Logo of cmrPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalCMR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1990 Jan; 3(1): 46–65.
PMCID: PMC358140

The life and times of the Enterococcus.


Enterococci are important human pathogens that are increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. These organisms were previously considered part of the genus Streptococcus but have recently been reclassified into their own genus, called Enterococcus. To date, 12 species pathogenic for humans have been described, including the most common human isolates, Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. Enterococci cause between 5 and 15% of cases of endocarditis, which is best treated by the combination of a cell wall-active agent (such as penicillin or vancomycin, neither of which alone is usually bactericidal) and an aminoglycoside to which the organism is not highly resistant; this characteristically results in a synergistic bactericidal effect. High-level resistance (MIC, greater than or equal to 2,000 micrograms/ml) to the aminoglycoside eliminates the expected bactericidal effect, and such resistance has now been described for all aminoglycosides. Enterococci can also cause urinary tract infections; intraabdominal, pelvic, and wound infections; superinfections (particularly in patients receiving expanded-spectrum cephalosporins); and bacteremias (often together with other organisms). They are now the third most common organism seen in nosocomial infections. For most of these infections, single-drug therapy, most often with penicillin, ampicillin, or vancomycin, is adequate. Enterococci have a large number of both inherent and acquired resistance traits, including resistance to cephalosporins, clindamycin, tetracycline, and penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as oxacillin, among others. The most recent resistance traits reported are penicillinase resistance (apparently acquired from staphylococci) and vancomycin resistance, both of which can be transferred to other enterococci. It appears likely that we will soon be faced with increasing numbers of enterococci for which there is no adequate therapy.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (4.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Acar JF, Buu-Hoi AY. Resistance patterns of important gram-positive pathogens. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988 Apr;21 (Suppl 100):41–47. [PubMed]
  • Appelbaum PC, Chaurushiya PS, Jacobs MR, Duffett A. Evaluation of the rapid strep system for species identification of streptococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 May;19(5):588–591. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Appelbaum PC, Jacobs MR, Heald JI, Palko WM, Duffett A, Crist R, Naugle PA. Comparative evaluation of the API 20S system and the automicrobic system gram-positive identification card for species identification of streptococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Feb;19(2):164–168. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Appelbaum PC, Jacobs MR, Palko WM, Frauenhoffer EE, Duffett A. Accuracy and reproducibility of the IDS rapID STR system for species identification of streptococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 May;23(5):843–846. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Atkinson BA, Lorian V. Antimicrobial agent susceptibility patterns of bacteria in hospitals from 1971 to 1982. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Oct;20(4):791–796. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Auckenthaler R, Wilson WR, Wright AJ, Washington JA, 2nd, Durack DT, Geraci JE. Lack of in vivo and in vitro bactericidal activity of N-formimidoyl thienamycin against enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1982 Sep;22(3):448–452. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • BARNES EM. Tetrazolium reduction as a means of differentiating Streptococcus faecalis from Streptococcus faecium. J Gen Microbiol. 1956 Feb;14(1):57–68. [PubMed]
  • Barrall DT, Kenney PR, Slotman GJ, Burchard KW. Enterococcal bacteremia in surgical patients. Arch Surg. 1985 Jan;120(1):57–63. [PubMed]
  • Bartlett JG, Onderdonk AB, Louie T, Kasper DL, Gorbach SL. A review. Lessons from an animal model of intra-abdominal sepsis. Arch Surg. 1978 Jul;113(7):853–857. [PubMed]
  • Bayer AS, Seidel JS, Yoshikawa TT, Anthony BF, Guze LB. Group D enterococcal meningitis. Clinical and therapeutic considerations with report of three cases and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med. 1976 Aug;136(8):883–886. [PubMed]
  • Beargie R, Lynd P, Tucker E, Duhring J. Perinatal infection and vaginal flora. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975 May 1;122(1):31–33. [PubMed]
  • Beaty HN, Turck M, Petersdorf RG. Ampicillin in the treatment of enterococcal endocarditis. Ann Intern Med. 1966 Oct;65(4):701–707. [PubMed]
  • Benno Y, Suzuki K, Suzuki K, Narisawa K, Bruce WR, Mitsuoka T. Comparison of the fecal microflora in rural Japanese and urban Canadians. Microbiol Immunol. 1986;30(6):521–532. [PubMed]
  • Bergan T, Delin C, Johansen S, Kolstad IM, Nord CE, Thorsteinsson SB. Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin and effect of repeated dosage on salivary and fecal microflora. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Feb;29(2):298–302. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berk SL, Verghese A, Holtsclaw SA, Smith JK. Enterococcal pneumonia. Occurrence in patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens and enteral feeding. Am J Med. 1983 Jan;74(1):153–154. [PubMed]
  • Bosley GS, Facklam RR, Grossman D. Rapid identification of enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1983 Nov;18(5):1275–1277. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Braude AI. Current concepts of pyelonephritis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1973 Jul;52(4):257–264. [PubMed]
  • Brisson-Noël A, Arthur M, Courvalin P. Evidence for natural gene transfer from gram-positive cocci to Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1988 Apr;170(4):1739–1745. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Buchino JJ, Ciambarella E, Light I. Systemic group D streptococcal infection in newborn infants. Am J Dis Child. 1979 Mar;133(3):270–273. [PubMed]
  • Burdett V. Streptococcal tetracycline resistance mediated at the level of protein synthesis. J Bacteriol. 1986 Feb;165(2):564–569. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Burdett V, Inamine J, Rajagopalan S. Heterogeneity of tetracycline resistance determinants in Streptococcus. J Bacteriol. 1982 Mar;149(3):995–1004. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bush LM, Boscia JA, Kaye D. Daptomycin (LY146032) treatment of experimental enterococcal endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 Jun;32(6):877–881. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bush LM, Calmon J, Cherney CL, Wendeler M, Pitsakis P, Poupard J, Levison ME, Johnson CC. High-level penicillin resistance among isolates of enterococci. Implications for treatment of enterococcal infections. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Apr 1;110(7):515–520. [PubMed]
  • Calderwood SB, Wennersten C, Moellering RC., Jr Resistance to antibiotic synergism in Streptococcus faecalis: further studies with amikacin and with a new amikacin derivative, 4'-deoxy, 6'-N-methylamikacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1981 Apr;19(4):549–555. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Calderwood SA, Wennersten C, Moellering RC, Jr, Kunz LJ, Krogstad DJ. Resistance to six aminoglycosidic aminocyclitol antibiotics among enterococci: prevalence, evolution, and relationship to synergism with penicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1977 Sep;12(3):401–405. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Campbell J, McGowan DA, MacFarlane TW. The prevalence of enterococci in the dental plaque of chronic hospital patients. Br J Oral Surg. 1983 Sep;21(3):171–174. [PubMed]
  • Caprioli T, Zaccour F, Kasatiya SS. Phage typing scheme for group D streptococci isolated from human urogenital tract. J Clin Microbiol. 1975 Oct;2(4):311–317. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Carrizosa J, Kaye D. Antibiotic synergism in enterococcal endocarditis. J Lab Clin Med. 1976 Jul;88(1):132–141. [PubMed]
  • Carrizosa J, Levison ME. Minimal concentrations of aminoglycoside that can synergize with penicillin in enterococcal endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1981 Sep;20(3):405–409. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chandrasekar PH, Smith BR, LeFrock JL, Carr B. Enterococcal superinfection and colonization with aztreonam therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984 Aug;26(2):280–282. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chen HY, Williams JD. Transferable resistance and aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in enterococci. J Med Microbiol. 1985 Oct;20(2):187–196. [PubMed]
  • Clewell DB. Plasmids, drug resistance, and gene transfer in the genus Streptococcus. Microbiol Rev. 1981 Sep;45(3):409–436. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Clewell DB, Gawron-Burke C. Conjugative transposons and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in streptococci. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1986;40:635–659. [PubMed]
  • Combes T, Carlier C, Courvalin P. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme content of a multiply resistant strain of Streptococcus faecalis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1983 Jan;11(1):41–47. [PubMed]
  • Conn JH, Hardy JD, Chavez CM, Fain WR. Infected arterial grafts: experince in 22 cases with empsis on unusual bactia and technics. Ann Surg. 1970 May;171(5):704–714. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coudron PE, Mayhall CG, Facklam RR, Spadora AC, Lamb VA, Lybrand MR, Dalton HP. Streptococcus faecium outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Dec;20(6):1044–1048. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Crider SR, Colby SD. Susceptibility of enterococci to trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Jan;27(1):71–75. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Curry N, McCallum RW, Guth PH. Spontaneous peritonitis in cirrhotic ascites. A decade of experience. Am J Dig Dis. 1974 Aug;19(8):685–692. [PubMed]
  • DEIBEL RH. THE GROUP D STREPTOCOCCI. Bacteriol Rev. 1964 Sep;28:330–366. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lleó MM, Canepari P, Cornaglia G, Fontana R, Satta G. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of beta-lactams against Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecium are associated with saturation of different penicillin-binding proteins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Oct;31(10):1618–1626. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dougherty SH. Role of enterococcus in intraabdominal sepsis. Am J Surg. 1984 Sep;148(3):308–312. [PubMed]
  • Dougherty SH, Flohr AB, Simmons RL. 'Breakthrough' enterococcal septicemia in surgical patients. 19 cases and a review of the literature. Arch Surg. 1983 Feb;118(2):232–238. [PubMed]
  • Edelstein H, McCabe RE. Perinephric abscess. Modern diagnosis and treatment in 47 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 1988 Mar;67(2):118–131. [PubMed]
  • Edlund C, Lidbeck A, Kager L, Nord CE. Comparative effects of enoxacin and norfloxacin on human colonic microflora. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Nov;31(11):1846–1848. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • EIGLER JO, WELLMAN WE, ROOKE ED, KEITH HM, SVIEN HJ. Bacterial meningits. I. General review (294 cases). Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin. 1961 Jul 19;36:357–365. [PubMed]
  • Eliopoulos GM, Farber BF, Murray BE, Wennersten C, Moellering RC., Jr Ribosomal resistance of clinical enterococcal to streptomycin isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984 Mar;25(3):398–399. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eliopoulos GM, Wennersten C, Zighelboim-Daum S, Reiszner E, Goldmann D, Moellering RC., Jr High-level resistance to gentamicin in clinical isolates of Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 Oct;32(10):1528–1532. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Enzensberger R, Shah PM, Knothe H. Impact of oral ciprofloxacin on the faecal flora of healthy volunteers. Infection. 1985 Nov-Dec;13(6):273–275. [PubMed]
  • Etheridge ME, Yolken RH, Vonderfecht SL. Enterococcus hirae implicated as a cause of diarrhea in suckling rats. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Sep;26(9):1741–1744. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Evans AC, Chinn AL. The Enterococci: With Special Reference to Their Association with Human Disease. J Bacteriol. 1947 Oct;54(4):495–512. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam RR. Recognition of group D streptococcal species of human origin by biochemical and physiological tests. Appl Microbiol. 1972 Jun;23(6):1131–1139. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam R, Bosley GS, Rhoden D, Franklin AR, Weaver N, Schulman R. Comparative evaluation of the API 20S and AutoMicrobic gram-positive identification systems for non-beta-hemolytic streptococci and aerococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Apr;21(4):535–541. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam RR, Collins MD. Identification of Enterococcus species isolated from human infections by a conventional test scheme. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Apr;27(4):731–734. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam R, Hollis D, Collins MD. Identification of gram-positive coccal and coccobacillary vancomycin-resistant bacteria. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Apr;27(4):724–730. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam RR, Rhoden DL, Smith PB. Evaluation of the Rapid Strep system for the identification of clinical isolates of Streptococcus species. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Nov;20(5):894–898. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Farrow JA, Jones D, Phillips BA, Collins MD. Taxonomic studies on some group D streptococci. J Gen Microbiol. 1983 May;129(5):1423–1432. [PubMed]
  • Fass RJ, Wright CA. Comparative efficacies of mezlocillin and ampicillin alone or in combination with gentamicin in the treatment of Streptococcus faecalis endocarditis in rabbits. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984 Apr;25(4):408–410. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Feeley TW, Du Moulin GC, Hedley-Whyte J, Bushnell LS, Gilbert JP, Feingold DS. Aerosol polymyxin and pneumonia in seriously ill patients. N Engl J Med. 1975 Sep 4;293(10):471–475. [PubMed]
  • Fernandez-Guerrero M, Rouse MS, Henry NK, Geraci JE, Wilson WR. In vitro and in vivo activity of ciprofloxacin against enterococci isolated from patients with infective endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Mar;31(3):430–433. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fernández-Guerrero ML, Barros C, Rodriguez Tudela JL, Fernández Roblas R, Soriano F. Aortic endocarditis caused by gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988 Aug;7(4):525–527. [PubMed]
  • Ferretti JJ, Gilmore KS, Courvalin P. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene specifying the bifunctional 6'-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase 2"-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase enzyme in Streptococcus faecalis and identification and cloning of gene regions specifying the two activities. J Bacteriol. 1986 Aug;167(2):631–638. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fertally SS, Facklam R. Comparison of physiologic tests used to identify non-beta-hemolytic aerococci, enterococci, and streptococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct;25(10):1845–1850. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Friedberg CK, Rosen KM, Bienstock PA. Vancomycin therapy for enterococcal and Streptococcus viridans endocarditis. Successful treatment of six patients. Arch Intern Med. 1968 Aug;122(2):134–140. [PubMed]
  • Garrison RN, Fry DE, Berberich S, Polk HC., Jr Enterococcal bacteremia: clinical implications and determinants of death. Ann Surg. 1982 Jul;196(1):43–47. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Garvey GJ, Neu HC. Infective endocarditis--an evolving disease. A review of endocarditis at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, 1968-1973. Medicine (Baltimore) 1978 Mar;57(2):105–127. [PubMed]
  • GERACI JE, MARTIN WJ. Antibiotic therapy of bacterial endocarditis. VI. Subacute enterococcal endocarditis; clinical, pathologic and therapeutic consideration of 33 cases. Circulation. 1954 Aug;10(2):173–194. [PubMed]
  • Gibbs RS, Listwa HM, Dreskin RB. A pure enterococcal abscess after cesarean section. J Reprod Med. 1977 Jul;19(1):17–20. [PubMed]
  • Glew RH, Moellering RC., Jr Effect of protein binding on the activity of penicillins in combination with gentamicin against enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1979 Jan;15(1):87–92. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goodhart GL. In vivo v in vitro susceptibility of enterococcus to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. A pitfall. JAMA. 1984 Nov 16;252(19):2748–2749. [PubMed]
  • Gordon LP, Damm MA, Anderson JD. Rapid presumptive identification of streptococci directly from blood cultures by serologic tests and the L-pyrrolidonyl-beta-naphthylamide reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Feb;25(2):238–241. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gorensek MJ, Lebel MH, Nelson JD. Peritonitis in children with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatrics. 1988 Jun;81(6):849–856. [PubMed]
  • GRAUDAL H. The classification of motile Streptococci within the Enterococcus group. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. 1957;41(5):403–410. [PubMed]
  • Gross PA, Harkavy LM, Barden GE, Flower MF. The epidemiology of nosocomial enterococcal urinary tract infection. Am J Med Sci. 1976 Jul-Aug;272(1):75–81. [PubMed]
  • Gullberg RM, Homann SR, Phair JP. Enterococcal bacteremia: analysis of 75 episodes. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(1):74–85. [PubMed]
  • Gutschik E. Experimental endocarditis in rabbits. 6. Results of long-term combined therapy of Streptococcus faecalis endocarditis with penicillin and streptomycin. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B. 1982 Feb;90(1):37–47. [PubMed]
  • Hamilton-Miller JM. Reversal of activity of trimethoprim against gram-positive cocci by thymidine, thymine and 'folates'. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988 Jul;22(1):35–39. [PubMed]
  • Harding GK, Ronald AR. A controlled study of antimicrobial prophylaxis of recurrent urinary infection in women. N Engl J Med. 1974 Sep 19;291(12):597–601. [PubMed]
  • Hemsell DL, Wendel GD, Gall SA, Newton ER, Gibbs RS, Knuppel RA, Lane TW, Sweet RL. Multicenter comparison of cefotetan and cefoxitin in the treatment of acute obstetric and gynecologic infections. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Mar;158(3 Pt 2):722–727. [PubMed]
  • Henry NK, Wilson WR, Geraci JE. Treatment of streptomycin-susceptible enterococcal experimental endocarditis with combinations of penicillin and low- or high-dose streptomycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Nov;30(5):725–728. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Herzstein J, Ryan JL, Mangi RJ, Greco TP, Andriole VT. Optimal therapy for enterococcal endocarditis. Am J Med. 1984 Feb;76(2):186–191. [PubMed]
  • Hindes RG, Willey SH, Eliopoulos GM, Rice LB, Eliopoulos CT, Murray BE, Moellering RC., Jr Treatment of experimental endocarditis caused by a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Enterococcus faecalis with high-level resistance to gentamicin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Jul;33(7):1019–1022. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hoffmann SA, Moellering RC., Jr The enterococcus: "putting the bug in our ears". Ann Intern Med. 1987 May;106(5):757–761. [PubMed]
  • Hook EW, 3rd, Roberts RB, Sande MA. Antimicrobial therapy of experimental enterococcal endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1975 Nov;8(5):564–570. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Horodniceanu T, Bougueleret L, El-Solh N, Bieth G, Delbos F. High-level, plasmid-borne resistance to gentamicin in Streptococcus faecalis subsp. zymogenes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1979 Nov;16(5):686–689. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • HUGH R. Motile streptococci isolated from the oropharyngeal region. Can J Microbiol. 1959 Aug;5:351–354. [PubMed]
  • Ike Y, Hashimoto H, Clewell DB. High incidence of hemolysin production by Enterococcus (Streptococcus) faecalis strains associated with human parenteral infections. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Aug;25(8):1524–1528. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ikeda DP, Barry AL, Andersen SG. Emergence of Streptococcus faecalis isolates with high-level resistance to multiple aminocyclitol aminoglycosides. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1984 Jun;2(3):171–177. [PubMed]
  • Ingerman M, Pitsakis PG, Rosenberg A, Hessen MT, Abrutyn E, Murray BE, Levison ME. beta-Lactamase production in experimental endocarditis due to aminoglycoside-resistant Streptococcus faecalis. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jun;155(6):1226–1232. [PubMed]
  • Jorgensen JH, Crawford SA, Alexander GA. Rapid identification of group D streptococci with the API 20S system. J Clin Microbiol. 1983 Jun;17(6):1096–1098. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaplan AH, Gilligan PH, Facklam RR. Recovery of resistant enterococci during vancomycin prophylaxis. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Jun;26(6):1216–1218. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Karchmer AW, Moellering RC, Jr, Watson BK. Susceptibility of various serogroups of streptococci to clindamycin and lincomycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1975 Feb;7(2):164–167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kékessy DA, Piguet JD. Bactériocinogénie et typisation de Streptococcus faecalis. Pathol Microbiol (Basel) 1971;37(2):113–121. [PubMed]
  • KOENIG MG, KAYE D. Enterococcal endocarditis. Report of nineteen cases with long-term follow-up data. N Engl J Med. 1961 Feb 9;264:257–264. [PubMed]
  • Krogstad DJ, Korfhagen TR, Moellering RC, Jr, Wennersten C, Swartz MN. Aminoglycoside-inactivating enzymes in clinical isolates of Streptococcus faecalis. An explanation for resistance to antibiotic synergism. J Clin Invest. 1978 Aug;62(2):480–486. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krogstad DJ, Pargwette AR. Defective killing of enterococci: a common property of antimicrobial agents acting on the cell wall. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Jun;17(6):965–968. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kühnen E, Richter F, Richter K, Andries L. Establishment of a typing system for group D streptococci. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1988 Jan;267(3):322–330. [PubMed]
  • Kühnen E, Rommelsheim K, Andries L. Combined use of phage typing, enterococcinotyping and species differentiation of group D streptococci as an effective epidemiological tool. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987 Oct;266(3-4):586–595. [PubMed]
  • Kurrle E, Bhaduri S, Krieger D, Gaus W, Heimpel H, Pflieger H, Arnold R, Vanek E. Risk factors for infections of the oropharynx and the respiratory tract in patients with acute leukemia. J Infect Dis. 1981 Aug;144(2):128–136. [PubMed]
  • LANGSTON CW, GUTIERREZ J, BOUMA C. Motile enterococci (Streptococcus faecium var. mobilis var. n.) isolated from grass silage. J Bacteriol. 1960 Nov;80:714–718. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LeBlanc DJ, Lee LN, Titmas BM, Smith CJ, Tenover FC. Nucleotide sequence analysis of tetracycline resistance gene tetO from Streptococcus mutans DL5. J Bacteriol. 1988 Aug;170(8):3618–3626. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LeBlanc DJ, Inamine JM, Lee LN. Broad geographical distribution of homologous erythromycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin resistance determinants among group D streptococci of human and animal origin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Apr;29(4):549–555. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leclercq R, Derlot E, Duval J, Courvalin P. Plasmid-mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium. N Engl J Med. 1988 Jul 21;319(3):157–161. [PubMed]
  • Leclercq R, Derlot E, Weber M, Duval J, Courvalin P. Transferable vancomycin and teicoplanin resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Jan;33(1):10–15. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ledger WJ, Norman M, Gee C, Lewis W. Bacteremia on an obstetric-gynecologic service. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975 Jan 15;121(2):205–212. [PubMed]
  • Leigh DA. Peritoneal infections in patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis before and after human cadaveric renal transplantation. J Clin Pathol. 1969 Sep;22(5):539–544. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lemoine L, Hunter PR. Enterococcal urinary tract infections in a teaching hospital. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct;6(5):574–575. [PubMed]
  • LOEWE L, CANDEL S, EIBER HB. Therapy of subacute enterococcus (Streptococcus fecalis) endocarditis. Ann Intern Med. 1951 Mar;34(3):717–736. [PubMed]
  • Luginbuhl LM, Rotbart HA, Facklam RR, Roe MH, Elliot JA. Neonatal enterococcal sepsis: case-control study and description of an outbreak. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987 Nov;6(11):1022–1026. [PubMed]
  • Lütticken R, Kunstmann G. Vancomycin-resistant Streptococcaceae from clinical material. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1988 Jan;267(3):379–382. [PubMed]
  • MACAULAY D. Acute endocarditis in infancy and early childhood. AMA Am J Dis Child. 1954 Dec;88(6):715–731. [PubMed]
  • Maki DG, Agger WA. Enterococcal bacteremia: clinical features, the risk of endocarditis, and management. Medicine (Baltimore) 1988 Jul;67(4):248–269. [PubMed]
  • Malone DA, Wagner RA, Myers JP, Watanakunakorn C. Enterococcal bacteremia in two large community teaching hospitals. Am J Med. 1986 Oct;81(4):601–606. [PubMed]
  • Mandell GL, Kaye D, Levison ME, Hook EW. Enterococcal endocarditis. An analysis of 38 patients observed at the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. Arch Intern Med. 1970 Feb;125(2):258–264. [PubMed]
  • Matsumoto JY, Wilson WR, Wright AJ, Geraci JE, Washington JA., 2nd Synergy of penicillin and decreasing concentration of aminoglycosides against enterococci from patients with infective endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Dec;18(6):944–947. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McMurry LM, Park BH, Burdett V, Levy SB. Energy-dependent efflux mediated by class L (tetL) tetracycline resistance determinant from streptococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Oct;31(10):1648–1650. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mead GC. Streptococci in the intestinal flora of man and other non-ruminant animals. Soc Appl Bacteriol Symp Ser. 1978;7:245–261. [PubMed]
  • Mederski-Samoraj BD, Murray BE. High-level resistance to gentamicin in clinical isolates of enterococci. J Infect Dis. 1983 Apr;147(4):751–757. [PubMed]
  • Moellering RC, Jr, Korzeniowski OM, Sande MA, Wennersten CB. Species-specific resistance to antimocrobial synergism in Streptococcus faecium and Streptococcus faecalis. J Infect Dis. 1979 Aug;140(2):203–208. [PubMed]
  • Moellering RC, Jr, Murray BE, Schoenbaum SC, Adler J, Wennersten CB. A novel mechanism of resistance to penicillin-gentamicin synergism in Streptococcus faecalis. J Infect Dis. 1980 Jan;141(1):81–86. [PubMed]
  • Moellering RC, Jr, Watson BK, Kunz LJ. Endocarditis due to group D streptococci. Comparison of disease caused by streptococcus bovis with that produced by the enterococci. Am J Med. 1974 Aug;57(2):239–250. [PubMed]
  • Moellering RC, Jr, Weinberg AN. Studies on antibiotic syngerism against enterococci. II. Effect of various antibiotics on the uptake of 14 C-labeled streptomycin by enterococci. J Clin Invest. 1971 Dec;50(12):2580–2584. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moellering RC, Jr, Wennersten C, Weinstein AJ. Penicillin-tobramycin synergism against enterococci: a comparison with penicillin and gentamicin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1973 Apr;3(4):526–529. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morrison AJ, Jr, Wenzel RP. Nosocomial urinary tract infections due to enterococcus. Ten years' experience at a university hospital. Arch Intern Med. 1986 Aug;146(8):1549–1551. [PubMed]
  • Mundt JO, Graham WF. Streptococcus faecium var. casselifavus, nov. var. J Bacteriol. 1968 Jun;95(6):2005–2009. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murray BE, An FY, Clewell DB. Plasmids and pheromone response of the beta-lactamase producer Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecalis HH22. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 Apr;32(4):547–551. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murray BE, Church DA, Wanger A, Zscheck K, Levison ME, Ingerman MJ, Abrutyn E, Mederski-Samoraj B. Comparison of two beta-lactamase-producing strains of Streptococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Dec;30(6):861–864. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murray BE, Mederski-Samaroj B. Transferable beta-lactamase. A new mechanism for in vitro penicillin resistance in Streptococcus faecalis. J Clin Invest. 1983 Sep;72(3):1168–1171. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murray BE, Mederski-Samoraj B, Foster SK, Brunton JL, Harford P. In vitro studies of plasmid-mediated penicillinase from Streptococcus faecalis suggest a staphylococcal origin. J Clin Invest. 1986 Jan;77(1):289–293. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murray BE, Tsao J, Panida J. Enterococci from Bangkok, Thailand, with high-level resistance to currently available aminoglycosides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1983 Jun;23(6):799–802. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nachamkin I, Axelrod P, Talbot GH, Fischer SH, Wennersten CB, Moellering RC, Jr, MacGregor RR. Multiply high-level-aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci isolated from patients in a university hospital. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Jul;26(7):1287–1291. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Najjar A, Murray BE. Failure to demonstrate a consistent in vitro bactericidal effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 May;31(5):808–810. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nicas TI, Wu CY, Hobbs JN, Jr, Preston DA, Allen NE. Characterization of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Jul;33(7):1121–1124. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Noble CJ. Carriage of group D streptococci in the human bowel. J Clin Pathol. 1978 Dec;31(12):1182–1186. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nowlan SS, Deibel RH. Group Q streptococci. I. Ecology, serology, physiology, and relationship to established enterococci. J Bacteriol. 1967 Aug;94(2):291–296. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Odendaal H, de Kock M. Acute salpingitis in pregnancy. S Afr Med J. 1973 Jan 6;47(1):21–22. [PubMed]
  • Patterson JE, Colodny SM, Zervos MJ. Serious infection due to beta-lactamase-producing Streptococcus faecalis with high-level resistance to gentamicin. J Infect Dis. 1988 Nov;158(5):1144–1145. [PubMed]
  • Patterson JE, Masecar BL, Zervos MJ. Characterization and comparison of two penicillinase-producing strains of Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 Jan;32(1):122–124. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pérez JL, Riera L, Valls F, Berrocal CI, Berrocal L. A comparison of the in-vitro activity of seventeen antibiotics against Streptococcus faecalis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987 Sep;20(3):357–362. [PubMed]
  • Pleceas P, Bogdan C, Vereanu A. Enterocine-typing of group D streptococci. Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A. 1972 Jul;221(2):173–181. [PubMed]
  • Poindexter AN, 3rd, Sweet R, Ritter M. Cefotetan in the treatment of obstetric and gynecologic infections. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986 Apr;154(4):946–950. [PubMed]
  • Qadri SM, Flournoy DJ, Qadri SG. Sodium chloride-esculin hydrolysis test for rapid identification of enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Jun;25(6):1107–1108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reiner NE, Gopalakrishna KV, Lerner PI. Enterococcal endocarditis in heroin addicts. JAMA. 1976 Apr 26;235(17):1861–1863. [PubMed]
  • Rice LB, Eliopoulos GM, Moellering RC., Jr In vitro synergism between daptomycin and fosfomycin against Enterococcus faecalis isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Apr;33(4):470–473. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rigilano J, Mahapatra R, Barnhill J, Gutierrez J. Enterococcal endocarditis following sigmoidoscopy and mitral valve prolapse. Arch Intern Med. 1984 Apr;144(4):850–851. [PubMed]
  • ROBBINS WC, TOMPSETT R. Treatment of enterococcal endocarditis and bacteremia; results of combined therapy with penicillin and streptomycin. Am J Med. 1951 Mar;10(3):278–299. [PubMed]
  • Romero-Vivas J, Rodríguez-Créixems M, Bouza E, Hellín T, Guerrero A, Martínez-Beltrán J, García de la Torre M. Evaluation of aztreonam in the treatment of severe bacterial infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Aug;28(2):222–226. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rosenthal SL, Freundlich LF. An aminoglycoside disk sensitivity test for use with enterococci. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1982 Nov;10(5):459–462. [PubMed]
  • Ryan JL, Pachner A, Andriole VT, Root RK. Enterococcal meningitis: combined vancomycin and rifampin therapy. Am J Med. 1980 Mar;68(3):449–451. [PubMed]
  • Sahm DF, Baker CN, Jones RN, Thornsberry C. Influence of growth medium on the in vitro activities of second- and third-generation cephalosporins against Streptococcus faecalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Sep;20(3):561–567. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sahm DF, Kissinger J, Gilmore MS, Murray PR, Mulder R, Solliday J, Clarke B. In vitro susceptibility studies of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Sep;33(9):1588–1591. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sahm DF, Torres C. High-content aminoglycoside disks for determining aminoglycoside-penicillin synergy against Enterococcus faecalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Feb;26(2):257–260. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sahm DF, Torres C. Effects of medium and inoculum variations on screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Feb;26(2):250–256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sande MA, Scheld WM. Combination antibiotic therapy of bacterial endocarditis. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Mar;92(3):390–395. [PubMed]
  • Schaberg DR, Zervos MJ. Intergeneric and interspecies gene exchange in gram-positive cocci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Dec;30(6):817–822. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Scheld WM, Keeley JM. Imipenem therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis endocarditis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1983 Dec;12 (Suppl 500):65–78. [PubMed]
  • Scheld WM, Mandell GL. Enigmatic enterococcal endocarditis. Ann Intern Med. 1984 Jun;100(6):904–905. [PubMed]
  • Schoenbaum SC, Gardner P, Shillito J. Infections of cerebrospinal fluid shunts: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy. J Infect Dis. 1975 May;131(5):543–552. [PubMed]
  • Senghas E, Jones JM, Yamamoto M, Gawron-Burke C, Clewell DB. Genetic organization of the bacterial conjugative transposon Tn916. J Bacteriol. 1988 Jan;170(1):245–249. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rao DS, Parfitt AM, Villanueva AR, Dorman PJ, Kleerekoper M. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and adult Fanconi syndrome due to light-chain nephropathy. Another form of oncogenous osteomalacia. Am J Med. 1987 Feb;82(2):333–338. [PubMed]
  • Sherman JM. THE STREPTOCOCCI. Bacteriol Rev. 1937 Dec;1(1):3–97. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shlaes DM, Bouvet A, Devine C, Shlaes JH, al-Obeid S, Williamson R. Inducible, transferable resistance to vancomycin in Enterococcus faecalis A256. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Feb;33(2):198–203. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shlaes DM, Levy J, Wolinsky E. Enterococcal bacteremia without endocarditis. Arch Intern Med. 1981 Apr;141(5):578–581. [PubMed]
  • Siegel JD, McCracken GH., Jr Group D streptococcal infections. J Pediatr. 1978 Sep;93(3):542–543. [PubMed]
  • Smith SM, Eng RH. Interaction of ciprofloxacin with ampicillin and vancomycin for Streptococcus faecalis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988 Apr;9(4):239–243. [PubMed]
  • Smyth CJ, Halpenny MK, Ballagh SJ. Carriage rates of enterococci in the dental plaque of haemodialysis patients in Dublin. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1987 Feb;25(1):21–33. [PubMed]
  • Spiegel CA. Laboratory detection of high-level aminoglycoside-aminocyclitol resistance in Enterococcus spp. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Nov;26(11):2270–2274. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Standiford HD, De Maine JB, Kirby WM. Antibiotic synergism of enterococci. Relation to inhibitory concentrations. Arch Intern Med. 1970 Aug;126(2):255–259. [PubMed]
  • Sullam PM, Täuber MG, Hackbarth CJ, Sande MA. Antimicrobial activity of gentamicin in experimental enterococcal endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Feb;27(2):224–226. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Swenson JM, Hill BC, Thornsberry C. Problems with the disk diffusion test for detection of vancomycin resistance in enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Sep;27(9):2140–2142. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Teixeira OH, Carpenter B, Vlad P. Enterococcal endocarditis in early infancy. Can Med Assoc J. 1982 Oct 1;127(7):612–613. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thadepalli H, Mandal AK, Rambhatla K, Bach VT. Is penicillin alone effective in enterococcal endocarditis? An experimental study in rabbits. Chemotherapy. 1981;27(5):340–349. [PubMed]
  • Thauvin C, Eliopoulos GM, Willey S, Wennersten C, Moellering RC., Jr Continuous-infusion ampicillin therapy of enterococcal endocarditis in rats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Feb;31(2):139–143. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thomas CT, Berk SL, Thomas E. Enterococcal liver abscess associated with moxalactam therapy. Review of literature on enterococcal superinfections in association with moxalactam therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1983 Sep;143(9):1780–1781. [PubMed]
  • Tight RR. Ampicillin therapy of experimental enterococcal endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Aug;18(2):307–310. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Toala P, McDonald A, Wilcox C, Finland M. Susceptibility of group D streptococcus (enterococcus) to 21 antibiotics in vitro, with special reference to species differences. Am J Med Sci. 1969 Dec;258(6):416–430. [PubMed]
  • Tofte RW, Solliday JA, Crossley KB. Susceptibilities of enterococci to twelve antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984 Apr;25(4):532–533. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tomich PK, An FY, Clewell DB. A transposon (Tn917) in Streptococcus faecalis that exhibits enhanced transposition during induction of drug resistance. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1979;43(Pt 2):1217–1221. [PubMed]
  • Tzannetis S, Leonardopoulos J, Papavassiliou J. Enterocinogeny and lysogeny in enterococci. J Appl Bacteriol. 1970 Jun;33(2):358–362. [PubMed]
  • Uttley AH, Collins CH, Naidoo J, George RC. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet. 1988 Jan 2;1(8575-6):57–58. [PubMed]
  • von Graevenitz A. Pathogenicity of enterococci outside of urinary tract and blood stream. Klin Wochenschr. 1982 Jul 15;60(14):696–698. [PubMed]
  • Warren JW, Tenney JH, Hoopes JM, Muncie HL, Anthony WC. A prospective microbiologic study of bacteriuria in patients with chronic indwelling urethral catheters. J Infect Dis. 1982 Dec;146(6):719–723. [PubMed]
  • Warren RE. Difficult streptococci. J Hosp Infect. 1988 Feb;11 (Suppl A):352–357. [PubMed]
  • Watanakunakorn C, Bakie C. Synergism of vancomycin-gentamicin and vancomycin-streptomycin against enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1973 Aug;4(2):120–124. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weinstein AJ, Moellering RC., Jr Studies of cephalothin: aminoglycoside synergism against enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1975 May;7(5):522–529. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weinstein MP, Iannini PB, Stratton CW, Eickhoff TC. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. A review of 28 cases with emphasis on improved survival and factors influencing prognosis. Am J Med. 1978 Apr;64(4):592–598. [PubMed]
  • Weinstein WM, Onderdonk AB, Bartlett JG, Louie TJ, Gorbach SL. Antimicrobial therapy of experimental intraabdominal sepsis. J Infect Dis. 1975 Sep;132(3):282–286. [PubMed]
  • Wells LD, von Graevenitz A. Clinical significance of enterococci in blood cultures from adult patients. Infection. 1980;8(4):147–151. [PubMed]
  • Wellstood SA. Rapid, cost-effective identification of group A streptococci and enterococci by pyrrolidonyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Sep;25(9):1805–1806. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Willey SH, Hindes RG, Eliopoulos GM, Moellering RC., Jr Effects of clindamycin and gentamicin and other antimicrobial combinations against enterococci in an experimental model of intra-abdominal abscess. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1989 Sep;169(3):199–202. [PubMed]
  • Williamson R, Al-Obeid S, Shlaes JH, Goldstein FW, Shlaes DM. Inducible resistance to vancomycin in Enterococcus faecium D366. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jun;159(6):1095–1104. [PubMed]
  • Williamson R, le Bouguénec C, Gutmann L, Horaud T. One or two low affinity penicillin-binding proteins may be responsible for the range of susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium to benzylpenicillin. J Gen Microbiol. 1985 Aug;131(8):1933–1940. [PubMed]
  • Wilson SE, Boswick JA, Jr, Duma RJ, Echols RM, Jemsek JG, Lerner R, Lewis RT, Najem AZ, Press RA, Rittenbury MS, et al. Cephalosporin therapy in intraabdominal infections. A multicenter randomized, comparative study of cefotetan, moxalactam, and cefoxitin. Am J Surg. 1988 May 31;155(5A):61–66. [PubMed]
  • Wilson WR, Wilkowske CJ, Wright AJ, Sande MA, Geraci JE. Treatment of streptomycin-susceptible and streptomycin-resistant enterococcal endocarditis. Ann Intern Med. 1984 Jun;100(6):816–823. [PubMed]
  • Wright AJ, Wilson WR, Matsumoto JY, Washington JA, 2nd, Geraci JE. Influence of gentamicin dose size on the efficacies of combinations of gentamicin and penicillin in experimental streptomycin-resistant enterococcal endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1982 Dec;22(6):972–975. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yagi Y, Clewell DB. Plasmid-determined tetracycline resistance in Streptococcus faecalis: tandemly repeated resistance determinants in amplified forms of pAMalpha1 DNA. J Mol Biol. 1976 Apr 15;102(3):583–600. [PubMed]
  • You MS, Facklam RR. New test system for identification of Aerococcus, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus species. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Oct;24(4):607–611. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yu VL. Enterococcal superinfection and colonization after therapy with moxalactam, a new broad-spectrum antibiotic. Ann Intern Med. 1981 Jun;94(6):784–785. [PubMed]
  • Zervos MJ, Bacon AE, 3rd, Patterson JE, Schaberg DR, Kauffman CA. Enterococcal superinfection in patients treated with ciprofloxacin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988 Jan;21(1):113–115. [PubMed]
  • Zervos MJ, Kauffman CA, Therasse PM, Bergman AG, Mikesell TS, Schaberg DR. Nosocomial infection by gentamicin-resistant Streptococcus faecalis. An epidemiologic study. Ann Intern Med. 1987 May;106(5):687–691. [PubMed]
  • Zervos MJ, Mikesell TS, Schaberg DR. Heterogeneity of plasmids determining high-level resistance to gentamicin in clinical isolates of Streptococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Jul;30(1):78–81. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zervos MJ, Patterson JE, Edberg S, Pierson C, Kauffman CA, Mikesell TS, Schaberg DR. Single-concentration broth microdilution test for detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Dec;25(12):2443–2444. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zervos MJ, Schaberg DR. Reversal of the in vitro susceptibility of enterococci to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by folinic acid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Sep;28(3):446–448. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zimmermann RA, Moellering RC, Jr, Weinberg AN. Mechanism of resistance to antibiotic synergism in enterococci. J Bacteriol. 1971 Mar;105(3):873–879. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zscheck KK, Hull R, Murray BE. Restriction mapping and hybridization studies of a beta-lactamase-encoding fragment from Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 May;32(5):768–769. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Clinical Microbiology Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...