Logo of cmrPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalCMR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1992 Jul; 5(3): 213–237.
PMCID: PMC358241

Gardnerella vaginalis: characteristics, clinical considerations, and controversies.


The clinical significance, Gram stain reaction, and genus affiliation of Gardnerella vaginalis have been controversial since Gardner and Dukes described the organism as the cause of "nonspecific vaginitis," a common disease of women which is now called bacterial vaginosis. The organism was named G. vaginalis when taxonomic studies showed that it was unrelated to bacteria in various genera including Haemophilus and Corynebacterium. Electron microscopy and chemical analyses have elucidated the organism's gram-variable reaction. Controversy over the etiology of bacterial vaginosis was largely resolved by (i) studies using improved media and methods for the isolation and identification of bacteria in vaginal fluids and (ii) standardization of criteria for clinical and laboratory diagnosis. Besides G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., Mycoplasma hominis, and certain obligate anaerobes are now acknowledged as participants in bacterial vaginosis. The finding that G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., and M. hominis inhabit the rectum indicates a potential source of autoinfection in addition to sexual transmission. Extravaginal infections with G. vaginalis are increasingly recognized, especially when the toxic anticoagulant polyanetholesulfonate is omitted from blood cultures and when urine cultures are incubated anaerobically for 48 h. The finding that mares harbor G. vaginalis suggests that an equine model can be developed for studies of Gardnerella pathogenesis.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (6.7M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abercrombie GF, Allen J, Maskell R. Cornyebacterium vaginale urinary-tract infection in a man. Lancet. 1978 Apr 8;1(8067):766–766. [PubMed]
  • Akerlund M, Mårdh PA. Isolation and identification of Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis) in women with infections of the lower genital tract. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1974;53(1):85–90. [PubMed]
  • Amsel R, Totten PA, Spiegel CA, Chen KC, Eschenbach D, Holmes KK. Nonspecific vaginitis. Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med. 1983 Jan;74(1):14–22. [PubMed]
  • Bailey RK, Voss JL, Smith RF. Factors affecting isolation and identification of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale). J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Jan;9(1):65–71. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baldson MJ, Jackson D. Metronidazole metabolite and Gardnerella vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) Lancet. 1981 May 16;1(8229):1112–1112. [PubMed]
  • Balsdon MJ, Taylor GE, Pead L, Maskell R. Corynebacterium vaginale and vaginitis: a controlled trial of treatment. Lancet. 1980 Mar 8;1(8167):501–503. [PubMed]
  • Bannatyne RM, Jackowski J, Cheung R, Biers K. Susceptibility of Gardnerella vaginalis to metronidazole, its bioactive metabolites, and tinidazole. Am J Clin Pathol. 1987 May;87(5):640–641. [PubMed]
  • Bartley DL, Morgan L, Rimsza ME. Gardnerella vaginalis in prepubertal girls. Am J Dis Child. 1987 Sep;141(9):1014–1017. [PubMed]
  • Bejar R, Curbelo V, Davis C, Gluck L. Premature labor. II. Bacterial sources of phospholipase. Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Apr;57(4):479–482. [PubMed]
  • Benito R, Vazquez JA, Berron S, Fenoll A, Saez-Neito JA. A modified scheme for biotyping Gardnerella vaginalis. J Med Microbiol. 1986 Jun;21(4):357–359. [PubMed]
  • Berardi-Grassias L, Roy O, Berardi JC, Furioli J. Neonatal meningitis due to Gardnerella vaginalis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988 Jun;7(3):406–407. [PubMed]
  • Bhalla P, Rewari N, Chadha P. Gardnerella vaginalis vaginitis in Cu T 200 users. Indian J Med Res. 1989 Mar;89:80–86. [PubMed]
  • Blackwell AL, Barlow D. Anaerobic vaginosis. Clinical and diagnostic aspects. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:129–133. [PubMed]
  • Blackwell AL, Fox AR, Phillips I, Barlow D. Anaerobic vaginosis (non-specific vaginitis): clinical, microbiological, and therapeutic findings. Lancet. 1983 Dec 17;2(8364):1379–1382. [PubMed]
  • Borchardt KA, Adly BS, Smith RF, Eapen J, Beal CB. Importance of Gardnerella vaginalis as an aetiological agent in bacterial vaginosis. Genitourin Med. 1989 Aug;65(4):285–285. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boustouller YL, Johnson AP. Resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis to bactericidal activity of human serum. Genitourin Med. 1986 Dec;62(6):380–383. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boustouller YL, Johnson AP, Taylor-Robinson DT. Detection of a species-specific antigen of Gardnerella vaginalis by Western blot analysis. J Gen Microbiol. 1986 Jul;132(7):1969–1973. [PubMed]
  • Boustouller YL, Johnson AP, Taylor-Robinson D. Pili on Gardnerella vaginalis studied by electronmicroscopy. J Med Microbiol. 1987 Jun;23(4):327–329. [PubMed]
  • Bowie WR, Shaw CE, Chan DG, Boyd J, Black WA. In vitro activity of difloxacin hydrochloride (A-56619), A-56620, and cefixime (CL 284,635; FK 027) against selected genital pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Oct;30(4):590–593. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bratos MA, Orduña A, Medina J, de Lejarazu RO, Rodríguez-Torres A. Diagnosis of Gardnerella vaginalis infection by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Feb;5(1):46–48. [PubMed]
  • Briselden AM, Hillier SL. Longitudinal study of the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Dec;28(12):2761–2764. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bro F. Vaginal microbial flora in women with and without vaginal discharge registered in general practice. Dan Med Bull. 1989 Oct;36(5):483–485. [PubMed]
  • Bump RC, Buesching WJ., 3rd Bacterial vaginosis in virginal and sexually active adolescent females: evidence against exclusive sexual transmission. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Apr;158(4):935–939. [PubMed]
  • Bump RC, Zuspan FP, Buesching WJ, 3rd, Ayers LW, Stephens TJ. The prevalence, six-month persistence, and predictive values of laboratory indicators of bacterial vaginosis (nonspecific vaginitis) in asymptomatic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Dec 15;150(8):917–924. [PubMed]
  • Burdge DR, Bowie WR, Chow AW. Gardnerella vaginalis-associated balanoposthitis. Sex Transm Dis. 1986 Jul-Sep;13(3):159–162. [PubMed]
  • Cano RJ, Beck MA, Grady DV. Detection of Gardnerella vaginalis on vaginal smears by immunofluorescence. Can J Microbiol. 1983 Jan;29(1):27–32. [PubMed]
  • Carney FE. Hemophilus vaginalis septicemia. Obstet Gynecol. 1973 Jan;41(1):78–79. [PubMed]
  • Catlin BW. Cellular elongation under the influence of antibacterial agents: way to differentiate coccobacilli from cocci. J Clin Microbiol. 1975 Jan;1(1):102–105. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Catlin BW. Branhamella catarrhalis: an organism gaining respect as a pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1990 Oct;3(4):293–320. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chen KC, Amsel R, Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK. Biochemical diagnosis of vaginitis: determination of diamines in vaginal fluid. J Infect Dis. 1982 Mar;145(3):337–345. [PubMed]
  • Ching LQ, Borchardt KA, Smith RF, Beal CB. A 24 hour plastic envelope method for isolating and identifying Gardnerella vaginalis (PEM-GVA) Genitourin Med. 1988 Jun;64(3):180–184. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chowdhury MN. Gardnerella vaginalis carriage in male patients. Trop Geogr Med. 1986 Jun;38(2):137–140. [PubMed]
  • Chowdhury MN, Desilva SK. Episiotomy wound infection due to Gardnerella vaginalis. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Apr;5(2):164–165. [PubMed]
  • Chowdhury MN, Jabbar FA, Kambal AM. Isolation of Gardnerella vaginalis from high vaginal swabs. Trop Geogr Med. 1985 Dec;37(4):328–333. [PubMed]
  • Chowdhury MN, Kambal AM. A case of conjunctivitis in a neonate due to Gardnerella vaginalis. Trop Geogr Med. 1985 Dec;37(4):365–366. [PubMed]
  • Clarke RW, Collins LE, Maskell R. Gardnerella vaginalis as a urinary pathogen. J Infect. 1989 Sep;19(2):191–193. [PubMed]
  • Cohen MS, Black JR, Proctor RA, Sparling PF. Host defences and the vaginal mucosa. A re-evaluation. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:13–22. [PubMed]
  • Cook RL, Reid G, Pond DG, Schmitt CA, Sobel JD. Clue cells in bacterial vaginosis: immunofluorescent identification of the adherent gram-negative bacteria as Gardnerella vaginalis. J Infect Dis. 1989 Sep;160(3):490–496. [PubMed]
  • Coyle MB, Lipsky BA. Coryneform bacteria in infectious diseases: clinical and laboratory aspects. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1990 Jul;3(3):227–246. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cristiano L, Coffetti N, Dalvai G, Lorusso L, Lorenzi M. Bacterial vaginosis: prevalence in outpatients, association with some micro-organisms and laboratory indices. Genitourin Med. 1989 Dec;65(6):382–387. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Criswell BS, Ladwig CL, Gardner HL, Dukes CD. Haemophilus vaginalis: vaginitis by inoculation from culture. Obstet Gynecol. 1969 Feb;33(2):195–199. [PubMed]
  • Criswell BS, Marston JH, Stenback WA, Black SH, Gardner HL. Haemophilus vaginalis 594, a gram-negative organism? Can J Microbiol. 1971 Jul;17(7):865–869. [PubMed]
  • Criswell BS, Stenback WA, Black SH, Gardner HL. Fine structure of Haemophilus vaginalis. J Bacteriol. 1972 Feb;109(2):930–932. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Csángó PA, Hagen N, Jagars G. Characterization of Gardnerella vaginalis by gas chromatography. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:19–22. [PubMed]
  • Dawson SG, Ison CA, Csonka G, Easmon CS. Male carriage of Gardnerella vaginalis. Br J Vener Dis. 1982 Aug;58(4):243–245. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Denoyel GA, Drouet EB, De Montclos HP, Schanen A, Michel S. Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia in a man with prostatic adenoma. J Infect Dis. 1990 Feb;161(2):367–368. [PubMed]
  • Dunkelberg WE. Corynebacterium vaginale. Sex Transm Dis. 1977 Apr-Jun;4(2):69–75. [PubMed]
  • Dunkelberg WE, Jr, McVeigh I. Growth requirements of Haemophilus vaginalis. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1969;35(2):129–145. [PubMed]
  • Dunkelberg WE, Jr, Skaggs R, Kellogg DS., Jr A study and new description of Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis). Am J Clin Pathol. 1970 Mar;53(3):370–377. [PubMed]
  • Easmon CS, Clark L, Crane JP, Green R. Phagocytosis and killing of Gardnerella vaginalis by human neutrophils. J Clin Pathol. 1985 Jul;38(7):747–749. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Easmon CS, Ison CA, Kaye CM, Timewell RM, Dawson SG. Pharmacokinetics of metronidazole and its principal metabolites and their activity against Gardnerella vaginalis. Br J Vener Dis. 1982 Aug;58(4):246–249. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • EDMUNDS PN. Haemophilus vaginalis: morphology, cultural characters and viability. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1960 Apr;79:273–284. [PubMed]
  • EDMUNDS PN. The biochemical, serological and haemagglutinating reactions of "Haemophilus vaginalis". J Pathol Bacteriol. 1962 Apr;83:411–422. [PubMed]
  • Edwards DI. Mechanism of antimicrobial action of metronidazole. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1979 Sep;5(5):499–502. [PubMed]
  • Eley A, Clarry TM. Tetracycline resistance in Gardnerella vaginalis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990 Sep;26(3):452–453. [PubMed]
  • Elsner P, Hartmann AA. Gardnerella vaginalis in the male upper genital tract: a possible source of reinfection of the female partner. Sex Transm Dis. 1987 Apr-Jun;14(2):122–123. [PubMed]
  • Eschenbach DA, Davick PR, Williams BL, Klebanoff SJ, Young-Smith K, Critchlow CM, Holmes KK. Prevalence of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Feb;27(2):251–256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eschenbach DA, Hillier S, Critchlow C, Stevens C, DeRouen T, Holmes KK. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Apr;158(4):819–828. [PubMed]
  • Ezzell JH, Jr, Many WJ., Jr Gardnerella vaginalis: an unusual case of pyogenic liver abscess. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Dec;83(12):1409–1411. [PubMed]
  • Fairley KF, Birch DF. Unconventional bacteria in urinary tract disease: Gardnerella vaginalis. Kidney Int. 1983 Jun;23(6):862–865. [PubMed]
  • Fairley KF, Birch DF. Detection of bladder bacteriuria in patients with acute urinary symptoms. J Infect Dis. 1989 Feb;159(2):226–231. [PubMed]
  • Finkelhor RS, Wolinsky E, Kim CH, Tchou P, Frengley JD. Gardnerella vaginalis perinephric abscess in a transplanted kidney. N Engl J Med. 1981 Apr 2;304(14):846–846. [PubMed]
  • Fredricsson B, Englund K, Weintraub L, Olund A, Nord CE. Bacterial vaginosis is not a simple ecological disorder. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1989;28(3):156–160. [PubMed]
  • Furman LM. Neonatal Gardnerella vaginalis infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1988 Dec;7(12):890–890. [PubMed]
  • Gardner HL. Haemophilus vaginalis vaginitis after twenty-five years. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Jun 1;137(3):385–391. [PubMed]
  • Gardner HL. "Non-specific" vaginitis: a non-entity. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:7–10. [PubMed]
  • Gardner HL. Pathogenicity of Gardnerella vaginalis (Haemophilus vaginalis). Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:37–40. [PubMed]
  • GARDNER HL, DUKES CD. Haemophilus vaginalis vaginitis: a newly defined specific infection previously classified non-specific vaginitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1955 May;69(5):962–976. [PubMed]
  • Ghione M, Clerici PA, Piragine G, Magliano E. Humoral circulatory immune response to Gardnerella vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Sep;27(9):2138–2139. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gibbs RS, Weiner MH, Walmer K, St Clair PJ. Microbiologic and serologic studies of Gardnerella vaginalis in intra-amniotic infection. Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Aug;70(2):187–190. [PubMed]
  • Golberg RL, Washington JA II. Comparison of isolation of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from peptone-starch-dextrose agar and Columbia colistin-nalidoxic acid agar. J Clin Microbiol. 1976 Sep;4(3):245–247. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Greaves WL, Chungafung J, Morris B, Haile A, Townsend JL. Clindamycin versus metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Nov;72(5):799–802. [PubMed]
  • Greenwood JR. Current taxonomic status of Gardnerella vaginalis. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:11–14. [PubMed]
  • Greenwood JR, Pickett MJ. Salient features of Haemophilus vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Feb;9(2):200–204. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hammerschlag MR, Alpert S, Rosner I, Thurston P, Semine D, McComb D, McCormack WM. Microbiology of the vagina in children: normal and potentially pathogenic organisms. Pediatrics. 1978 Jul;62(1):57–62. [PubMed]
  • Hansen W, Vray B, Miller K, Crokaert F, Yourassowsky E. Detection of Gardnerella vaginalis in vaginal specimens by direct immunofluorescence. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct;25(10):1934–1937. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Harper EA, Jones AS. Comparison of radiometric and gas capture systems for blood cultures. J Clin Pathol. 1987 Feb;40(2):243–243. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heisterberg L, Branebjerg PE, Bremmelgaard A, Scheibel J, Høj L. The role of vaginal secretory immunoglobulin A, Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes, and Chlamydia trachomatis in postabortal pelvic inflammatory disease. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1987;66(2):99–102. [PubMed]
  • Hill GB, Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK. Bacteriology of the vagina. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:23–39. [PubMed]
  • Hillier S, Krohn MA, Watts DH, Wolner-Hanssen P, Eschenbach D. Microbiologic efficacy of intravaginal clindamycin cream for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Sep;76(3 Pt 1):407–413. [PubMed]
  • Hillier SL, Martius J, Krohn M, Kiviat N, Holmes KK, Eschenbach DA. A case-control study of chorioamnionic infection and histologic chorioamnionitis in prematurity. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 13;319(15):972–978. [PubMed]
  • Holmes KK, Spiegel C, Amsel AR, Eschenbach DA, Chen KC, Totten P. Nonspecific vaginosis. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1981;26:110–114. [PubMed]
  • Holst E. Reservoir of four organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis suggests lack of sexual transmission. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Sep;28(9):2035–2039. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Holst E, Mårdh PA, Thelin I. Recovery of anaerobic curved rods and Gardnerella vaginalis from the urethra of men, including male heterosexual consorts of female carriers. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:173–177. [PubMed]
  • Holst E, Svensson L, Skarin A, Weström L, Mårdh PA. Vaginal colonization with Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic curved rods. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:147–152. [PubMed]
  • Holst E, Wathne B, Hovelius B, Mårdh PA. Bacterial vaginosis: microbiological and clinical findings. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct;6(5):536–541. [PubMed]
  • Huth EJ. Style notes: bacterial vaginosis or vaginal bacteriosis? Ann Intern Med. 1989 Oct 1;111(7):553–554. [PubMed]
  • Ison CA, Dawson SG, Hilton J, Csonka GW, Easmon CS. Comparison of culture and microscopy in the diagnosis of Gardnerella vaginalis infection. J Clin Pathol. 1982 May;35(5):550–554. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ison CA, Easmon CS. Studies on the mechanism of adhesion of Gardnerella vaginalis to human erythrocytes. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:191–193. [PubMed]
  • Ison CA, Easmon CS. Carriage of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobes in semen. Genitourin Med. 1985 Apr;61(2):120–122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ison CA, Harvey DG, Tanna A, Easmon CS. Development and evaluation of scheme for serotyping Gardnerella vaginalis. Genitourin Med. 1987 Jun;63(3):196–201. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Janda WM, Bradna JJ, Ruther P. Identification of Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp., and other fastidious gram-negative bacteria with the MicroScan Haemophilus-Neisseria identification panel. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 May;27(5):869–873. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jantzen E, Berdal BP, Omland T. Cellular fatty acid composition of Haemophilus species, Pasteurella multocida, Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale). Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand B. 1980 Apr;88(2):89–93. [PubMed]
  • Joesoef MR, Hillier SL, Josodiwondo S, Linnan M. Reproducibility of a scoring system for gram stain diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Aug;29(8):1730–1731. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson AP, Boustouller YL. Extra-vaginal infection caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. Epidemiol Infect. 1987 Apr;98(2):131–137. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson AP, Davies HA. Demonstration by electron microscopy of pili on Gardnerella vaginalis. Br J Vener Dis. 1984 Dec;60(6):396–397. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson AP, Ison CA, Hetherington CM, Osborn MF, Southerton G, London WT, Easmon CS, Taylor-Robinson D. Vaginal colonization of pig-tailed macaques by Gardnerella vaginalis. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:207–210. [PubMed]
  • Jolly JL. Minimal criteria for the identification of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from the vagina. J Clin Pathol. 1983 Apr;36(4):476–478. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jones BM, Geary I, Alawattegama AB, Kinghorn GR, Duerden BI. In-vitro and in-vivo activity of metronidazole against Gardnerella vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. and Mobiluncus spp. in bacterial vaginosis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1985 Aug;16(2):189–197. [PubMed]
  • Jones BM, Geary I, Lee ME, Duerden BI. Comparison of the in vitro activities of fenticonazole, other imidazoles, metronidazole, and tetracycline against organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis and skin infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Jun;33(6):970–972. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jones BM, Kinghorn GR, Duerden BI. In vitro activity of azithromycin and erythromycin against organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis and chancroid. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988 Aug;7(4):551–553. [PubMed]
  • Josephson S, Thomason J, Sturino K, Zabransky R, Williams J. Gardnerella vaginalis in the urinary tract: incidence and significance in a hospital population. Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Feb;71(2):245–250. [PubMed]
  • Josey WE, Campbell WG., Jr Vaginitis emphysematosa. A report of four cases. J Reprod Med. 1990 Oct;35(10):974–977. [PubMed]
  • King A, Boothman C, Phillips I. Comparative in-vitro activity of meropenem on clinical isolates from the United Kingdom. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989 Sep;24 (Suppl A):31–45. [PubMed]
  • King A, Boothman C, Phillips I. Comparative in vitro activity of cefpirome and cefepime, two new cephalosporins. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990 Sep;9(9):677–685. [PubMed]
  • King A, Phillips I. The comparative in-vitro activity of pefloxacin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1986 Apr;17 (Suppl B):1–10. [PubMed]
  • Kinghorn GR, Jones BM, Chowdhury FH, Geary I. Balanoposthitis associated with Gardnerella vaginalis infection in men. Br J Vener Dis. 1982 Apr;58(2):127–129. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klebanoff SJ, Hillier SL, Eschenbach DA, Waltersdorph AM. Control of the microbial flora of the vagina by H2O2-generating lactobacilli. J Infect Dis. 1991 Jul;164(1):94–100. [PubMed]
  • Kristiansen FV, Oster S, Frost L, Boustouller Y, Korsager B, Møller BR. Isolation of Gardnerella vaginalis in pure culture from the uterine cavity of patients with irregular bleedings. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1987 Oct;94(10):979–984. [PubMed]
  • Lam MH, Birch DF. Survival of Gardnerella vaginalis in human urine. Am J Clin Pathol. 1991 Feb;95(2):234–239. [PubMed]
  • Lam MH, Birch DF, Fairley KF. Prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis in the urinary tract. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Jun;26(6):1130–1133. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • La Scolea LJ, Jr, Dryja DM, Dillon WP. Recovery of Gardnerella vaginalis from blood by the quantitative direct plating method. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Sep;20(3):568–569. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee W, Phillips LE, Carpenter RJ, Martens MG, Faro S. Gardnerella vaginalis chorioamnionitis: a report of two cases and a review of the pathogenic role of G. vaginalis in obstetrics. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1987 Oct;8(2):107–111. [PubMed]
  • Lefevre JC, Lepargneur JP, Bauriaud R, Bertrand MA, Blanc C. Clinical and microbiologic features of urethritis in men in Toulouse, France. Sex Transm Dis. 1991 Apr-Jun;18(2):76–79. [PubMed]
  • Legrand JC, Alewaeters A, Leenaerts L, Gilbert P, Labbe M, Glupczynski Y. Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia from pulmonary abscess in a male alcohol abuser. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 May;27(5):1132–1134. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leighton PM, Bulleid B, Taylor R. Neonatal cellulitis due to Gardnerella vaginalis. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1982 Sep-Oct;1(5):339–340. [PubMed]
  • LEOPOLD S. Heretofore undescribed organism isolated from the genitourinary system. U S Armed Forces Med J. 1953 Feb;4(2):263–266. [PubMed]
  • Levison ME, Trestman I, Quach R, Sladowski C, Floro CN. Quantitative bacteriology of the vaginal flora in vaginitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979 Jan 15;133(2):139–144. [PubMed]
  • Liebowitz LD, Saunders J, Fehler G, Ballard RC, Koornhof HJ. In vitro activity of A-56619 (difloxacin), A-56620, and other new quinolone antimicrobial agents against genital pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Dec;30(6):948–950. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lien EA, Hillier SL. Evaluation of the enhanced rapid identification method for Gardnerella vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Mar;27(3):566–567. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lin JY, Chen KC, Hale J, Totten PA, Holmes KK. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography for the specific detection of hippurate hydrolysis by microorganisms. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Jan;23(1):118–123. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lossick JG. Treatment of sexually transmitted vaginosis/vaginitis. Rev Infect Dis. 1990 Jul-Aug;12 (Suppl 6):S665–S681. [PubMed]
  • Malone BH, Schreiber M, Schneider NJ, Holdeman LV. Obligately anaerobic strains of Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis). J Clin Microbiol. 1975 Sep;2(3):272–275. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mårdh PA, Westtöm L. Adherence of bacterial to vaginal epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 1976 Mar;13(3):661–666. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Martens MG, Faro S, Maccato M, Riddle G, Hammill HA. Susceptibility of female pelvic pathogens to oral antibiotic agents in patients who develop postpartum endometritis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 May;164(5 Pt 2):1383–1386. [PubMed]
  • Masfari AN, Duerden BI, Kinghorn GR. Quantitative studies of vaginal bacteria. Genitourin Med. 1986 Aug;62(4):256–263. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mazzulli T, Simor AE, Low DE. Reproducibility of interpretation of Gram-stained vaginal smears for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Jul;28(7):1506–1508. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCarthy LR, Mickelsen PA, Smith EG. Antibiotic susceptibility of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) to 21 antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1979 Aug;16(2):186–189. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCormack WM, Hayes CH, Rosner B, Evrard JR, Crockett VA, Alpert S, Zinner SH. Vaginal colonization with Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis). J Infect Dis. 1977 Dec;136(6):740–745. [PubMed]
  • McDowall DR, Buchanan JD, Fairley KF, Gilbert GL. Anaerobic and other fastidious microorganisms in asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. J Infect Dis. 1981 Aug;144(2):114–122. [PubMed]
  • McFadyen IR, Eykyn SJ. Suprapubic aspiration of urine in pregnancy. Lancet. 1968 May 25;1(7552):1112–1114. [PubMed]
  • McGregor JA, Lawellin D, Franco-Buff A, Todd JK. Phospholipase C activity in microorganisms associated with reproductive tract infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Feb;164(2):682–686. [PubMed]
  • Mickelsen PA, McCarthy LR, Mangum ME. New differential medium for the isolation of Corynebacterium vaginale. J Clin Microbiol. 1977 Apr;5(4):488–489. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mohanty KC, Deighton R. Comparison of 2 g single dose of metronidazole, nimorazole and tinidazole in the treatment of vaginitis associated with Gardnerella vaginalis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987 Mar;19(3):393–399. [PubMed]
  • Moi H, Erkkola R, Jerve F, Nelleman G, Bymose B, Alaksen K, Tornqvist E. Should male consorts of women with bacterial vaginosis be treated? Genitourin Med. 1989 Aug;65(4):263–268. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Møller M, Sørensen J, Jepsen FL, Thomsen AC. Diagnosis of intrauterine infection by demonstration of antibody-coated bacteria in the amniotic fluid. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986 Mar;93(3):240–244. [PubMed]
  • Monif GR, Baer H. Haemophilus (Corynebacterium) vaginalis septicemia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1974 Dec 15;120(8):1041–1045. [PubMed]
  • Moran DJ, Payne A. Subclinical intra-amniotic infection with Gardnerella vaginalis associated with preterm delivery. Case report. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1989 Apr;96(4):489–490. [PubMed]
  • Moran O, Zegarra-Moran O, Virginio C, Rottini G. Voltage-dependent cationic channels formed by a cytolytic toxin produced by Gardnerella vaginalis. FEBS Lett. 1991 Jun 3;283(2):317–320. [PubMed]
  • Moss CW, Dunkelberg WE., Jr Volatile and cellular fatty acids of Haemophilus vaginalis. J Bacteriol. 1969 Oct;100(1):544–546. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Müller M. Action of clinically utilized 5-nitroimidazoles on microorganisms. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1981;26:31–41. [PubMed]
  • Nagy E, Petterson M, Mårdh PA. Antibiosis between bacteria isolated from the vagina of women with and without signs of bacterial vaginosis. APMIS. 1991 Aug;99(8):739–744. [PubMed]
  • Nath K, Choi DJ, Devlin D. The characterization of Gardnerella vaginalis DNA using non-radioactive DNA probes. Res Microbiol. 1991 Jun;142(5):573–583. [PubMed]
  • Nightingale LM, Eaton CB, Fruehan AE, Waldman JB, Clark WB, Lepow ML. Cephalhematoma complicated by osteomyelitis presumed due to Gardnerella vaginalis. JAMA. 1986 Oct 10;256(14):1936–1937. [PubMed]
  • Nugent RP, Krohn MA, Hillier SL. Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain interpretation. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Feb;29(2):297–301. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • O'Donnell AG, Minnikin DE, Goodfellow M, Piot P. Fatty acid, polar lipid and wall amino acid composition of Gardnerella vaginalis. Arch Microbiol. 1984 May;138(1):68–71. [PubMed]
  • O'Hare MD, Ghosh G, Felmingham D, Grüneberg RN. In-vitro studies with ramoplanin (MDL 62,198): a novel lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990 Feb;25(2):217–220. [PubMed]
  • Paavonen J. Physiology and ecology of the vagina. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:31–35. [PubMed]
  • Pandit DV, Barve SM, Deodhar LP. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from non-specific vaginitis patients in Bombay. Indian J Med Res. 1989 Nov;89:435–438. [PubMed]
  • Pao CC, Lin SS, Hsieh TT. The detection of Gardnerella vaginalis DNA sequences in uncultured clinical specimens with cloned G. vaginalis DNA as probes. Mol Cell Probes. 1990 Oct;4(5):367–373. [PubMed]
  • Papapetropoulou M, Legakis NJ, Detorakis J, Kalambokas E, Lymberopoulou T. Frequency and epidemiologic associations of different types of vaginitis in symptomatic women in Greece. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Aug;5(4):447–449. [PubMed]
  • Papapetropoulou M, Pappas A. The acute urethral syndrome in routine practice. J Infect. 1987 Mar;14(2):113–118. [PubMed]
  • Patrick S, Garnett PA. Corynebacterium vaginale bacteraemia in a man. Lancet. 1978 May 6;1(8071):987–988. [PubMed]
  • Peeters M, Piot P. Adhesion of Gardnerella vaginalis to vaginal epithelial cells: variables affecting adhesion and inhibition by metronidazole. Genitourin Med. 1985 Dec;61(6):391–395. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Petersen EE, Pelz K. Diagnosis and therapy of nonspecific vaginitis. Correlation between KOH-test, clue cells and microbiology. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:97–99. [PubMed]
  • Anaerobic vaginosis. Lancet. 1984 Feb 11;1(8372):337–338. [PubMed]
  • Petit PL, Mouton RP. Gardnerella vaginalis in urinary tract infections of immunocompromised patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Jun;4(3):357–357. [PubMed]
  • Pheifer TA, Forsyth PS, Durfee MA, Pollock HM, Holmes KK. Nonspecific vaginitis: role of Haemophilus vaginalis and treatment with metronidazole. N Engl J Med. 1978 Jun 29;298(26):1429–1434. [PubMed]
  • Piot P. Bacterial vaginosis. An evaluation of treatment. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:229–235. [PubMed]
  • Piot P, Van Dyck E. Isolation and identification of Gardnerella vaginalis. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:15–18. [PubMed]
  • Piot P, van Dyck E, Goodfellow M, Falkow S. A taxonomic study of Gardnerella vaginalis (Haemophilus vaginalis) Gardner and Dukes 1955. J Gen Microbiol. 1980 Aug;119(2):373–396. [PubMed]
  • Piot P, Van Dyck E, Peeters M, Hale J, Totten PA, Holmes KK. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Oct;20(4):677–679. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Piot P, Van Dyck E, Totten PA, Holmes KK. Identification of Gardnerella (Haemophilus) vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Jan;15(1):19–24. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Platt MS. Neonatal Hemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginalis) infection. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1971 Sep;10(9):513–516. [PubMed]
  • Ralph ED. Comparative antimicrobial activity of metronidazole and the hydroxy metabolite against Gardnerella vaginalis. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:115–120. [PubMed]
  • Ralph ED, Amatnieks YE. Relative susceptibilities of Gardnerella vaginalis (Haemophilus vaginalis), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Bacteroides fragilis to Metronidazole and its two major metabolites. Sex Transm Dis. 1980 Oct-Dec;7(4):157–160. [PubMed]
  • Ralph ED, Clarke DA. Inactivation of metronidazole by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1978 Sep;14(3):377–383. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ratnam S, Fitzgerald BL. Semiquantitative culture of Gardnerella vaginalis in laboratory determination of nonspecific vaginitis. J Clin Microbiol. 1983 Aug;18(2):344–347. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Regamey C, Schoenknecht FD. Puerperal fever with Haemophilus vaginalis septicemia. JAMA. 1973 Sep 24;225(13):1621–1623. [PubMed]
  • Reimer LG, Reller LB. Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia: a review of thirty cases. Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Aug;64(2):170–172. [PubMed]
  • Reimer LG, Reller LB. Use of a sodium polyanetholesulfonate disk for the identification of Gardnerella vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Feb;21(2):146–149. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reimer LG, Reller LB. Effect of sodium polyanetholesulfonate and gelatin on the recovery of Gardnerella vaginalis from blood culture media. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 May;21(5):686–688. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rempen A, Martius J, Hartmann AA, Wecker I. Transmission rate of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, B-streptococci, Candida spp. and Chlamydia trachomatis from the mother to the newborn. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1987;241(3):165–170. [PubMed]
  • Reyn A, Birch-Andersen A, Lapage SP. An electron microscope study of thin sections of Haemophilus vaginalis (Gardner and Dukes) and some possibly related species. Can J Microbiol. 1966 Dec;12(6):1125–1136. [PubMed]
  • Roberts MC. Characterization of the Tet M determinants in urogenital and respiratory bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990 Mar;34(3):476–478. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roberts MC, Hillier SL. Genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in urogenital bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990 Feb;34(2):261–264. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roberts MC, Hillier SL, Hale J, Holmes KK, Kenny GE. Tetracycline resistance and tetM in pathogenic urogenital bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Nov;30(5):810–812. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roberts MC, Hillier SL, Schoenknecht FD, Holmes KK. Comparison of gram stain, DNA probe, and culture for the identification of species of Mobiluncus in female genital specimens. J Infect Dis. 1985 Jul;152(1):74–77. [PubMed]
  • Rosene K, Eschenbach DA, Tompkins LS, Kenny GE, Watkins H. Polymicrobial early postpartum endometritis with facultative and anaerobic bacteria, genital mycoplasmas, and Chlamydia trachomatis: treatment with piperacillin or cefoxitin. J Infect Dis. 1986 Jun;153(6):1028–1037. [PubMed]
  • Rotheram EB, Jr, Schick SF. Nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria in septic abortion. Am J Med. 1969 Jan;46(1):80–89. [PubMed]
  • Rotimi VO, Yakubu Z, Abudu OO, Banjo TO. Direct Gram's stain of vaginal discharge as a means of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis. J Med Microbiol. 1991 Aug;35(2):103–106. [PubMed]
  • Rottini G, Dobrina A, Forgiarini O, Nardon E, Amirante GA, Patriarca P. Identification and partial characterization of a cytolytic toxin produced by Gardnerella vaginalis. Infect Immun. 1990 Nov;58(11):3751–3758. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sadhu K, Domingue PA, Chow AW, Nelligan J, Cheng N, Costerton JW. Gardnerella vaginalis has a gram-positive cell-wall ultrastructure and lacks classical cell-wall lipopolysaccharide. J Med Microbiol. 1989 Jul;29(3):229–235. [PubMed]
  • Salmon SA, Walker RD, Carleton CL, Shah S, Robinson BE. Characterization of Gardnerella vaginalis and G. vaginalis-like organisms from the reproductive tract of the mare. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Jun;29(6):1157–1161. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sautter RL, Brown WJ. Sequential vaginal cultures from normal young women. J Clin Microbiol. 1980 May;11(5):479–484. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schnadig VJ, Davie KD, Shafer SK, Yandell RB, Islam MZ, Hannigan EV. The cytologist and bacterioses of the vaginal-ectocervical area. Clues, commas and confusion. Acta Cytol. 1989 May-Jun;33(3):287–297. [PubMed]
  • Scott TG, Curran B, Smyth CJ. Electron microscopy of adhesive interactions between Gardnerella vaginalis and vaginal epithelial cells, McCoy cells and human red blood cells. J Gen Microbiol. 1989 Mar;135(3):475–480. [PubMed]
  • Scott TG, Smyth CJ. Haemagglutination and tissue culture adhesion of Gardnerella vaginalis. J Gen Microbiol. 1987 Aug;133(8):1999–2005. [PubMed]
  • Scott TG, Smyth CJ, Keane CT. In vitro adhesiveness and biotype of Gardnerella vaginalis strains in relation to the occurrence of clue cells in vaginal discharges. Genitourin Med. 1987 Feb;63(1):47–53. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sehgal SC, Nalini V. The role and prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis in anaerobic vaginosis. Infection. 1990 Mar-Apr;18(2):83–85. [PubMed]
  • Shanker S, Munro R. Sensitivity of Gardnerella vaginalis to metabolites of metronidazole and tinidazole. Lancet. 1982 Jan 16;1(8264):167–167. [PubMed]
  • Shaw CE, Forsyth ME, Bowie WR, Black WA. Rapid presumptive identification of Gardnerella vaginalis (Haemophilus vaginalis) from human blood agar media. J Clin Microbiol. 1981 Jul;14(1):108–110. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Skarin A, Mårdh PA. Scanning electron microscopic examination of Bacteroides fragilis and Gardnerella vaginalis after exposure to concentration gradients of metronidazole and tinidazole. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1981;26:54–59. [PubMed]
  • Skarin A, Sylwan J. Vaginal lactobacilli inhibiting growth of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus and other bacterial species cultured from vaginal content of women with bacterial vaginosis. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B. 1986 Dec;94(6):399–403. [PubMed]
  • Smith RF. Comparison of two media for isolation of haemophilus vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Jun;9(6):729–730. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith RF, Dunkelberg WE., Jr Inhibition of Corynebacterium vaginale by metronidazole. Sex Transm Dis. 1977 Jan-Mar;4(1):20–21. [PubMed]
  • Sobel JD. Bacterial vaginosis--an ecologic mystery. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Oct 1;111(7):551–553. [PubMed]
  • Sobel JD, Myers P, Levison ME, Kaye D. Comparison of bacterial and fungal adherence to vaginal exfoliated epithelial cells and human vaginal epithelial tissue culture cells. Infect Immun. 1982 Feb;35(2):697–701. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sobel JD, Schneider J, Kaye D, Levison ME. Adherence of bacteria to vaginal epithelial cells at various times in the menstrual cycle. Infect Immun. 1981 Apr;32(1):194–197. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spiegel CA. Bacterial vaginosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1991 Oct;4(4):485–502. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spiegel CA, Amsel R, Eschenbach D, Schoenknecht F, Holmes KK. Anaerobic bacteria in nonspecific vaginitis. N Engl J Med. 1980 Sep 11;303(11):601–607. [PubMed]
  • Spiegel CA, Amsel R, Holmes KK. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by direct gram stain of vaginal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 1983 Jul;18(1):170–177. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spiegel CA, Davick P, Totten PA, Chen KC, Eschenbach DA, Amsel R, Holmes KK. Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in the etiology of bacterial (nonspecific) vaginosis. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:41–46. [PubMed]
  • Staerfelt F, Gundersen TJ, Halsos AM, Barlinn C, Johansen AG, Nørregaard KM, Eng J. A survey of genital infections in patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;40:53–57. [PubMed]
  • Sturm AW. Gardnerella vaginalis in infections of the urinary tract. J Infect. 1989 Jan;18(1):45–49. [PubMed]
  • Sturm AW. Chemotaxis inhibition by Gardnerella vaginalis and succinate producing vaginal anaerobes: composition of vaginal discharge associated with G vaginalis. Genitourin Med. 1989 Apr;65(2):109–112. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sturm AW, de Leeuw JH, de Pree NT. Post-operative wound infection with Gardnerella vaginalis. J Infect. 1983 Nov;7(3):264–266. [PubMed]
  • Sugarman ID, Pead LJ, Payne SR, Maskell RM. Bacteriological state of the urine in symptom-free adult males. Br J Urol. 1990 Aug;66(2):148–151. [PubMed]
  • Symonds J, Biswas AK. Amoxycillin, augmentin and metronidazole in bacterial vaginosis associated with Gardnerella vaginalis. Genitourin Med. 1986 Apr;62(2):136–136. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taylor E, Phillips I. The identification of Gardnerella vaginalis. J Med Microbiol. 1983 Feb;16(1):83–92. [PubMed]
  • Taylor-Robinson D. The bacteriology of Gardnerella vaginalis. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:41–55. [PubMed]
  • Thakur A, Bhalla P, Aggarwal DS. Incidence of Gardnerella vaginalis in non-specific vaginitis. Indian J Med Res. 1986 Jun;83:567–574. [PubMed]
  • Thomason JL, Gelbart SM, Anderson RJ, Walt AK, Osypowski PJ, Broekhuizen FF. Statistical evaluation of diagnostic criteria for bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Jan;162(1):155–160. [PubMed]
  • Tjiam KH, Wagenvoort JH, van Klingeren B, Piot P, Stolz E, Michel MF. In vitro activity of the two new 4-quinolones A56619 and A56620 against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Gardnerella vaginalis. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Oct;5(5):498–501. [PubMed]
  • Tønjum T, Bukholm G, Bøvre K. Differentiation of some species of Neisseriaceae and other bacterial groups by DNA-DNA hybridization. APMIS. 1989 May;97(5):395–405. [PubMed]
  • Totten PA, Amsel R, Hale J, Piot P, Holmes KK. Selective differential human blood bilayer media for isolation of Gardnerella (Haemophilus) vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Jan;15(1):141–147. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vandamme P, Falsen E, Rossau R, Hoste B, Segers P, Tytgat R, De Ley J. Revision of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Wolinella taxonomy: emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of Arcobacter gen. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1991 Jan;41(1):88–103. [PubMed]
  • van der Meijden WI. Clinical aspects of Gardnerella vaginalis-associated vaginitis. A review of the literature. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1984;86:135–141. [PubMed]
  • van der Meijden WI, Koerten H, van Mourik W, de Bruijn WC. Descriptive light and electron microscopy of normal and clue-cell-positive discharge. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1988;25(1):47–57. [PubMed]
  • Vejtorp M, Bollerup AC, Vejtorp L, Fanøe E, Nathan E, Reiter A, Andersen ME, Strømsholt B, Schrøder SS. Bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind randomized trial of the effect of treatment of the sexual partner. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988 Sep;95(9):920–926. [PubMed]
  • Venkataramani TK, Rathbun HK. Corynebacterium vaginale (Hemophilus vaginalis) bacteremia: clinical study of 29 cases. Johns Hopkins Med J. 1976 Sep;139(3):93–97. [PubMed]
  • Vontver LA, Eschenbach DA. The role of Gardnerella vaginalis in nonspecific vaginitis. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Jun;24(2):439–460. [PubMed]
  • Watson RA. Gardnerella vaginalis: genitourinary pathogen in men. Urology. 1985 Mar;25(3):217–222. [PubMed]
  • Watts DH, Eschenbach DA, Kenny GE. Early postpartum endometritis: the role of bacteria, genital mycoplasmas, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Jan;73(1):52–60. [PubMed]
  • Weber P, Dubois S, Boussougant Y. In-vitro activity of pristinamycin and its components against gram-negative anaerobic bacilli and Gardnerella vaginalis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989 Jun;23(6):825–830. [PubMed]
  • Wells JI, Goei SH. Rapid identification of Corynebacterium vaginale in non-purulent vaginitis. J Clin Pathol. 1981 Aug;34(8):917–920. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wilkins EG, Payne SR, Pead PJ, Moss ST, Maskell RM. Interstitial cystitis and the urethral syndrome: a possible answer. Br J Urol. 1989 Jul;64(1):39–44. [PubMed]
  • Wilson JA, Barratt AJ. An unusual case of Gardnerella vaginalis septicaemia. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986 Aug 2;293(6542):309–309. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Woolfrey BF, Ireland GK, Lally RT. Significance of Gardnerella vaginalis in urine cultures. Am J Clin Pathol. 1986 Sep;86(3):324–329. [PubMed]
  • Yong DC, Thompson JS. Rapid microbiochemical method for identification of Gardnerella (Haemophilus) vaginalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Jul;16(1):30–33. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Younes MS. In vitro effects of furazolidone on the fine structure of Haemophilus vaginalis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1970 Sep 15;108(2):210–214. [PubMed]

Articles from Clinical Microbiology Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...