• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 1982; 79(16): 4853–4857.
PMCID: PMC346783

Isolation and structure of the gene for the progesterone-inducible protein uteroglobin.


Uteroglobin is a small steroid-binding protein that is differentially regulated by steroid hormones in several tissues of the rabbit. In endometrium, the levels of uteroglobin mRNA increase after progesterone administration due to an enhanced rate of transcription of the uteroglobin gene. As a prerequisite for understanding the molecular mechanisms that modulate uteroglobin gene expression, we have isolated and characterized the uteroglobin gene. We first synthesized, cloned, and sequenced a uteroglobin cDNA that was used to screen a rabbit gene library and to show that the uteroglobin gene is not reiterated in the rabbit genome. We obtained three recombinant phages containing uteroglobin gene sequences and covering 35 kilobases of the rabbit genome. The uteroglobin gene is 3 kilobases long and is composed of three short exons separated by a long and a short intron. The complete coding sequence, the short intron, part of the large intron, and the flanking sequences have been subjected to sequence analysis. The salient features of the nucleotide sequence, including the absence of a canonical "T-A-T-A box," are discussed. A possible relationship is considered between the exon-intron structure of the gene and the known structure and function of uteroglobin.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Müller H, Beato M. RNA synthesis in rabbit endometrial nuclei. Hormonal regulation of transcription of the uteroglobin gene. Eur J Biochem. 1980 Nov;112(2):235–241. [PubMed]
  • Arnemann J, Heins B, Beato M. Synthesis and characterization of a DNA complementary to pre-uteroglobin mRNA. Eur J Biochem. 1979 Sep;99(2):361–367. [PubMed]
  • Roychoudhury R, Jay E, Wu R. Terminal labeling and addition of homopolymer tracts to duplex DNA fragments by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1976 Apr;3(4):863–877. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Norgard MV, Keem K, Monahan JJ. Factors affecting the transformation of Escherichia coli strain chi1776 by pBR322 plasmid DNA. Gene. 1978 Jul;3(4):279–292. [PubMed]
  • Grunstein M, Hogness DS. Colony hybridization: a method for the isolation of cloned DNAs that contain a specific gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Oct;72(10):3961–3965. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klein RD, Selsing E, Wells RD. A rapid microscale technique for isolation of recombinant plasmid DNA suitable for restriction enzyme analysis. Plasmid. 1980 Jan;3(1):88–91. [PubMed]
  • Clewell DB, Helinski DR. Supercoiled circular DNA-protein complex in Escherichia coli: purification and induced conversion to an opern circular DNA form. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969 Apr;62(4):1159–1166. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maniatis T, Hardison RC, Lacy E, Lauer J, O'Connell C, Quon D, Sim GK, Efstratiadis A. The isolation of structural genes from libraries of eucaryotic DNA. Cell. 1978 Oct;15(2):687–701. [PubMed]
  • Benton WD, Davis RW. Screening lambdagt recombinant clones by hybridization to single plaques in situ. Science. 1977 Apr 8;196(4286):180–182. [PubMed]
  • Rigby PW, Dieckmann M, Rhodes C, Berg P. Labeling deoxyribonucleic acid to high specific activity in vitro by nick translation with DNA polymerase I. J Mol Biol. 1977 Jun 15;113(1):237–251. [PubMed]
  • Blin N, Stafford DW. A general method for isolation of high molecular weight DNA from eukaryotes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1976 Sep;3(9):2303–2308. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Southern EM. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol. 1975 Nov 5;98(3):503–517. [PubMed]
  • Wahl GM, Stern M, Stark GR. Efficient transfer of large DNA fragments from agarose gels to diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper and rapid hybridization by using dextran sulfate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Aug;76(8):3683–3687. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maizels N. Dictyostelium 17S, 25S, and 5S rDNAs lie within a 38,000 base pair repeated unit. Cell. 1976 Nov;9(3):431–438. [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):499–560. [PubMed]
  • Ponstingl H, Nieto A, Beato M. Amino acid sequence of progesterone-induced rabbit uteroglobin. Biochemistry. 1978 Sep 19;17(19):3908–3912. [PubMed]
  • Popp RA, Foresman KR, Wise LD, Daniel JC., Jr Amino acid sequence of a progesterone-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Nov;75(11):5516–5519. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mirault ME, Goldschmidt-Clermont M, Artavanis-Tsakonas S, Schedl P. Organization of the multiple genes for the 70,000-dalton heat-shock protein in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Oct;76(10):5254–5258. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heins B, Beato M. Hormonal control of uteroglobin secretion and preuteroglobin mRNA content in rabbit endometrium. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1981 Feb;21(2):139–150. [PubMed]
  • Chandra T, Bullock DW, Woo SL. Hormonally regulated mammalian gene expression: steady-state level and nucleotide sequence of rabbit uteroglobin mRNA. DNA. 1981;1(1):19–26. [PubMed]
  • Malsky ML, Bullock DW, Willard JJ, Ward DN. Progesterone-induced secretory protein. NH2-Terminal sequence of pre-uteroglobin. J Biol Chem. 1979 Mar 10;254(5):1580–1585. [PubMed]
  • Atger M, Mercier JC, Haze G, Fridlansky F, Milgrom E. N-terminal sequences of uteroglobin and its precursor. Biochem J. 1979 Mar 1;177(3):985–988. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Proudfoot NJ, Brownlee GG. 3' non-coding region sequences in eukaryotic messenger RNA. Nature. 1976 Sep 16;263(5574):211–214. [PubMed]
  • Breathnach R, Benoist C, O'Hare K, Gannon F, Chambon P. Ovalbumin gene: evidence for a leader sequence in mRNA and DNA sequences at the exon-intron boundaries. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Oct;75(10):4853–4857. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grez M, Land H, Giesecke K, Schütz G, Jung A, Sippel AE. Multiple mRNAs are generated from the chicken lysozyme gene. Cell. 1981 Sep;25(3):743–752. [PubMed]
  • Bell GI, Pictet RL, Rutter WJ, Cordell B, Tischer E, Goodman HM. Sequence of the human insulin gene. Nature. 1980 Mar 6;284(5751):26–32. [PubMed]
  • Efstratiadis A, Posakony JW, Maniatis T, Lawn RM, O'Connell C, Spritz RA, DeRiel JK, Forget BG, Weissman SM, Slightom JL, et al. The structure and evolution of the human beta-globin gene family. Cell. 1980 Oct;21(3):653–668. [PubMed]
  • Chandra T, Woo SL, Bullock DW. Cloning of the rabbit uteroglobin structural gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Jul 16;95(1):197–204. [PubMed]
  • Atger M, Perricaudet M, Tiollais P, Milgrom E. Bacterial cloning of the rabbit uteroglobin structural gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Apr 29;93(4):1082–1088. [PubMed]
  • Snead R, Day L, Chandra T, Mace M, Jr, Bullock DW, Woo SL. Mosaic structure and mRNA precursors of uteroglobin, a hormone-regulated mammalian gene. J Biol Chem. 1981 Nov 25;256(22):11911–11916. [PubMed]
  • Atger M, Atger P, Tiollais P, Milgrom E. Cloning of rabbit genomic fragments containing the uteroglobin gene. J Biol Chem. 1981 Jun 25;256(12):5970–5972. [PubMed]
  • Gilbert W. Why genes in pieces? Nature. 1978 Feb 9;271(5645):501–501. [PubMed]
  • Mornon JP, Fridlansky F, Bally R, Milgrom E. X-ray crystallographic analysis of a progesterone-binding protein. The C2221 crystal form of oxidized uteroglobin at 2.2 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1980 Mar 15;137(4):415–429. [PubMed]
  • Saavedra A, Beato M. Influence of chemical modifications of amino acid side chains on the binding or progesterone to uteroglobin. J Steroid Biochem. 1980 Nov;13(11):1347–1353. [PubMed]
  • Tancredi T, Temussi PA, Beato M. Interaction of oxidized and reduced uteroglobin with progesterone. Eur J Biochem. 1982 Feb;122(1):101–104. [PubMed]
  • Slightom JL, Blechl AE, Smithies O. Human fetal G gamma- and A gamma-globin genes: complete nucleotide sequences suggest that DNA can be exchanged between these duplicated genes. Cell. 1980 Oct;21(3):627–638. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • Gene
    Gene links
  • Gene (nucleotide)
    Gene (nucleotide)
    Records in Gene identified from shared sequence links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • OMIM
    OMIM record citing PubMed
  • Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...