingomyelinase C gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Nov 11;16(21):10370–10370. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johansen T, Holm T, Guddal PH, Sletten K, Haugli FB, Little C. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C of Bacillus cereus. Gene. 1988 May 30;65(2):293–304. [PubMed]
  • Johnson DA, Aulicino PL, Newby JG. Bacillus cereus-induced myonecrosis. J Trauma. 1984 Mar;24(3):267–270. [PubMed]
  • Jonsson S, Clarridge J, Young EJ. Necrotizing pneumonia and empyema caused by Bacillus cereus and Clostridium bifermentans. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1983 Mar;127(3):357–359. [PubMed]
  • Kaneko T, Nozaki R, Aizawa K. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Microbiol Immunol. 1978;22(10):639–641. [PubMed]
  • KERKENEZOV N. Panophthalmitis after a blood transfusion; responsible organism, Bacillus cereus. Br J Ophthalmol. 1953 Oct;37(10):632–636. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Khavari PA, Bolognia JL, Eisen R, Edberg SC, Grimshaw SC, Shapiro PE. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive organisms in primary cutaneous Bacillus cereus infection. Case report and an investigation of the periodic acid-Schiff staining properties of bacteria. Arch Dermatol. 1991 Apr;127(4):543–546. [PubMed]
  • Kovács AM, József I. Bacillus cereus okozta szeptikus pneumonia. Orv Hetil. 1989 Apr 23;130(17):887–888. [PubMed]
  • Kuppe A, Evans LM, McMillen DA, Griffith OH. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C of Bacillus cereus: cloning, sequencing, and relationship to other phospholipases. J Bacteriol. 1989 Nov;171(11):6077–6083. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuppe A, Hedberg KK, Volwerk JJ, Griffith OH. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus by a monoclonal antibody binding to a region with sequence similarity to eukaryotic phospholipases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Oct 22;1047(1):41–48. [PubMed]
  • LAMANNA C, EISLER D. Comparative study of the agglutinogens of the endospores of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus. J Bacteriol. 1960 Mar;79:435–441. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LAMANNA C, JONES L. Antigenic relationship of the endospores of Bacillus cereus-like insect pathogens to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. J Bacteriol. 1961 Apr;81:622–625. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lawrence D, Heitefuss S, Seifert HS. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatographic whole-cell fatty acid analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Jul;29(7):1508–1512. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leff A, Jacobs R, Gooding V, Hauch J, Conte J, Stulbarg M. Bacillus cereus pneumonia. Survival in a patient with cavitary disease treated with gentamicin. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1977 Jan;115(1):151–154. [PubMed]
  • Leffert HL, Baptist JN, Gidez LI. Meningitis and bacteremia after ventriculoatrial shunt-revision: isolation of a lecithinase-producing Bacillus cereus. J Infect Dis. 1970 Dec;122(6):547–552. [PubMed]
  • Le Saux N, Harding GK. Bacillus cereus endophthalmitis. Can J Surg. 1987 Jan;30(1):28–29. [PubMed]
  • Leslie D, Fairweather N, Pickard D, Dougan G, Kehoe M. Phospholipase C and haemolytic activities of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin cloned in Escherichia coli: sequence and homology with a Bacillus cereus phospholipase C. Mol Microbiol. 1989 Mar;3(3):383–392. [PubMed]
  • Masi RJ. Endogenous endophthalmitis associated with bacillus cereus bacteremia in a cocaine addict. Ann Ophthalmol. 1978 Oct;10(10):1367–1370. [PubMed]
  • Melling J, Capel BJ, Turnbull PC, Gilbert RJ. Identification of a novel enterotoxigenic activity associated with Bacillus cereus. J Clin Pathol. 1976 Oct;29(10):938–940. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Midura T, Gerber M, Wood R, Leonard AR. Outbreak of food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus. Public Health Rep. 1970 Jan;85(1):45–48. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moreno AJ, Orr CD, Morales E, Weisman IM. Bacillus cereus, diarrhea, and home-dried apples. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Jun;102(6):868–869. [PubMed]
  • Mossel DA, Koopman MJ, Jongerius E. Enumeration of Bacillus cereus in foods. Appl Microbiol. 1967 May;15(3):650–653. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • NORRIS JR. Bacterial spore antigens: a review. J Gen Microbiol. 1962 Jul;28:393–408. [PubMed]
  • NYGREN B. Phospholipase C-producing bacteria and food poisoning. An experimental study on Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand Suppl. 1962;Suppl 160:1–88. [PubMed]
  • O'Day DM, Smith RS, Gregg CR, Turnbull PC, Head WS, Ives JA, Ho PC. The problem of bacillus species infection with special emphasis on the virulence of Bacillus cereus. Ophthalmology. 1981 Aug;88(8):833–838. [PubMed]
  • Oster HA, Kong TQ. Bacillus cereus endocarditis involving a prosthetic valve. South Med J. 1982 Apr;75(4):508–509. [PubMed]
  • Patrick CC, Langston C, Baker CJ. Bacillus species infections in neonates. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jul-Aug;11(4):612–615. [PubMed]
  • Pearson HE. Human infections caused by organisms of the bacillus species. Am J Clin Pathol. 1970 Apr;53(4):506–515. [PubMed]
  • Pennington JE, Gibbons ND, Strobeck JE, Simpson GL, Myerowitz RL. Bacillus species infection in patients with hematologic neoplasia. JAMA. 1976 Apr 5;235(14):1473–1474. [PubMed]
  • Pepys J, Longbottom JL, Hargreave FE, Faux J. Allergic reactions of the lungs to enzymes of Bacillus subtilis. Lancet. 1969 Jun 14;1(7607):1181–1184. [PubMed]
  • Portnoy BL, Goepfert JM, Harmon SM. An outbreak of Bacillus cereus food poisoning resulting from contaminated vegetable sprouts. Am J Epidemiol. 1976 Jun;103(6):589–594. [PubMed]
  • Priest FG, Goodfellow M, Todd C. A numerical classification of the genus Bacillus. J Gen Microbiol. 1988 Jul;134(7):1847–1882. [PubMed]
  • Rahmet-Alla M, Rowley AF. Studies on the cellular defense reactions of the madeira cockroach, Leucophaea maderae: in vitro phagocytosis of different strains of Bacillus cereus and their effect on hemocyte viability. J Invertebr Pathol. 1990 May;55(3):350–356. [PubMed]
  • Raphael SS, Donaghue M. Letter: Infection due to Bacillus cereus. Can Med Assoc J. 1976 Aug 7;115(3):207–207. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richard V, Van der Auwera P, Snoeck R, Daneau D, Meunier F. Nosocomial bacteremia caused by Bacillus species. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988 Dec;7(6):783–785. [PubMed]
  • Rowsey JJ, Newsom DL, Sexton DJ, Harms WK. Endophthalmitis: current approaches. Ophthalmology. 1982 Sep;89(9):1055–1066. [PubMed]
  • Rutala WA, Saviteer SM, Thomann CA, Wilson MB. Plaster-associated Bacillus cereus wound infection. A case report. Orthopedics. 1986 Apr;9(4):575–577. [PubMed]
  • Schemmer GB, Driebe WT., Jr Posttraumatic Bacillus cereus endophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987 Mar;105(3):342–344. [PubMed]
  • Schoenbaum SC, Gardner P, Shillito J. Infections of cerebrospinal fluid shunts: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy. J Infect Dis. 1975 May;131(5):543–552. [PubMed]
  • Shamsuddin D, Tuazon CU, Levy C, Curtin J. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis: source of the organism. Rev Infect Dis. 1982 Jan-Feb;4(1):97–103. [PubMed]
  • Shinagawa K. Analytical methods for Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus species. Int J Food Microbiol. 1990 Mar;10(2):125–141. [PubMed]
  • Shinagawa K, Ichikawa K, Matsusaka N, Sugii S. Purification and some properties of a Bacillus cereus mouse lethal toxin. J Vet Med Sci. 1991 Jun;53(3):469–474. [PubMed]
  • Shinagawa K, Matsusaka N, Konuma H, Kurata H. The relation between the diarrheal and other biological activities of Bacillus cereus involved in food poisoning outbreaks. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi. 1985 Aug;47(4):557–565. [PubMed]
  • Shinagawa K, Takechi T, Matsusaka N, Sugii S. Purification of an enterotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody. Can J Microbiol. 1992 Feb;38(2):153–156. [PubMed]
  • Shinagawa K, Ueno S, Konuma H, Matsusaka N, Sugii S. Purification and characterization of the vascular permeability factor produced by Bacillus cereus. J Vet Med Sci. 1991 Apr;53(2):281–286. [PubMed]
  • Siegman-Igra Y, Lavochkin J, Schwartz D, Konforti N. Meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus. A case report and a review of Bacillus infections. Isr J Med Sci. 1983 Jun;19(6):546–551. [PubMed]
  • Sisson PR, Kramer JM, Brett MM, Freeman R, Gilbert RJ, Lightfoot NF. Application of pyrolysis mass spectrometry to the investigation of outbreaks of food poisoning and non-gastrointestinal infection associated with Bacillus species and Clostridium perfringens. Int J Food Microbiol. 1992 Sep;17(1):57–66. [PubMed]
  • Sliman R, Rehm S, Shlaes DM. Serious infections caused by Bacillus species. Medicine (Baltimore) 1987 May;66(3):218–223. [PubMed]
  • Somerville HJ, Jones ML. DNA competition studies within the Bacillus cereus group of bacilli. J Gen Microbiol. 1972 Nov;73(2):257–265. [PubMed]
  • Spira WM, Goepfert JM. Bacillus cereus-induced fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops. Appl Microbiol. 1972 Sep;24(3):341–348. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spira WM, Goepfert JM. Biological characteristics of an enterotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus. Can J Microbiol. 1975 Aug;21(8):1236–1246. [PubMed]
  • STOPLER T, CAMUESCU V, VOICULESCU M. BRONCHOPNEUMONIA WITH LETHAL EVOLUTION DETERMINED BY A MICROORGANISM OF THE GENUS BACILLUS (B. CEREUS). Rum Med Rev. 1965 Apr-Jun;19:7–9. [PubMed]
  • Steen MK, Bruno-Murtha LA, Chaux G, Lazar H, Bernard S, Sulis C. Bacillus cereus endocarditis: report of a case and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Apr;14(4):945–946. [PubMed]
  • Taylor AJ, Gilbert RJ. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: a provisional serotyping scheme. J Med Microbiol. 1975 Nov;8(4):543–550. [PubMed]
  • Terranova W, Blake PA. Bacillus cereus food poisoning. N Engl J Med. 1978 Jan 19;298(3):143–144. [PubMed]
  • Thomas WE, Ellar DJ. Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis crystal delta-endotoxin: effects on insect and mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. J Cell Sci. 1983 Mar;60:181–197. [PubMed]
  • Thompson NE, Ketterhagen MJ, Bergdoll MS, Schantz EJ. Isolation and some properties of an enterotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus. Infect Immun. 1984 Mar;43(3):887–894. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tjong Joe Wai R, Heinemann CW, Kenter JA, Keeman JN. Bacillus cereus: een wondcontaminant, maar ook verwekker van ernstige algemene infectie? Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1984 Jun 23;128(25):1183–1187. [PubMed]
  • Tomita M, Nakai K, Yamada A, Taguchi R, Ikezawa H. Secondary structure of sphingomyelinase from Bacillus cereus. J Biochem. 1990 Nov;108(5):811–815. [PubMed]
  • Tuazon CU, Hill R, Sheagren JN. Microbiologic study of street heroin and injection paraphernalia. J Infect Dis. 1974 Mar;129(3):327–329. [PubMed]
  • Tuazon CU, Murray HW, Levy C, Solny MN, Curtin JA, Sheagren JN. Serious infections from Bacillus sp. JAMA. 1979 Mar 16;241(11):1137–1140. [PubMed]
  • Turnbull PC. Bacillus cereus toxins. Pharmacol Ther. 1981;13(3):453–505. [PubMed]
  • Turnbull PC, French TA, Dowsett EG. Severe systemic and pyogenic infections with Bacillus cereus. Br Med J. 1977 Jun 25;1(6077):1628–1629. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turnbull PC, Jørgensen K, Kramer JM, Gilbert RJ, Parry JM. Severe clinical conditions associated with Bacillus cereus and the apparent involvement of exotoxins. J Clin Pathol. 1979 Mar;32(3):289–293. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turnbull PC, Kramer JM. Non-gastrointestinal Bacillus cereus infections: an analysis of exotoxin production by strains isolated over a two-year period. J Clin Pathol. 1983 Oct;36(10):1091–1096. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turnbull PC, Kramer JM. Intestinal carriage of Bacillus cereus: faecal isolation studies in three population groups. J Hyg (Lond) 1985 Dec;95(3):629–638. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turnbull PC, Kramer JM, Jørgensen K, Gilbert RJ, Melling J. Properties and production characteristics of vomiting, diarrheal, and necrotizing toxins of Bacillus cereus. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979 Jan;32(1):219–228. [PubMed]
  • Turnbull PC, Nottingham JF, Ghosh AC. A severe necrotic enterotoxin produced by certain food, food poisoning and other clinical isolates of Bacillus cereus. Br J Exp Pathol. 1977 Jun;58(3):273–280. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Setten GB, Tervo T, Tarkkanen A. Akute Keratitis und die Kontamination von Kontaktlinsenpflegesystemen mit Bacillus cereus. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1989 Jul;195(1):28–31. [PubMed]
  • Volwerk JJ, Wetherwax PB, Evans LM, Kuppe A, Griffith OH. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus: improved purification, amino acid composition, and amino-terminal sequence. J Cell Biochem. 1989 Mar;39(3):315–325. [PubMed]
  • Wazny TK, Mummaw N, Styrt B. Degranulation of human neutrophils after exposure to bacterial phospholipase C. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990 Nov;9(11):830–832. [PubMed]
  • Weller PF, Nicholson A, Braslow N. The spectrum of Bacillus bacteremias in heroin addicts. Arch Intern Med. 1979 Mar;139(3):293–294. [PubMed]
  • Wesenberg F, Anker C, Sommerschild H, Flaatten H. Central venous catheter with subcutaneous injection port (Port-A-Cath): clinical experience with children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1987;4(2):137–143. [PubMed]
  • Wiedermann BL. Non-anthrax Bacillus infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987 Feb;6(2):218–220. [PubMed]
  • Yamada A, Tsukagoshi N, Udaka S, Sasaki T, Makino S, Nakamura S, Little C, Tomita M, Ikezawa H. Nucleotide sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene coding for sphingomyelinase of Bacillus cereus. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Aug 1;175(2):213–220. [PubMed]
  • Young EJ, Wallace RJ, Jr, Ericsson CD, Harris RA, Clarridge J. Panophthalmitis due to Bacillus cereus. Arch Intern Med. 1980 Apr;140(4):559–560. [PubMed]
  • Zahner V, Momen H, Salles CA, Rabinovitch L. A comparative study of enzyme variation in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. J Appl Bacteriol. 1989 Sep;67(3):275–282. [PubMed]

Articles from Clinical Microbiology Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...