Logo of cmrPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalCMR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1990 Jul; 3(3): 227–246.
PMCID: PMC358157

Coryneform bacteria in infectious diseases: clinical and laboratory aspects.


Coryneform isolates from clinical specimens frequently cannot be identified by either reference laboratories or research laboratories. Many of these organisms are skin flora that belong to a large number of taxonomic groups, only 40% of which are in the genus Corynebacterium. This review provides an update on clinical presentations, microbiological features, and pathogenic mechanisms of infections with nondiphtheria Corynebacterium species and other pleomorphic gram-positive rods. The early literature is also reviewed for a few coryneforms, especially those whose roles as pathogens are controversial. Recognition of newly emerging opportunistic coryneforms is dependent on sound identification schemes which cannot be developed until cell wall analyses and nucleic acid studies have defined the taxonomic groups and all of the reference strains within each taxon have been shown by molecular methods to be authentic members. Only then can reliable batteries of biochemical tests be selected for distinguishing each taxon.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (4.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Aguado JM, Ponte C, Soriano F. Bacteriuria with a multiply resistant species of Corynebacterium (Corynebacterium group D2): an unnoticed cause of urinary tract infection. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jul;156(1):144–150. [PubMed]
  • Allen KD, Green HT. Infections due to a 'Group JK' corynebacterium. J Infect. 1986 Jul;13(1):41–44. [PubMed]
  • Andavolu RH, Jagadha V, Lue Y, McLean T. Lung abscess involving Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum in a patient with AIDS-related complex. N Y State J Med. 1986 Nov;86(11):594–596. [PubMed]
  • Athalye M, Noble WC, Mallet AI, Minnikin DE. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of mycolic acids as a tool in the identification of medically important coryneform bacteria. J Gen Microbiol. 1984 Mar;130(3):513–519. [PubMed]
  • Austin GE, Hill EO. Endocarditis due to Corynebacterium CDC group G2. J Infect Dis. 1983 Jun;147(6):1106–1106. [PubMed]
  • Banck G, Nyman M. Tonsillitis and rash associated with Corynebacterium haemolyticum. J Infect Dis. 1986 Dec;154(6):1037–1040. [PubMed]
  • Barksdale L, Linder R, Sulea IT, Pollice M. Phospholipase D activity of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Corynebacterium ovis) and Corynebacterium ulcerans, a distinctive marker within the genus Corynebacterium. J Clin Microbiol. 1981 Feb;13(2):335–343. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • BARKSDALE WL, LI K, CUMMINS CS, HARRIS H. The mutation of Corynebacterium pyogenes to Corynebacterium haemolyticum. J Gen Microbiol. 1957 Jun;16(3):749–758. [PubMed]
  • Barnham M. Actinomyces pyogenes bacteraemia in a patient with carcinoma of the colon. J Infect. 1988 Nov;17(3):231–234. [PubMed]
  • Barr JG, Murphy PG. Corynebacterium striatum: an unusual organism isolated in pure culture from sputum. J Infect. 1986 Nov;13(3):297–298. [PubMed]
  • Bayston R, Higgins J. Biochemical and cultural characteristics of "JK" coryneforms. J Clin Pathol. 1986 Jun;39(6):654–660. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beckwith DG, Jahre JA, Haggerty S. Isolation of Corynebacterium aquaticum from spinal fluid of an infant with meningitis. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Feb;23(2):375–376. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ben-Yaacob D, Waron M, Boldur I, Gil I, Sompolinsky D. Septicemia due to Corynebacterium haemolyticum. Isr J Med Sci. 1984 May;20(5):431–433. [PubMed]
  • Berger SA, Gorea A, Stadler J, Dan M, Zilberman M. Recurrent breast abscesses caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Dec;20(6):1219–1220. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bernheimer AW, Campbell BJ, Forrester LJ. Comparative toxinology of Loxosceles reclusa and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Science. 1985 May 3;228(4699):590–591. [PubMed]
  • Biberstein EL, Knight HD, Jang S. Two biotypes of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Vet Rec. 1971 Dec 25;89(26):691–692. [PubMed]
  • Bishopric GA, d'Agay MF, Schlemmer B, Sarfati E, Brocheriou C. Pulmonary pseudotumour due to Corynebacterium equi in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Thorax. 1988 Jun;43(6):486–487. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blom J, Heltberg O. The ultrastructure of antibiotic-susceptible and multi-resistant strains of group JK diphtheroid rods isolated from clinical specimens. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B. 1986 Oct;94(5):301–308. [PubMed]
  • Bowstead TT, Santiago SM. Pleuropulmonary infection due to Corynebacterium striatum. Br J Dis Chest. 1980 Apr;74(2):198–200. [PubMed]
  • Brooks BW, Barnum DA. Characterization of strains of Corynebacterium bovis. Can J Comp Med. 1984 Apr;48(2):230–232. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Carne HR, Onon EO. Action of Corynebacterium ovis exotoxin on endothelial cells of blood vessels. Nature. 1978 Jan 19;271(5642):246–248. [PubMed]
  • Carne HR, Onon EO. The exotoxins of Corynebacterium ulcerans. J Hyg (Lond) 1982 Apr;88(2):173–191. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • CARNE HR, KATER JC, WICKHAM N. A toxic lipid from the surface of Corynebacterium ovis. Nature. 1956 Sep 29;178(4535):701–702. [PubMed]
  • Cauda R, Tamburrini E, Ventura G, Ortona L. Effective vancomycin therapy for Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum endocarditis. South Med J. 1987 Dec;80(12):1598–1598. [PubMed]
  • Chandrasekar PH, Molinari JA. Corynebacterium hemolyticum bacteremia with fatal neurologic complication in an intravenous drug addict. Am J Med. 1987 Mar 23;82(3 Spec No):638–640. [PubMed]
  • Claeys G, Vershchraegen G, DeSmet L, Verdonk R, Claessens H. Corynebacterium JK (Johnson-Kay strain) infection of a Küntscher-nailed tibial fracture. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986 Jan;(202):227–229. [PubMed]
  • Collins MD, Jones D, Schofield GM. Reclassification of 'Corynebacterium haemolyticum' (MacLean, Liebow & Rosenberg) in the genus Arcanobacterium gen.nov. as Arcanobacterium haemolyticum nom.rev., comb.nov. J Gen Microbiol. 1982 Jun;128(6):1279–1281. [PubMed]
  • Cook IF, Cabral DA, Reed WD, Bond RJ, Henderson A. Intracranial complications of sphenoidal sinus inflammation. Med J Aust. 1981 Apr 4;1(7):366–366. [PubMed]
  • Cooke JV, Keith HR. A TYPE OF UREA-SPLITTING BACTERIUM FOUND IN THE HUMAN INTESTINAL TRACT. J Bacteriol. 1927 May;13(5):315–319. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coppola KM, Furness G. Evaluation of differential media for the identification of Corynebacterium genitalium and Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium (group JK corynebacteria). Can J Microbiol. 1985 Jan;31(1):32–34. [PubMed]
  • Coudron PE, Harris RC, Vaughan MG, Dalton HP. Two similar but atypical strains of coryneform group A-4 isolated from patients with endophthalmitis. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Oct;22(4):475–477. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coykendall AL. Classification and identification of the viridans streptococci. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1989 Jul;2(3):315–328. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • CRISSEY JT, REBELL GC, LASKAS JJ. Studies on the causative organism of trichomycosis axillaris. J Invest Dermatol. 1952 May;19(3):187–197. [PubMed]
  • Dan M, Somer I, Knobel B, Gutman R. Cutaneous manifestations of infection with Corynebacterium group JK. Rev Infect Dis. 1988 Nov-Dec;10(6):1204–1207. [PubMed]
  • Donaghy M, Cohen J. Pulmonary infection with Corynebacterium hofmannii complicating systemic lupus erythematosus. J Infect Dis. 1983 May;147(5):962–962. [PubMed]
  • Döpfer H, Stackebrandt E, Fiedler F. Nucleic acid hybridization studies on Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, Agromyces and related taxa. J Gen Microbiol. 1982 Aug;128(8):1697–1708. [PubMed]
  • Eliakim R, Silkoff P, Lugassy G, Michel J. Corynebacterium xerosis endocarditis. Arch Intern Med. 1983 Oct;143(10):1995–1995. [PubMed]
  • Ersgaard H, Justesen T. Multiresistant lipophilic corynebacteria from clinical specimens. Biochemical reactions and antimicrobial agents susceptibility. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B. 1984 Feb;92(1):39–43. [PubMed]
  • Etienne J, Barthelet M, Ninet J, Vandenesch F, Fleurette J. Corynebacterium group JK endocarditis after dental extraction under antibiotic cover. J Infect. 1988 Sep;17(2):188–189. [PubMed]
  • Evangelista AT, Coppola KM, Furness G. Relationship between group JK corynebacteria and the biotypes of Corynebacterium genitalium and Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium. Can J Microbiol. 1984 Aug;30(8):1052–1057. [PubMed]
  • Evans NM. The classification of aerobic diphtheroids from human skin. Br J Dermatol. 1968 Feb;80(2):81–83. [PubMed]
  • Farmer JJ, 3rd, Davis BR, Hickman-Brenner FW, McWhorter A, Huntley-Carter GP, Asbury MA, Riddle C, Wathen-Grady HG, Elias C, Fanning GR, et al. Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Jan;21(1):46–76. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Farrer W. Four-valve endocarditis caused by corynebacterium CDC group I1. South Med J. 1987 Jul;80(7):923–925. [PubMed]
  • Fell HW, Nagington J, Naylor GR, Olds RJ. Corynebacterium haemolyticum infections in Cambridgeshire. J Hyg (Lond) 1977 Oct;79(2):269–274. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fierer J, Wolf P, Seed L, Gay T, Noonan K, Haghighi P. Non-pulmonary Rhodococcus equi infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). J Clin Pathol. 1987 May;40(5):556–558. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Finger H, Wirsing von Koenig CH, Wichmann S, Becker-Boost E, Drechsler HJ. Clinical significance of resistant corynebacteria group JK. Lancet. 1983 Mar 5;1(8323):538–538. [PubMed]
  • Fosse T, Carles D, Laffont C, Lefebvre JC, Bocquet JP. Infections urinaires à Corynebacterium du groupe D2. Epidémie hospitalière et sensibilité aux antibiotiques. Pathol Biol (Paris) 1988 Jun;36(5 Pt 2):742–745. [PubMed]
  • Fox GE, Stackebrandt E, Hespell RB, Gibson J, Maniloff J, Dyer TA, Wolfe RS, Balch WE, Tanner RS, Magrum LJ, et al. The phylogeny of prokaryotes. Science. 1980 Jul 25;209(4455):457–463. [PubMed]
  • Freeman RG, McBride ME, Knox JM. Pathogenesis of trichomycosis axillaris. Arch Dermatol. 1969 Jul;100(1):90–95. [PubMed]
  • Furness G, Evangelista AT. A diagnostic key employing biological reactions for differentiating pathogenic Corynebacterium genitalium (NSU corynebacteria) from commensals of the urogenital tract. Invest Urol. 1978 Jul;16(1):1–4. [PubMed]
  • GHADIALLY FN, NEISH WJ, DAWKINS HC. Mechanisms involved in the production of red fluorescence of human and experimental tumours. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1963 Jan;85:77–92. [PubMed]
  • GILMOUR MN, HOWELL A, Jr, BIBBY BG. The classification of organisms termed Leptotrichia (Leptothrix) buccalis. I. Review of the literature and proposed separation into Leptotrichia buccalis Trevisan, 1879 and Bacterionema gen. nov., B. matruchotti (Mendel, 1919) comb. nov. Bacteriol Rev. 1961 Jun;25:131–141. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goodfellow M, Alderson G. The actinomycete-genus Rhodococcus: a home for the "rhodochrous" complex. J Gen Microbiol. 1977 May;100(1):99–122. [PubMed]
  • Goudswaard J, van de Merwe DW, van der Sluys P, Doorn H. Corynebacterium haemolyticum septicemia in a girl with mononucleosis infectiosa. Scand J Infect Dis. 1988;20(3):339–340. [PubMed]
  • Grasmick AE, Bruckner DA. Comparison of rapid identification method and conventional substrates for identification of Corynebacterium group JK isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Jun;25(6):1111–1112. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schultz RC. Contempo '81. Plastic surgery. JAMA. 1981 Jun 5;245(21):2231–2232. [PubMed]
  • Guarderas J, Karnad A, Alvarez S, Berk SL. Corynebacterium minutissimum bacteremia in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1986 Nov;5(4):327–330. [PubMed]
  • Guarino MJ, Qazi R, Woll JE, Rubins J. Septicemia, rash, and pulmonary infiltrates secondary to Corynebacterium group JK infection. Am J Med. 1987 Jan;82(1):132–134. [PubMed]
  • Hart RJ. Corynebacterium ulcerans in humans and cattle in North Devon. J Hyg (Lond) 1984 Apr;92(2):161–164. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heltberg O, Friis-Møller A, Ersgaard H. Group JK diphtheroid bacteremia. The successive isolation of an antibiotic-susceptible and an antigenically different multi-resistant strain. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B. 1986 Aug;94(4):285–289. [PubMed]
  • HERMANN GJ. The laboratory recognition of Corynebacterium hemolyticum. Am J Med Technol. 1961 Jan-Feb;27:61–66. [PubMed]
  • Herschorn BJ, Brucker AJ. Embolic retinopathy due to Corynebacterium minutissimum endocarditis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1985 Jan;69(1):29–31. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hietala SK, Ardans AA. Interaction of Rhodococcus equi with phagocytic cells from R. equi-exposed and non-exposed foals. Vet Microbiol. 1987 Aug;14(3):307–320. [PubMed]
  • Hillerton JE, Bramley AJ. Carriage of Corynebacterium pyogenes by the cattle nuisance flies Hydrotaea irritans (Fallén) and Musca autumnalis (De Geer). Vet Parasitol. 1985 Oct;18(3):223–228. [PubMed]
  • Hine JE, Hill LR, Lapage SP. Corynebacterium spp in human disease. Lancet. 1978 Aug 12;2(8085):376–376. [PubMed]
  • Hollis DG, Sottnek FO, Brown WJ, Weaver RE. Use of the rapid fermentation test in determining carbohydrate reactions of fastidious bacteria in clinical laboratories. J Clin Microbiol. 1980 Oct;12(4):620–623. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • House RW, Schousboe M, Allen JP, Grant CC. Corynebacterium ovis (pseudo-tuberculosis) lymphadenitis in a sheep farmer: a new occupational disease in New Zealand. N Z Med J. 1986 Sep 10;99(809):659–662. [PubMed]
  • Imaeda T, Coppola KM, Furness G. Deoxyribonucleic acids of Corynebacterium genitalium and Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium: their genome molecular weights, base ratios, and DNA relatedness with other corynebacteria involved in urinary tract infections. Can J Microbiol. 1985 Nov;31(11):1068–1070. [PubMed]
  • Jackman PJ. Classification of Corynebacterium species from axillary skin by numerical analysis of electrophoretic protein patterns. J Med Microbiol. 1982 Nov;15(4):485–492. [PubMed]
  • Jackman PJ, Pelczynska S. Characterization of Corynebacterium group JK by whole-cell protein patterns. J Gen Microbiol. 1986 Jul;132(7):1911–1915. [PubMed]
  • Jacobs NF, Jr, Perlino CA. "Diphtheroid" pneumonia. South Med J. 1979 Apr;72(4):475–476. [PubMed]
  • Jerdan MS, Shapiro RS, Smith NB, Virshup DM, Hood AF. Cutaneous manifestations of Corynebacterium group JK sepsis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987 Feb;16(2 Pt 2):444–447. [PubMed]
  • Johnson JL, Cummins CS. Cell wall composition and deoxyribonucleic acid similarities among the anaerobic coryneforms, classical propionibacteria, and strains of Arachnia propionica. J Bacteriol. 1972 Mar;109(3):1047–1066. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jones MR, Neale TJ, Say PJ, Horne JG. Rhodococcus equi: an emerging opportunistic pathogen? Aust N Z J Med. 1989 Apr;19(2):103–107. [PubMed]
  • Kaplan A, Israel F. Corynebacterium aquaticum infection in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. Am J Med Sci. 1988 Jul;296(1):57–58. [PubMed]
  • Keddie RM, Bousfield IJ. Cell wall composition in the classification and identification of coryneform bacteria. Soc Appl Bacteriol Symp Ser. 1980;8:167–188. [PubMed]
  • Kelly MC, Smith ID, Anstey RJ, Thornley JH, Rennie RP. Rapid identification of antibiotic-resistant corynebacteria with the API 20S system. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Feb;19(2):245–247. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Keren G, Geva T, Bogokovsky B, Rubinstein E. Corynebacterium Group JK pathogen in cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 1988 Apr;68(4):648–650. [PubMed]
  • Kerry-Williams SM, Noble WC. Plasmids in group JK coryneform bacteria isolated in a single hospital. J Hyg (Lond) 1986 Oct;97(2):255–263. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kerry-Williams SM, Noble WC. Group JK coryneform bacteria. J Hosp Infect. 1987 Jan;9(1):4–10. [PubMed]
  • Khabbaz RF, Kaper JB, Moody MR, Schimpff SC, Tenney JH. Molecular epidemiology of group JK Corynebacterium on a cancer ward: lack of evidence for patient-to-patient transmission. J Infect Dis. 1986 Jul;154(1):95–99. [PubMed]
  • Kotrajaras R, Buddhavudhikrai P, Sukroongreung S, Chanthravimol P. Endemic leg ulcers caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes in Thailand. Int J Dermatol. 1982 Sep;21(7):407–409. [PubMed]
  • Kotrajaras R, Tagami H. Corynebacterium pyogenes. Its pathogenic mechanism in epidemic leg ulcers in Thailand. Int J Dermatol. 1987 Jan-Feb;26(1):45–50. [PubMed]
  • Kovatch AL, Schuit KE, Michaels RH. Corynebacterium hemolyticum peritonsillar abscess mimicking diphtheria. JAMA. 1983 Apr 1;249(13):1757–1758. [PubMed]
  • Krish G, Beaver W, Sarubbi F, Verghese A. Corynebacterium xerosis as a cause of vertebral osteomyelitis. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Dec;27(12):2869–2870. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lämmler C, Blobel H. Tentative identification of Actinomyces pyogenes with antisera against group G streptococci. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Sep;262(3):357–360. [PubMed]
  • Lämmler C, Blobel H. Comparative studies on Actinomyces pyogenes and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1988;177(2):109–114. [PubMed]
  • LaRocco M, Robinson C, Robinson A. Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum associated with suppurative lymphadenitis. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Feb;6(1):79–79. [PubMed]
  • Larson EL, McGinley KJ, Leyden JJ, Cooley ME, Talbot GH. Skin colonization with antibiotic-resistant (JK group) and antibiotic-sensitive lipophilic diphtheroids in hospitalized and normal adults. J Infect Dis. 1986 Apr;153(4):701–706. [PubMed]
  • Lawrence C, Brown ST, Freundlich LF. Peripheral blood smear bacillemia. Am J Med. 1988 Jul;85(1):111–113. [PubMed]
  • LeBar WD, Pensler MI. Pleural effusion due to Rhodococcus equi. J Infect Dis. 1986 Nov;154(5):919–920. [PubMed]
  • Leung AC, Orange G, Henderson IS, Kennedy AC. Diphtheroid peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol. 1984 Oct;22(4):200–205. [PubMed]
  • Levit F. Trichomycosis axillaris: a different view. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988 Apr;18(4 Pt 1):778–779. [PubMed]
  • Lewis R. Antiseptic resistance in JK and other coryneforms. J Hosp Infect. 1988 Feb;11(2):150–154. [PubMed]
  • Linder R, Bernheimer AW. Effect on sphingomyelin-containing liposomes of phospholipase D from Corynebacterium ovis and the cytolysin from Stoichactis helianthus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Aug 25;530(2):236–246. [PubMed]
  • Linder R, Bernheimer AW. Enzymatic oxidation of membrane cholesterol in relation to lysis of sheep erythrocytes by corynebacterial enzymes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1982 Feb;213(2):395–404. [PubMed]
  • Lindner PS, Hardy DJ, Murphy TF. Endocarditis due to Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum. N Y State J Med. 1986 Feb;86(2):102–104. [PubMed]
  • Lipsky BA, Goldberger AC, Tompkins LS, Plorde JJ. Infections caused by nondiphtheria corynebacteria. Rev Infect Dis. 1982 Nov-Dec;4(6):1220–1235. [PubMed]
  • MacGregor JH, Samuelson WM, Sane DC, Godwin JD. Opportunistic lung infection caused by Rhodococcus (Corynebacterium) equi. Radiology. 1986 Jul;160(1):83–84. [PubMed]
  • Machka K, Balg H. In vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against group JK corynebacteria. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Aug;3(4):375–375. [PubMed]
  • Markowitz SM, Coudron PE. Native valve endocarditis caused by an organism resembling Corynebacterium striatum. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Jan;28(1):8–10. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marples RR. Diphtheroids of normal human skin. Br J Dermatol. 1969;81(Suppl):47+–47+. [PubMed]
  • Marshall RJ, Routh KR, MacGowan AP. Corynebacterium CDC group D2 bacteraemia. J Clin Pathol. 1987 Jul;40(7):813–814. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marty N, Clave D, Cancet B, Henry-Ferry S, Didier J. Corynebacterium groupe D2. Etude clinique, identification biochimique et sensibilité aux antibiotiques. Pathol Biol (Paris) 1988 May;36(5):460–464. [PubMed]
  • Maximescu P, Oprişan A, Pop A, Potorac E. Further studies on Corynebacterium species capable of producing diphtheria toxin (C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, C. ovis). J Gen Microbiol. 1974 May;82(1):49–56. [PubMed]
  • McBride ME, Freeman RG, Knox JM. The bacteriology of trichomycosis axillaris. Br J Dermatol. 1968 Aug;80(8):509–513. [PubMed]
  • McBride ME, Freeman RG, Knox JM. Keratinophilic activity in species of Corynebacterium. Can J Microbiol. 1970 Oct;16(10):1024–1025. [PubMed]
  • McBride ME, Montes LF, Knox JM. The characterization of fluorescent skin diphtheroids. Can J Microbiol. 1970 Oct;16(10):941–946. [PubMed]
  • McGinley KJ, Labows JN, Zechman JM, Nordstrom KM, Webster GF, Leyden JJ. Analysis of cellular components, biochemical reactions, and habitat of human cutaneous lipophilic diphtheroids. J Invest Dermatol. 1985 Oct;85(4):374–377. [PubMed]
  • McGinley KJ, Labows JN, Zeckman JM, Nordstrom KM, Webster GF, Leyden JJ. Pathogenic JK group corynebacteria and their similarity to human cutaneous lipophilic diphtheroids. J Infect Dis. 1985 Oct;152(4):801–806. [PubMed]
  • McGowan JE., Jr JK coryneforms: a continuing problem for hospital infection control. J Hosp Infect. 1988 Feb;11 (Suppl A):358–366. [PubMed]
  • McNaughton RD, Villanueva RR, Donnelly R, Freedman J, Nawrot R. Cavitating pneumonia caused by Corynebacterium group JK. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Oct;26(10):2216–2217. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miller RA, Brancato F. Peritonsillar abscess associated with Corynebacterium hemolyticum. West J Med. 1984 Mar;140(3):449–451. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Miller RA, Brancato F, Holmes KK. Corynebacterium hemolyticum as a cause of pharyngitis and scarlatiniform rash in young adults. Ann Intern Med. 1986 Dec;105(6):867–872. [PubMed]
  • Miller RA, Rompalo A, Coyle MB. Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum pneumonia in an immunologically intact host. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1986 Feb;4(2):165–171. [PubMed]
  • Montgomery J. The aerobic bacteriology of infected skin lesions in children of the Eastern Highlands Province. P N G Med J. 1985 Jun;28(2):93–103. [PubMed]
  • Morris AJ, Henderson GK, Bremner DA, Collins JF. Relapsing peritonitis in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis due to Corynebacterium aquaticum. J Infect. 1986 Sep;13(2):151–156. [PubMed]
  • Morrison JR, Tillotson GS. Identification of Actinomyces (Corynebacterium) pyogenes with the API 20 Strep system. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Sep;26(9):1865–1866. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • MUNCH-PETERSEN E. A corynebacterial agent which protects ruminant erythrocytes against staphylococcal beta toxin. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1954 Jun;32(3):361–368. [PubMed]
  • Nadal D, Schwöbel M, von Graevenitz A. Corynebacterium group D2 and urolithiasis in a boy with megacalycosis. Infection. 1988 Jul-Aug;16(4):245–247. [PubMed]
  • Nathan AW, Turner DR, Aubrey C, Cameron JS, Williams DG, Ogg CS, Bewick M. Corynebacterium hofmannii infection after renal transplantation. Clin Nephrol. 1982 Jun;17(6):315–318. [PubMed]
  • Na'Was TE, Hollis DG, Moss CW, Weaver RE. Comparison of biochemical, morphologic, and chemical characteristics of Centers for Disease Control fermentative coryneform groups 1, 2, and A-4. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Aug;25(8):1354–1358. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Noble WC. Skin microbiology: coming of age. J Med Microbiol. 1984 Feb;17(1):1–12. [PubMed]
  • Orfanos CE, Schloesser E, Mahrle G. Hair destroying growth of Corynebacterium tenuis in the so-called trichomycosis axillaris. New findings from scanning electron microscopy. Arch Dermatol. 1971 Jun;103(6):632–639. [PubMed]
  • Pers C. Infection due to "Corynebacterium ulcerans", producing diphtheria toxin--a case report from Denmark. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B. 1987 Dec;95(6):361–362. [PubMed]
  • Pierard D, Lauwers S, Mouton MC, Sennesael J, Verbeelen D. Group JK corynebacterium peritonitis in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Clin Microbiol. 1983 Oct;18(4):1011–1014. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pitcher DG. Rapid identification of cell wall components as a guide to the classification of aerobic coryneform bacteria from human skin. J Med Microbiol. 1977 Nov;10(4):439–445. [PubMed]
  • POLLOCK MR, WAINWRIGHT SD, MANSON EED. The presence of oleic acid-requiring diphtheroids on human skin. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1949 Apr;61(2):274–pl. [PubMed]
  • Pouthier-Simon F, Van Bosterhaut B, Bosly A, Wauters G. Group JK diphteroids sepsis in a leukaemic patient. Acta Clin Belg. 1982;37(3):162–163. [PubMed]
  • Prescott JF, Nicholson VM. The effects of combinations of selected antibiotics on the growth of Corynebacterium equi. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1984 Mar;7(1):61–64. [PubMed]
  • Quinn JP, Arnow PM, Weil D, Rosenbluth J. Outbreak of JK diphtheroid infections associated with environmental contamination. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 May;19(5):668–671. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richards M, Hurse A. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis abscesses in a young butcher. Aust N Z J Med. 1985 Feb;15(1):85–86. [PubMed]
  • Riebel W, Frantz N, Adelstein D, Spagnuolo PJ. Corynebacterium JK: a cause of nosocomial device-related infection. Rev Infect Dis. 1986 Jan-Feb;8(1):42–49. [PubMed]
  • Rikitomi N, Nagatake T, Matsumoto K, Watanabe K, Mbaki N. Lower respiratory tract infections due to non-diphtheria corynebacteria in 8 patients with underlying lung diseases. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1987 Dec;153(4):313–325. [PubMed]
  • Riley PS, Hollis DG, Utter GB, Weaver RE, Baker CN. Characterization and identification of 95 diphtheroid (group JK) cultures isolated from clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Mar;9(3):418–424. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rolston KV, Bodey GP. In vitro activity of various new antimicrobial agents against group JK corynebacteria. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Aug;6(4):491–492. [PubMed]
  • Rubler S, Harvey L, Avitabile A, Abenavoli T. Mitral valve obstruction in a case of bacterial endocarditis due to Corynebacterium hofmanii: echocardiographic diagnosis. N Y State J Med. 1982 Oct;82(11):1590–1594. [PubMed]
  • Ryan WJ. Throat infection and rash associated with an unusual Corynebacterium. Lancet. 1972 Dec 23;2(7791):1345–1347. [PubMed]
  • Samies JH, Hathaway BN, Echols RM, Veazey JM, Jr, Pilon VA. Lung abscess due to Corynebacterium equi. Report of the first case in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Med. 1986 Apr;80(4):685–688. [PubMed]
  • Sane DC, Durack DT. Infection with Rhodococcus equi in AIDS. N Engl J Med. 1986 Jan 2;314(1):56–57. [PubMed]
  • Santamaría M, Ponte C, Wilhelmi I, Soriano F. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Corynebacterium group D2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Dec;28(6):845–846. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • SARKANY I, TAPLIN D, BLANK H. The etiology and treatment of erythrasma. J Invest Dermatol. 1961 Oct;37:283–290. [PubMed]
  • SARKANY I, TAPLIN D, BLANK H. Incidence and bacteriology of erythrasma. Arch Dermatol. 1962 May;85:578–582. [PubMed]
  • Savin JA, Somerville A, Noble WC. The bacterial flora of trichomycosis axillaris. J Med Microbiol. 1970 May;3(2):352–356. [PubMed]
  • Schoch PA, Ferragamo MA, Cunha BA. Corynebacterium group D2 pyelonephritis. Urology. 1987 Jan;29(1):66–67. [PubMed]
  • Schoch PE, Cunha BA. The JK diphtheroids. Infect Control. 1986 Sep;7(9):466–469. [PubMed]
  • Selander B, Ljungh A. Corynebacterium haemolyticum as a cause of nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. J Infect Dis. 1986 Dec;154(6):1041–1041. [PubMed]
  • Shelley WB, Miller MA. Electron microscopy, histochemistry, and microbiology of bacterial adhesion in trichomycosis axillaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984 Jun;10(6):1005–1014. [PubMed]
  • Shelley WB, Shelley ED. Coexistent erythrasma, trichomycosis axillaris, and pitted keratolysis: an overlooked corynebacterial triad? J Am Acad Dermatol. 1982 Dec;7(6):752–757. [PubMed]
  • Siegel SM, Haile CA. Corynebacterium ulcerans pneumonia. South Med J. 1985 Oct;78(10):1267–1267. [PubMed]
  • Slifkin M, Gil GM, Engwall C. Rapid identification of group JK and other corynebacteria with the Minitek system. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Aug;24(2):177–180. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith RF. Characterization of human cutaneous lipophilic diphtheroids. J Gen Microbiol. 1969 Mar;55(3):433–443. [PubMed]
  • Sofras F, Yiannopoulou K, Kostakopoulos A, Dimopoulos C. Corynebacterium-induced cystitis with mucosal incrustations. J Urol. 1988 Apr;139(4):810–810. [PubMed]
  • Somerville DA. Erythrasma in normal young adults. J Med Microbiol. 1970 Feb;3(1):57–64. [PubMed]
  • Somerville DA. A quantitative study of erythrasma lesions. Br J Dermatol. 1972 Aug;87(2):130–137. [PubMed]
  • Somerville DA. A taxonomic scheme for aerobic diphtheroids from human skin. J Med Microbiol. 1973 May;6(2):215–224. [PubMed]
  • Songer JG, Beckenbach K, Marshall MM, Olson GB, Kelley L. Biochemical and genetic characterization of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Am J Vet Res. 1988 Feb;49(2):223–226. [PubMed]
  • Songer JG, Libby SJ, Iandolo JJ, Cuevas WA. Cloning and expression of the phospholipase D gene from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 1990 Jan;58(1):131–136. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Soriano F, Ponte C, Santamaria M, Aguado JM, Wilhelmi I, Vela R, Delatte LC. Corynebacterium group D2 as a cause of alkaline-encrusted cystitis: report of four cases and characterization of the organisms. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 May;21(5):788–792. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Soriano F, Ponte C, Santamaría M, Castilla C, Fernández Roblas R. In vitro and in vivo study of stone formation by Corynebacterium group D2 (Corynebacterium urealyticum). J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Apr;23(4):691–694. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Soriano F, Ponte C, Santamaría M, Fernández-Roblas R. Struvite crystal formation by Corynebacterium group D2 in human urine and its prevention by acetohydroxamic acid. Eur Urol. 1987;13(4):271–273. [PubMed]
  • Soriano F, Ponte C, Santamaría M, Torres A, Fernández-Roblas R. Susceptibility of urinary isolates of Corynebacterium group D2 to fifteen antimicrobials and acetohydroxamic acid. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987 Sep;20(3):349–355. [PubMed]
  • Soriano F, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Fernández-Roblas R, Aguado JM, Santamaría M. Skin colonization by Corynebacterium groups D2 and JK in hospitalized patients. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Sep;26(9):1878–1880. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Soucek A, Michalec C, Soucková A. Identification and characterization of a new enzyme of the group "phospholipase D" isolated from Corynebacterium ovis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971 Jan 13;227(1):116–128. [PubMed]
  • SOUCEK A, SOUCKOVA A, MARA M, PATOCKA F. Observations on the biological properties of atypical haemolytic Corynebacteria isolated from man as compared with Cor. haemolyticum, Cor. pyogenes bovis and Cor. ovis. II. In vitro investigations. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1962;6:13–23. [PubMed]
  • Soucková A, Soucek A. Inhibition of the hemolytic action of and lysins of Staphylococcus pyogenes by Corynebacterium hemolyticum, C. ovis and C. ulcerans. Toxicon. 1972 Aug;10(5):501–509. [PubMed]
  • Stackebrandt E, Fiedler F. DNA-DNA homology studies among strains of Arthrobacter and Brevibacterium. Arch Microbiol. 1979 Mar 12;120(3):289–295. [PubMed]
  • Takai S, Michizoe T, Matsumura K, Nagai M, Sato H, Tsubaki S. Correlation of in vitro properties of Rhodococcus (Corynebacterium) equi with virulence for mice. Microbiol Immunol. 1985;29(12):1175–1184. [PubMed]
  • Tarry DW, Carroll PJ. Summer mastitis: transmission by blood feeding flies. Vet Rec. 1988 Sep 10;123(11):304–304. [PubMed]
  • Telander B, Lerner R, Palmblad J, Ringertz O. Corynebacterium group JK in a hematological ward: infections, colonization and environmental contamination. Scand J Infect Dis. 1988;20(1):55–61. [PubMed]
  • Tendler C, Bottone EJ. Corynebacterium aquaticum urinary tract infection in a neonate, and concepts regarding the role of the organism as a neonatal pathogen. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Feb;27(2):343–345. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thompson JS, Gates-Davis DR, Yong DC. Rapid microbiochemical identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and other medically important corynebacteria. J Clin Microbiol. 1983 Oct;18(4):926–929. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tilgen W. Pitted keratolysis (keratolysis plantare sulcatum). Ultrastructural study. J Cutan Pathol. 1979 Feb;6(1):18–30. [PubMed]
  • Tillotson G, Arora M, Robbins M, Holton J. Identification of Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium CDC group D2 with the API 20 Strep system. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988 Oct;7(5):675–678. [PubMed]
  • Valenstein P, Klein A, Ballow C, Greene W. Corynebacterium xerosis septic arthritis. Am J Clin Pathol. 1988 Apr;89(4):569–571. [PubMed]
  • Valla D, Pariente EA, Degott C, Fabiani-Saloff B, Bernuau J, Rueff B, Benhamou JP. Right-sided endocarditis complicating peritoneovenous shunting for ascites. Arch Intern Med. 1983 Sep;143(9):1801–1802. [PubMed]
  • Van Bosterhaut B, Claeys G, Gigi J, Wauters G. Isolation of Corynebacterium group D2 from clinical specimens. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Aug;6(4):418–419. [PubMed]
  • Vanbosterhaut B, Surmont I, Vandeven J, Wauters G, Vandepitte J. Corynebacterium jeikeium (group JK diphtheroids) endocarditis. A report of five cases. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989 May-Jun;12(3):265–268. [PubMed]
  • Van Etta LL, Filice GA, Ferguson RM, Gerding DN. Corynebacterium equi: a review of 12 cases of human infection. Rev Infect Dis. 1983 Nov-Dec;5(6):1012–1018. [PubMed]
  • Venezio FR, Tatarowicz W, DiVincenzo CA, O'Keefe JP. Activity of ciprofloxacin against multiply resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and group JK corynebacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Dec;30(6):940–941. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Waters BL. Pathology of culture-proven JK Corynebacterium pneumonia. An autopsy case report. Am J Clin Pathol. 1989 May;91(5):616–619. [PubMed]
  • Wichmann S, Wirsing von Koenig CH, Becker-Boost E, Finger H. Isolation of Corynebacterium group JK from clinical specimens with a semiselective medium. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Feb;19(2):204–206. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wichmann S, Wirsing von Koenig CH, Becker-Boost E, Finger H. Group JK corynebacteria in skin flora of healthy persons and patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Oct;4(5):502–504. [PubMed]
  • Wickremesinghe RS. Corynebacterium haemolyticum infections in Sri Lanka. J Hyg (Lond) 1981 Oct;87(2):271–276. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wickremesinghe RS, Weeraratne WM. Corynebacterium haemolyticum. An uncommon cause of throat infection. Ceylon Med J. 1978 Jun-Sep;23(2-3):61–63. [PubMed]
  • Wirsing von König CH, Wichmann S, Finger H. Corynebakterien der JK-Gruppe als Krankheitserreger. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1982 Dec;253(3):370–376. [PubMed]
  • Woolcock JB, Mutimer MD. Corynebacterium equi: in vitro susceptibility to twenty-six antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Dec;18(6):976–977. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Worthington MG, Daly BD, Smith FE. Corynebacterium hemolyticum endocarditis on a native valve. South Med J. 1985 Oct;78(10):1261–1262. [PubMed]
  • Yanagawa R. A numerical taxonomic study of the strains of three types of Corynebacterium renale. Can J Microbiol. 1975 Jun;21(6):824–827. [PubMed]
  • Young VM, Meyers WF, Moody MR, Schimpff SC. The emergence of coryneform bacteria as a cause of nosocomial infections in compromised hosts. Am J Med. 1981 Mar;70(3):646–650. [PubMed]
  • Zaias N. Pitted and ringed keratolysis. A review and update. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1982 Dec;7(6):787–791. [PubMed]
  • ZAIAS N, TAPLIN D, REBELL G. PITTED KERATOLYSIS. Arch Dermatol. 1965 Aug;92:151–154. [PubMed]
  • Zink MC, Johnson JA, Prescot JF, Pascoe PJ. The interaction of Corynebacterium equi and equine alveolar macrophages in vitro. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 1982;32:491–496. [PubMed]
  • Zink MC, Yager JA, Prescott JF, Wilkie BN. In vitro phagocytosis and killing of Corynebacterium equi by alveolar macrophages of foals. Am J Vet Res. 1985 Oct;46(10):2171–2174. [PubMed]

Articles from Clinical Microbiology Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...