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Nucleic Acids Res. Mar 11, 1987; 15(5): 2343–2361.
PMCID: PMC340638

Analysis of E. coli promoter sequences.


We have compiled and analyzed 263 promoters with known transcriptional start points for E. coli genes. Promoter elements (-35 hexamer, -10 hexamer, and spacing between these regions) were aligned by a program which selects the arrangement consistent with the start point and statistically most homologous to a reference list of promoters. The initial reference list was that of Hawley and McClure (Nucl. Acids Res. 11, 2237-2255, 1983). Alignment of the complete list was used for reference until successive analyses did not alter the structure of the list. In the final compilation, all bases in the -35 (TTGACA) and -10 (TATAAT) hexamers were highly conserved, 92% of promoters had inter-region spacing of 17 +/- 1 bp, and 75% of the uniquely defined start points initiated 7 +/- 1 bases downstream of the -10 region. The consensus sequence of promoters with inter-region spacing of 16, 17 or 18 bp did not differ. This compilation and analysis should be useful for studies of promoter structure and function and for programs which identify potential promoter sequences.

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