• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. Feb 25, 1987; 15(4): 1377–1386.
PMCID: PMC340555

Adjustment of the tRNA population to the codon usage in chloroplasts.

Abstract

In chloroplasts there is a correlation between the amounts of tRNAs specific for a given amino acid and the codons specifying this amino acid. Furthermore, for the amino acids coded for by more than one codon, the population of isoaccepting tRNAs is adjusted to the frequency of synonymous codons used in chloroplast protein genes. A comparison by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the tRNA populations extracted from chloroplasts and from chloroplast polysomes shows that all chloroplast tRNAs are involved in protein biosynthesis.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ikemura T. Codon usage and tRNA content in unicellular and multicellular organisms. Mol Biol Evol. 1985 Jan;2(1):13–34. [PubMed]
  • Holm L. Codon usage and gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Apr 11;14(7):3075–3087. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shinozaki K, Ohme M, Tanaka M, Wakasugi T, Hayashida N, Matsubayashi T, Zaita N, Chunwongse J, Obokata J, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, et al. The complete nucleotide sequence of the tobacco chloroplast genome: its gene organization and expression. EMBO J. 1986 Sep;5(9):2043–2049. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Burkard G, Guillemaut P, Weil JH. Comparative studies of the tRNA's and the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from the cytoplasm and the chloroplasts of Phaseolus vulgaris. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1970 Nov 12;224(1):184–198. [PubMed]
  • Guillemaut P, Steinmetz A, Burkard G, Weil JH. Aminoacylation of tRNA-Leu species from Escherichia coli and from the cytoplasm, chloroplasts and mitochondria of Phaseolus vulgaris by homologous and heterologous enzymes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Jan 6;378(1):64–72. [PubMed]
  • Jeannin G, Burkard G, Weil JH. Aminoacylation of Phaseolus vulgaris cytoplasmic, chloroplastic and mitochondrial tRNAsPro and tRNAsLys by homologous and heterologous enzymes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Aug 2;442(1):24–31. [PubMed]
  • Merrick WC, Dure LS., 3rd The developmental biochemistry of cotton seed embryogenesis and germination. IV. Levels of cytoplasmic and chloroplastic transfer ribonucleic acid species. J Biol Chem. 1972 Dec 25;247(24):7988–7999. [PubMed]
  • Herrmann RG, Bohnert HJ, Kowallik KV, Schmitt JM. Size, conformation and purity of chloroplast DNA of some higher plants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Jan 20;378(2):305–317. [PubMed]
  • Stutz E, Noll H. Characterization of cytoplasmic and chloroplast polysomes in plants: evidence for three classes of ribosomal RNA in nature. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1967 Mar;57(3):774–781. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gray JC. The inhibition of ribonuclease activity and the isolation of polysomes from leaves of the french bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1974 Jul;163(1):343–348. [PubMed]
  • Silberklang M, Gillum AM, RajBhandary UL. The use of nuclease P1 in sequence analysis of end group labeled RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1977 Dec;4(12):4091–4108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mubumbila M, Gordon KH, Crouse EJ, Burkard G, Weil JH. Construction of the physical map of the chloroplast DNA of Phaseolus vulgaris and localization of ribosomal and transfer RNA genes. Gene. 1983 Mar;21(3):257–266. [PubMed]
  • Kelmers AD, Heatherly DE. Columns for rapid chromatographic separation of small amounts of tracer-labeled transfer ribonucleic acids. Anal Biochem. 1971 Dec;44(2):486–495. [PubMed]
  • Burkard G, Eclancher B, Weil JH. Presence of N-formyl-methionyl-transfer RNA in bean chloroplasts. FEBS Lett. 1969 Aug;4(4):285–287. [PubMed]
  • Francis MA, Dudock BS. Nucleotide sequence of a spinach chloroplast isoleucine tRNA. J Biol Chem. 1982 Oct 10;257(19):11195–11198. [PubMed]
  • Osorio-Almeida ML, Guillemaut P, Keith G, Canaday J, Weil JH. Primary structure of three leucine transfer RNAs from bean chloroplast. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Jan 15;92(1):102–108. [PubMed]
  • Agris PF, Söll D, Seno T. Biological function of 2-thiouridine in Escherichia coli glutamic acid transfer ribonucleic acid. Biochemistry. 1973 Oct 23;12(22):4331–4337. [PubMed]
  • Schön A, Krupp G, Gough S, Berry-Lowe S, Kannangara CG, Söll D. The RNA required in the first step of chlorophyll biosynthesis is a chloroplast glutamate tRNA. Nature. 1986 Jul 17;322(6076):281–284. [PubMed]
  • Pillay DT, Singh GP, Guillemaut P. Localization of four genes for three tRNALeu's on the physical map of the soybean (Glycine max L.) chloroplast genome. Gene. 1984 Sep;29(3):351–354. [PubMed]
  • Viotti A, Balducci C, Weil JH. Adaptation of the tRNA population of maize endosperm for zein synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Jan 26;517(1):125–132. [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links