• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of narLink to Publisher's site
Nucleic Acids Res. Aug 25, 1988; 16(16): 7773–7782.
PMCID: PMC338489

KRAS codon 12 mutations occur very frequently in pancreatic adenocarcinomas.


DNAs from human pancreatic adenocarcinomas were analyzed for the presence of mutations in codons 12, 13 and 61 of the NRAS, KRAS and HRAS gene. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue was used directly in an in vitro amplification reaction to expand the relevant RAS sequences. The mutations were detected by selective hybridization using mutation-specific synthetic oligonucleotides. In 28 of the 30 patients we found a mutation in codon 12 of the KRAS gene. This result confirms the findings of Almoguera et al. [Cell 53 (1988) 549-554] that KRAS mutations occur frequently in adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas. The mutations are predominantly G-T transversions, in contrast to the KRAS mutations in colon tumors which are mainly G-A transitions. Furthermore, in a portion of the tumors the mutation appears to be homozygous.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (860K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bos JL. The ras gene family and human carcinogenesis. Mutat Res. 1988 May;195(3):255–271. [PubMed]
  • Bos JL, Fearon ER, Hamilton SR, Verlaan-de Vries M, van Boom JH, van der Eb AJ, Vogelstein B. Prevalence of ras gene mutations in human colorectal cancers. Nature. 327(6120):293–297. [PubMed]
  • Forrester K, Almoguera C, Han K, Grizzle WE, Perucho M. Detection of high incidence of K-ras oncogenes during human colon tumorigenesis. Nature. 327(6120):298–303. [PubMed]
  • Bos JL, Verlaan-de Vries M, van der Eb AJ, Janssen JW, Delwel R, Löwenberg B, Colly LP. Mutations in N-ras predominate in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 1987 Apr;69(4):1237–1241. [PubMed]
  • Farr CJ, Saiki RK, Erlich HA, McCormick F, Marshall CJ. Analysis of RAS gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia by polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide probes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Mar;85(5):1629–1633. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Almoguera C, Shibata D, Forrester K, Martin J, Arnheim N, Perucho M. Most human carcinomas of the exocrine pancreas contain mutant c-K-ras genes. Cell. 1988 May 20;53(4):549–554. [PubMed]
  • Bos JL, Verlaan-de Vries M, Jansen AM, Veeneman GH, van Boom JH, van der Eb AJ. Three different mutations in codon 61 of the human N-ras gene detected by synthetic oligonucleotide hybridization. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Dec 11;12(23):9155–9163. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Verlaan-de Vries M, Bogaard ME, van den Elst H, van Boom JH, van der Eb AJ, Bos JL. A dot-blot screening procedure for mutated ras oncogenes using synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Gene. 1986;50(1-3):313–320. [PubMed]
  • Shibata DK, Arnheim N, Martin WJ. Detection of human papilloma virus in paraffin-embedded tissue using the polymerase chain reaction. J Exp Med. 1988 Jan 1;167(1):225–230. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Quaife CJ, Pinkert CA, Ornitz DM, Palmiter RD, Brinster RL. Pancreatic neoplasia induced by ras expression in acinar cells of transgenic mice. Cell. 1987 Mar 27;48(6):1023–1034. [PubMed]
  • Paterson H, Reeves B, Brown R, Hall A, Furth M, Bos J, Jones P, Marshall C. Activated N-ras controls the transformed phenotype of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Cell. 1987 Dec 4;51(5):803–812. [PubMed]
  • Adari H, Lowy DR, Willumsen BM, Der CJ, McCormick F. Guanosine triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) interacts with the p21 ras effector binding domain. Science. 1988 Apr 22;240(4851):518–521. [PubMed]
  • Calés C, Hancock JF, Marshall CJ, Hall A. The cytoplasmic protein GAP is implicated as the target for regulation by the ras gene product. Nature. 1988 Apr 7;332(6164):548–551. [PubMed]
  • Guerrero I, Pellicer A. Mutational activation of oncogenes in animal model systems of carcinogenesis. Mutat Res. 1987 May;185(3):293–308. [PubMed]
  • Longnecker DS, Roebuck BD, Yager JD, Jr, Lilja HS, Siegmund B. Pancreatic carcinoma in azaserine-treated rats: induction, classification and dietary modulation of incidence. Cancer. 1981 Mar 15;47(6 Suppl):1562–1572. [PubMed]
  • Pour PM, Runge RG, Birt D, Gingell R, Lawson T, Nagel D, Wallcave L, Salmasi SZ. Current knowledge of pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster and its relevance to the human disease. Cancer. 1981 Mar 15;47(6 Suppl):1573–1589. [PubMed]
  • Longnecker DS, Roebuck BD, Kuhlmann ET, Curphey TJ. Induction of pancreatic carcinomas in rats with N-nitroso(2-hydroxypropyl)(2-oxopropyl)amine: histopathology. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1985 Jan;74(1):209–217. [PubMed]
  • Wynder EL, Mabuchi K, Maruchi N, Fortner JG. Epidemiology of cancer of the pancreas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1973 Mar;50(3):645–667. [PubMed]
  • Wynder EL. An epidemiological evaluation of the causes of cancer of the pancreas. Cancer Res. 1975 Aug;35(8):2228–2233. [PubMed]
  • Mills PK, Beeson WL, Abbey DE, Fraser GE, Phillips RL. Dietary habits and past medical history as related to fatal pancreas cancer risk among Adventists. Cancer. 1988 Jun 15;61(12):2578–2585. [PubMed]

Articles from Nucleic Acids Research are provided here courtesy of Oxford University Press


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Gene
    Gene links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • HomoloGene
    HomoloGene links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • OMIM
    OMIM record citing PubMed
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...