• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. Mar 25, 1985; 13(6): 2045–2061.
PMCID: PMC341134

The TGGCA protein binds to the MMTV-LTR, the adenovirus origin of replication, and the BK virus enhancer.


TGGCA-binding proteins are nuclear proteins with high affinity for double-stranded DNA homologous to the prototype recognition sequence 5'YTGGCANNNTGCCAR 3'. Their ubiquitous tissue distribution in higher vertebrates characterizes them as a class of highly conserved proteins which may exert a basic function. To obtain clues to this function, specific binding sites were mapped on three viral genomes. Recognition sites were identified in the enhancer region of the BK virus, in the LTR of the mouse mammary tumor virus, and in the origin of replication of adenovirus 12. The TGGCA-binding protein from HeLa cells appears to be identical to nuclear factor I described by others, which stimulates initiation of adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. However, data from MMTV, BKV, and from cellular genes suggest that this specific protein-DNA interaction may also be involved in the control of gene activity.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.7M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Nowock J, Sippel AE. Specific protein-DNA interaction at four sites flanking the chicken lysozyme gene. Cell. 1982 Sep;30(2):607–615. [PubMed]
  • Borgmeyer U, Nowock J, Sippel AE. The TGGCA-binding protein: a eukaryotic nuclear protein recognizing a symmetrical sequence on double-stranded linear DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 May 25;12(10):4295–4311. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fritton HP, Sippel AE, Igo-Kemenes T. Nuclease-hypersensitive sites in the chromatin domain of the chicken lysozyme gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Jun 11;11(11):3467–3485. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nagata K, Guggenheimer RA, Enomoto T, Lichy JH, Hurwitz J. Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro: identification of a host factor that stimulates synthesis of the preterminal protein-dCMP complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Nov;79(21):6438–6442. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siebenlist U, Hennighausen L, Battey J, Leder P. Chromatin structure and protein binding in the putative regulatory region of the c-myc gene in Burkitt lymphoma. Cell. 1984 Jun;37(2):381–391. [PubMed]
  • Hynes N, van Ooyen AJ, Kennedy N, Herrlich P, Ponta H, Groner B. Subfragments of the large terminal repeat cause glucocorticoid-responsive expression of mouse mammary tumor virus and of an adjacent gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jun;80(12):3637–3641. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rosenthal N, Kress M, Gruss P, Khoury G. BK viral enhancer element and a human cellular homolog. Science. 1983 Nov 18;222(4625):749–755. [PubMed]
  • Schrier PI, Bernards R, Vaessen RT, Houweling A, van der Eb AJ. Expression of class I major histocompatibility antigens switched off by highly oncogenic adenovirus 12 in transformed rat cells. Nature. 305(5937):771–775. [PubMed]
  • Varshavsky AJ, Nedospasov SA, Bakayev VV, Bakayeva TG, Georgiev GP. Histone-like proteins in the purified Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleoprotein. Nucleic Acids Res. 1977 Aug;4(8):2725–2745. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Echalier G, Ohanessian A. In vitro culture of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic cells. In Vitro. 1970 Nov-Dec;6(3):162–172. [PubMed]
  • Ringold GM, Yamamoto KR, Tomkins GM, Bishop M, Varmus HE. Dexamethasone-mediated induction of mouse mammary tumor virus RNA: a system for studying glucocorticoid action. Cell. 1975 Nov;6(3):299–305. [PubMed]
  • Young HA, Scolnick EM, Parks WP. Glucocorticoid-receptor interaction and induction of murine mammary tumor virus. J Biol Chem. 1975 May 10;250(9):3337–3343. [PubMed]
  • Galas DJ, Schmitz A. DNAse footprinting: a simple method for the detection of protein-DNA binding specificity. Nucleic Acids Res. 1978 Sep;5(9):3157–3170. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Scheidereit C, Geisse S, Westphal HM, Beato M. The glucocorticoid receptor binds to defined nucleotide sequences near the promoter of mouse mammary tumour virus. Nature. 1983 Aug 25;304(5928):749–752. [PubMed]
  • Seif I, Khoury G, Dhar R. The genome of human papovavirus BKV. Cell. 1979 Dec;18(4):963–977. [PubMed]
  • Stillman BW, Topp WC, Engler JA. Conserved sequences at the origin of adenovirus DNA replication. J Virol. 1982 Nov;44(2):530–537. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nagata K, Guggenheimer RA, Hurwitz J. Specific binding of a cellular DNA replication protein to the origin of replication of adenovirus DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Oct;80(20):6177–6181. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rawlins DR, Rosenfeld PJ, Wides RJ, Challberg MD, Kelly TJ., Jr Structure and function of the adenovirus origin of replication. Cell. 1984 May;37(1):309–319. [PubMed]
  • Challberg MD, Kelly TJ., Jr Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Feb;76(2):655–659. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tamanoi F, Stillman BW. Function of adenovirus terminal protein in the initiation of DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Apr;79(7):2221–2225. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Bergen BG, van der Ley PA, van Driel W, van Mansfeld AD, van der Vliet PC. Replication of origin containing adenovirus DNA fragments that do not carry the terminal protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Apr 11;11(7):1975–1989. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chandler VL, Maler BA, Yamamoto KR. DNA sequences bound specifically by glucocorticoid receptor in vitro render a heterologous promoter hormone responsive in vivo. Cell. 1983 Jun;33(2):489–499. [PubMed]
  • Majors J, Varmus HE. A small region of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat confers glucocorticoid hormone regulation on a linked heterologous gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Oct;80(19):5866–5870. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frisque RJ, Bream GL, Cannella MT. Human polyomavirus JC virus genome. J Virol. 1984 Aug;51(2):458–469. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gorman CM, Moffat LF, Howard BH. Recombinant genomes which express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Sep;2(9):1044–1051. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kohler PO, Grimley PM, O'Malley BW. Estrogen-induced cytodifferentiation of the ovalbumin-secreting glands of the chick oviduct. J Cell Biol. 1969 Jan;40(1):8–27. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Oka T, Schimke RT. Interaction of estrogen and progesterone in chick oviduct development. I. Antagonistic effect of progesterone on estrogen-induced proliferation and differentiation of tubular gland cells. J Cell Biol. 1969 Jun;41(3):816–831. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bentvelzen P. The biology of the mouse mammary tumor virus. Int Rev Exp Pathol. 1972;11:259–297. [PubMed]
  • Zaret KS, Yamamoto KR. Reversible and persistent changes in chromatin structure accompany activation of a glucocorticoid-dependent enhancer element. Cell. 1984 Aug;38(1):29–38. [PubMed]
  • Kennedy N, Knedlitschek G, Groner B, Hynes NE, Herrlich P, Michalides R, van Ooyen AJ. Long terminal repeats of endogenous mouse mammary tumour virus contain a long open reading frame which extends into adjacent sequences. Nature. 1982 Feb 18;295(5850):622–624. [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. A new method for sequencing DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Feb;74(2):560–564. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...